Mintzberg's suggested 'five Ps' possible strategies Plan strategy 'also known as a deliberate strategy, Is often referred as a planned strategy, it refers to something intentionally put in train and its process is monitored from the start to finish some organisation follow this model of strategy. Ploy strategy- also known as deliberate and short strategy, it's a detail strategy with tactical actions. It has limited objectives change may occur at short notice 'Mintzeberg' describe Ploy strategy as a maneuver with the intention to threats competitions.
Pattern Strategy- also known as emerging strategy, it is described as 'Pattern of behavior which happen in an instant just like behavior will rarely produce elaborate plans. Position Strategy- is used to position the organisation in the market place these strategies help organisation to fit into its organisation environment and will be able to develop sustainable competitive advantage. Organisation can use the following strategy for a better understanding for a strong position related to the external analysis, such as PEST, Porter's Diamond, and Porter's five forces.
The perspective Strategy - organisation will apply this strategy to change its culture, its beliefs and feel in a particular ways that the organisation want its employees to achieve.
A Strategic Performance Management Framework: A Hypothetical Hotel Case
Evans, G. Stonehouse, D. Campell Startegic Management for Travel and Tourism. Concepts, processes and practices in strategic Management Stakeholders Analysis In travel and tourism stakeholders are an important part of an organisation. They ensure the well being and future prospects of the organisation. It is important to understand the needs and expectation while developing and implementing a plan in an organisation, as stakeholders are the one who provide resources to the organisation through shareholding and loans.
Those resources enable the organisation to develop their planning successfully, customers are as important stakeholder group too that allow the organisation to grow and successes in some organisation they are customers oriented and they tend to have more success in the market place and they often dedicated greater sources to the management of their relations with the employees or customers for examples by looking at the hours they work.
Strategic management for travel and tourism
Examples of internal stakeholders: ' Board of directors ' Employees collectively ' Individual representatives founding entrepreneur ' Employees Representative Trade Union, Trade Association ' Functional business are Finance, Marketing and so on ' Geographical areas of the organisation Europe, Asia, Africa and so on Examples of external Stakeholders: ' Creditors existing and potential ' Suppliers existing and potential ' Customers existing and potential ' Pressure Group environmental ' Competitors current and future, national and international ' Government Legal, fiscal and regulatory impacts ' International regulatory bodies International Air Transport Authority IATA ' Local community Vision, Mission, Aims and Objectives Mission statement defined what an organisation is, why it exists, and its reason for being, it's easy to write for small organisation but very complex for big organisations.
The Mission Statement will communicate its objective to its employees, customers, suppliers and communities. The mission statement will need to be accurate and reflect the organisation objectives and values for both profit and none profit organisation. Every aspects of the organisation is taken into consideration the products and services the organisation offer, in term of the pricing, quality, services, market place position, growth potential, the use of technology and their relationship with their stakeholders Cambell and Yeung state that Mission Statement itself is important for mangers to believe that they have a 'mission' toward employees efforts to match the value of the organisation but it may be difficult to achieve as behaviour and organisation culture are evolves.
The Vision and Mission Statement help formulate the goals and objectives of an organisation. Those goals are the driving force of what the strategic plan intends to achieve. Goals setting will establish a target level for tourism development, marketing, promotion and sustainability of the products and services the organisation may have. Organisation may have several goals that may be achievable in short- term which is one or two years, or long term goals which can take up to five years to achieve in that case the mission statement will be review and revised.
The goals should be straight forward and be able to measurable for example the growth of visitors to a destination will be a certain percentage each year or in the near future the organisation will reach a certain number of visitors. Objectives support the goals and intention that explain the expected achievement in the strategic oriented target of the destination.
The objectives will be the priority to the resources available strategies are important for the actions and operations essential to achieve objectives and strategic tourism plan. Stone describes the following when writing a Mission Statement Positive tone: employees feel motivated and encourage. Individuality: It should be individual to other organisation base on its objectives, strengths and weaknesses.
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- Strategic management in travel and tourism agency: an application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC)..
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- Strategic management for travel and tourism — Teesside University.
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- Strategic Management for Travel and Tourism - PDF Free Download.
Enduring: Does not change for a number of years as it may cause confusion to its stakeholders. Adapted: Different groups for examples employees only, shareholders and external group and others who may be involved in the organisation. Offering reliability and a healthy dose of Dutch pragmatism, 32, KLM employees work to provide innovative products for our customers and a safe, efficient, service-oriented operation with a proactive focus on sustainability.
KLM strives to achieve profitable growth that contributes to both its own corporate aims and to economic and social development. KLM works to create sustainable growth at Schiphol, to gain access to any market that will increase the quality its network and to maintain a level playing field for all industry players. It also works to ensure a balance between the company's interests and those of the people living and working close to the airport. KLM website.
Brouther et al developed the 4cs criteria to determine if a proposed partnership is likely to be working at an operational level. Capability: criteria ask questions if the prospective partners have the ability to successes or to carry respective role in the alliances. Compatibility: criteria are concerned with the ability between the partners to work together effectively. In relation to organisational culture and work relationships between the staffs and managers from both parties.
Commitment: criteria show the willingness of partners to commit the resources, effort and area of expertise into the alliance.
One partner might invest more than the other partner which will be unfair as the other will benefit more by contributing less. Control: criteria or the appropriateness of the alliance activities partners can be dominant and may ensure the efficiency of the alliances owing the partner's area of expertise or market position. The control to regard fairness and equality rather than system allow the partners achieve their strategic objectives. Public-private Partnerships Public-private partnerships is also known as joint development common in travel and tourism industry, which comprise most areas, large, medium to small enterprises, along with the interest group from public sector agencies and communities are becoming more families.
A range of public and private sector along with the community stakeholder group are working together to form public- private partnership. Resources, competences, core competences and competitive advantage. Some organisations are more successful than others not only base on their revenues, but on their Component sectors such as in travel and tourism industry one organisation might have a product or services that might exceed customers' expectation compare to their competitors, which will lead to sustainable competitive advantage which the combination of application of competencies skills and the deployment of resources assets in creating value for consumers.
Resources Resources fall into five broad categories ' human, financial, physical buildings, equipment, stock, operational airplanes, ships, coaches etc. They are the input in the business activities which contribute to its success. Competence A competence is a collection of attributes without a business cannot enter or survive in the industry.
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The Organisation will develop its Competences from resources and embody skills and technology or 'know how'. Core competencies. Also known as distinctive capability is specific attribute to a particular organisation, which enables it to produce performance above the average for the industry. It's a reflection of the organization, how they have employed their Competences and resources more effectively compare to their competitors. Colorado State University Online. How Does Online Learning Work?
My Courses My Account. Search Submit s. It is essential for students and lecturers as achieves a superb balance between theory and industry practice with the case studies perfectly demonstrating both. It cannot be too highly recommended. Strategic Implementation for Tourism, Hospitality and Events He has published widely in tourism and management and taught strategy for many years on varied programmes including MBA and BA Hons Travel and Tourism programmes at Teeside and Northumbria Universities.
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