Alvarenga Peixoto - Poesia. Alvares de Azevedo - Noite na Taverna. Alvares de Azevedo - Poesia. Alvaro do Carvalhal - Os Canibais. Amadeu Amaral - A Pulseira de Ferro. Amadeu Amaral - O dialeto caipira. Antero de Quental - Sonetos. Antonio de Trueba - Contos Escolhidos. Artur Azevedo - A Almanjarra. Artur Azevedo - A Capital Federal. Artur Azevedo - A Casadinha de Fresco.
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Bento Teixeira - Prosopopeia. Bernardino Lopes - Cromos. Bocage - A Virtude Laureada. Brito Camacho - Ao de leve. Bruno Seabra - Paulo. Camilo Castelo Branco - Uma praga rogada nas escadas da forca. Camilo Castelo Branco - A caveira. Camilo Castelo Branco - A doida do Candal. Camilo Castelo Branco - A Sereia. Camilo Castelo Branco - Amor de Salvacao. Camilo Castelo Branco - Espinhos e Flores. Camilo Castelo Branco - Maria da Fonte.
Camilo Castelo Branco - Morrer por capricho. Camilo Castelo Branco - Noites de Lamego. Camilo Castelo Branco - Novelas do Minho. Camilo Castelo Branco - O Esqueleto. Camilo Castelo Branco - O Judeu. Camilo Castelo Branco - O que fazem mulheres. Camilo Castelo Branco - O Regicida. Camilo Castelo Branco - Patologia do casamento. Camilo Castelo Branco - Poesia ou Dinheiro?
Camilo Castelo Branco - Um Livro. Camilo Castelo Branco - Vinho do Porto. Carmen Dolores - A Luta. Casimiro de Abreu - Carolina. Castro Alves - Espumas Flutuantes. Castro Alves - Os Escravos. Charles Dickens - Oliver Twist. Coelho Lousada - Os Tripeiros. It is believed that printing was only introduced by the settlers and colonisers in the colonies, which had a highly developed indigenous culture that the colonial power wanted to supplant or suppress.
Printing, in the first two centuries of Portuguese and Spanish colonization, was in part a result of Christian evangelization. It was deployed through religious initiative, so that its production was destined to meet the clergy's needs and that of the missions. This was a landform that existed in the city of Rio, the hill being one of the foundation points of the city in the sixteenth century and which housed landmarks of great importance, such as colonial forts and buildings of the Jesuits.
Nevertheless, it was destroyed in an urban reform in This centre is believed to have undertaken some printed jobs around , the accuracy of the claim not be ascertained. In most colonies, the necessities of governance made it an imperative to accept printing, and only in Portuguese Latin America did the administration remained so elementary that this need was dispensed with. This need only become imminent when the government of the colony suffered the impact of the Napoleonic invasion, a few years later.
The first attempt to introduce effective printing into Brazil was made by the Dutch, during the period of their occupation of northeastern Brazil, between and During the Dutch occupation, negotiations between Pernambuco and the Netherlands resulted in the selection of a printer, Janszonon Pieter , to be in charge of printing in Recife , but he died as soon as he arrived in Brazil on 3 August At the time, Maurice of Nassau had already left, and the pressured Dutch no longer gave priority to the subject.
About 60 years later, Recife had the first printer of Brazil according to historians Ferreira de Carvalho  and Pereira da Costa ,  but the identity of the printer is not known. Serafim Leite , in "Arts and Workshops of the Jesuits in Brazil,",  says the printer worked from to , and argues that the typesetter was a Jesuit, Antonio da Costa, but there is no proof, however, the existence of such a printer.
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In Rio de Janeiro, in , there is definitive evidence is available that there was a printer, via leaflets printed at the time. The printer was Antonio Isidoro da Fonseca ,  a recognized typographer of Lisbon , who had sold his business and come to [Brazil]. Isidoro had problems in Lisbon , with the Inquisition , being considered as "The Jew " editor. There are two other works, referring to bishop [Antonio do Desterro Malheyro]. As soon as the news reached Lisbon, however, there was order to close the letterpress, because printing in the colony was not considered appropriate at the time.
Isidoro returned to Portugal, and, after three years, requested a royal license to reinstate himself as a printer in the colony, in Rio de Janeiro or Salvador, promising never to print without the appropriate civil and ecclesiastical licenses. The request was rejected . Portugal's prohibition of printing in Brazil was the factor that made all Brazilian documents to get to be published in Europe or to remain in the form of manuscripts.
In , there were only two bookstores in Rio de Janeiro ,  and possibly one of these was run by Paul Martim, a native of Tours in France and the first Rio bookseller. His son, Paul Martim Filho kept the bookstore running until The books offered were usually pertaining to medicine or religion, and most of the books that arrived in Brazil at the time were smuggled in. In , when the royal family, under pressure from Napoleon's invasion, moved to Brazil, it took with them 60, volumes of the Royal Library.
In Paris, there was a development of the publishing trade in Portuguese, that would last a long time, almost until There is disagreement over whether or not a printing press existed in Brazil on the occasion of the arrival of the royal family. Reportedly, a press with movable type was finally brought to Brazil by the government itself, which had earlier been forbidden so vehemently. The new press was launched on May 13, , with the publication of a 27 page booklet, accompanied by the Royal Charter. In the 14 years of the printing monopoly in Rio over a thousand items were produced.
Governor Athayde de Mello , the future Earl of Condeixa , was so pleased with a poem in his honor by Diogo de Vasconcelos , who wished to see it printed. In Bahia, as soon as the royal family came to Brazil , a bookseller from Salvador , Manuel Antonio da Silva Serva, a native of Portugal, asked permission to go to England and get a printer to Bahia; such permission was granted in , and began printing in One might speculate that there were two printers at that time.
The publication known as Silva Serva had titles, and the publisher survived with several name changes until , but lost its monopoly position in Its editors fled to Cachoeira , where they installed their own graphics to continue printing the weekly "O Independente Constitucional". With the death of Silva Serva, Bahia's literary production went into decline, only recovering in the s.
Standing out, at the time, were "Livraria J. In , Sierra Teriga took over its direction, passing it to Xavier Catiline in The actual printing, however, was usually undertaken in Portugal or other European countries, as was customary at the time. It was one of the most prosperous of the empire, due to the production of cotton, which held value since the invention of Cartwright loom in During this period of development, there was a golden age cultural and intellectual activity in the region, under the influence of the Portuguese elite.
Two printers stand out at this time: Matos Belarmino has been considered by many historians as one of the best printers that Brazil has ever had. In addition to these, two other printers were "Typographia Fidedigna" run by Manuel Zeferino dos Santos, from , and Typographia do Cruzeiro, which began in At the time, there were 14 printers and 4 lithographic establishments in Recife.
He founded in Escada , in the interior of Pernambuco, the "Typographia Constitucional", which lasted until It printed the first provincial newspaper. The new Portuguese constitution, adopted on 15—16 February , abolished censorship, and soon Brazil saw a flood of publications emerging. On the eve of the Independence of Brazil, the city already had about seven printing establishments. Silva Porto, at Rua da Quitanda , was second in importance, but in all there were 11 other bookstores, and one of them was that of Francisco Luiz Saturnino da Veiga.
Also noteworthy is the "Casa do Livro Azul" "Blue Book House" , at Rua do Ouvidor, which ran from to ;  its owner, Albino Jourdan, lost his sight and hearing and was helped by two assistants, aged 14 and 17 years. After numerous political problems with the French government, went to Rio de Janeiro in , and while waiting for the Customs to release their equipment, opened his provisional shop at 60, Rua dos Ourives, in March In June of that year, he moved to the Rua do Ouvidor, initially at No. Much of his publications were administrative. Cranial trepanation in Human History.
Porto Alegre. The Portuguese case. In: Cohen, M. University of Florida Press. Pathology as a factor of individualization in forensic anthropology In: Schmitt A. In Brickley and Ferllini ed. Forensic anthropology. Case studies from Europe. Charles C. Ante mortem trauma. In Blau,S. In : Amorim, A. Os testemunhos mais verdadeiros da Batalha de Aljubarrota: os ossos dos seus combatentes.
In : Gouveia Monteiro. Aljubarrota revisitada. Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra: In: Estudos Medievais: Coord.
Andrade e J. Silva: Livros Horizonte. In: Habitantes e Habitats. Smith, M. Genetic structure of the Azores: marriage and inbreeding in Flores. Cunha, E. Witness for the presence of Homo erectus in Portugal. Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg. Galera, V. Dental patterns of Coimbra population. War lesions from the famous Portuguese Medieval Battle of Aljubarrota. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology. Anthropologie Brno. L; Clisson, I. Journal of Archaeological Sciences. October Fily, M. Researching ambiguous sex cases in ancient skeletons of the series of Coimbra Portugal. Progress in Forensic genetics.
Sensabaugh, P. Lincoln and B. Olaisen Editors : The antiquity of cranial surgery in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Bermudez de Castro, J. Dental size variation in Atapuerca — SH. Middle Pleistocene hominids. Schmitt, A. Variability of the pattern of aging on the human skeleton: evidence from bone indicators and implications on age at death estimation.
Pinheiro, J. Bridging the gap between forensic anthropology and osteoarchaeology: a case of vascular pathology.
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Exchanged identities in a complex multiple homicide case. Identification and cause of death. International Journal of Legal Medicine. Sousa, S. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, vol. II : Are bone losers distinguishable from bone formers in a skeletal series? Implications for adult age at death assessment methods. Journal of Comparative Human Biology. Jul;52 4 The Coimbra identified osteological collections. IN: Documenta Archaeobiologiae. Souto Couri, M.. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early 19 th century, Lisbon, Portugal. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro.
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Study from a sample of bones. Vol Journal of Human Evolution. Cruz, C. Human osteological remains of the Portuguese Palaeolithic period. Guidelines for age estimation. Foresnic Science international. Homem das Flores. Two Portuguese homicide cases: the importance of interdisciplinarity in forensic anthropology. In: Roksandic,M. BAR International series Dimorfismo sexual en dientes humanos. Wasterlain, S. Comparative performance of femur and humerus epiphysis for sex diagnosis.
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Mediterranean Prehistory Online. In: Crubezy,E. Rivista de Antropologia. Universidad de Roma. The construction of sex discriminant functions from a large collection of skulls of known sex. International Journal of Anthropology. Age of menopause in rural and urban areas, a comparative analysis.
Universidad de Barcelona. Tomo1: Biodemography of Flores Island Azores. Trabalhos de Antropologia e Etnologia. Osteoarthritis as an indicator of demographic structure of past populations: the example of a portuguese medieval sample. In : Perez Perez ed Salud, enfermedad y muerte en el pasado. A possible case of poliomyelitis in a portuguese skeleton dated from the fiftheen century. Oral pathology in a religious community of Coimbra Portugal preliminary results. Actualizacion Conceptual y metodologica. Universidad de Cadiz: L; Cunha, E. Universidad de Cadiz Paleobiology of the Mesolithic Neolithic transition in Portugal: the state of knowledge.
Talence: A possible case of Perthes disease in a medieval individual. In : Sanchez-Sanchez, J.
Actas del V Congreso Nacional de Paleopatologia. Cardoso, Cunha, E.. Severe non-specific infectious processes from Late-Medieval period. Silveirona revisited: a new anthropological analysis of a visigothic population. On the applicability of some femur measurements for sex diagnosis. In : Varela, T. Investigaciones en Biodiversidad humana. Santiago de Compostela.
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In: Verghetta, M. Proceedings of 13 th European Meeting of the Paleopathology Association : In : Aluja, M. Antropologia y Biodiversidad. Teeth, diseases, diet and cultural habitats: some comments abou Muge Mesolithic Communities. Editor JE Egocheaga. Oviedo, Septiembre Antropologia Portuguesa , 2, Consanguinity of the Azores Islands Antropologia Portuguesa , Sobre a origem do Homo sapiens sapiens na Europa Ocidental. Arqueologi a, Antropologia Portuguesa , 8: Boletim Cultural de Esposende What can bones tell about labour and occupation: the analysis of skeletal markers of occupational stress in the Identified Skeletal Collection of the Anthropological Museum of the University of Coimbra preliminary results.
Arqueologia Medieval. Teriam assunto?. Bial: Universidade Nova. New data on Muge shell middens: a contribution to more accurate numbers and dates. In : Muge. Coimbra: Rua Larga. M; Ferreira, M. Trabalhos de Etnologia do Alto Mondego. Antropologia Portuguesa. A linguagem das fracturas. In Almadan, No prelo. Convidada para a Mesa Redonda. Jornadas de Antropologia Convidada para integrar duas Mesas das Jornadas:. Ponta Delgada. Dezembro E Cardoso, F. Reitoria da Universidade de Coimbra.
Curso Basico de Paleopatologia. Universidad Autonoma. Sto Antonio Texas. Universidade Presbeteriana MacKenzie. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Psiquiatria e Medicina Legal. Porto Alegre, 11 de Outubro de Convidada para duas palestras:. Rio Grande do Sul. Faculdade de Direito. Outubro de Columbus, Ohio, 31 de Maio-3 de Junho.
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