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References Publications referenced by this paper. Chemical constituents of Equisetum debile Roxb. These studies hold potential for having a tremendous impact on the Himalayan region, in particular, where efforts for sustaining endogenous development and ultimately improving the health and well-being of both animals and humans is still largely neglected. Pakistan has a very large livestock population composed of a number of local breeds that are well adapted to local conditions. In particular, there are an estimated 27 million buffaloes, 30 million cattle, 27 million sheep, 54 million goats, one million camels, 0.
The objectives of this field study were multifold: 1. Map of the study area. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in all four seasons. Participatory rural appraisal PRA approaches were adopted during fieldwork and prior informed consent was obtained before conducting interviews. Information regarding ethnoveterinary practices was collected through semi-structured interviews and guided fieldtrips with the help of traditional healers.
Taxonomic identification of the collected plant samples was carried out with the help of Flora of Pakistan[ 26 ], The Plant List [ 27 ] and by one of the authors MAK, plant taxonomist. Additionally, 15 key informants were selected at four locations within three study districts Haripur, Abbottabad and Mansehra and specific information regarding the perceived threats for the local medicinal flora was obtained.
Following identification of 5 key perceived threats agricultural land expansion, overharvesting, overgrazing, fuel, fire , we employed pair-wise ranking techniques in which respondents were presented with two threats and chose one from the two threats at a time [ 29 ]. Respondent scores were then summed up and ranks for each threat determined by region. Moreover, we calculated the mean cultural importance mCI index of plant species as measured in three study districts Haripur, Abbottabad, Mansehra within the Khyber Pkahtunkhaw Province of Pakistan, on the basis of their cultural importance index CI calculated for each single district.
To calculate the mCIf, CI values of all reported species within a family were added. Regression analysis was performed upon comparison of mCIf with the number of species in each respective family. Lastly, collected data were compared with previously conducted ethnoveterinary studies carried out in surrounding areas [ 8 , 33 — 45 ]. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies for treating livestock in communities of the Lesser Himalayas in Pakistan.
Leaves are boiled in mustard oil, and then crushed and topically applied to wounds. Bulbs are crushed with sugar. The decoction is mixed with Trachyspermum ammi, Camelia sinensis, brown sugar and ghee. Calotropis procera Aiton W. Launaea procumbens Roxb. Saussurea heteromalla D. Don Hand. Trichodesma indicum L. This paste is topically applied for a week. Capparis decidua Forssk. Fresh leaves are wormed in mustard oil and bandage on topically on wounds.
Citrullus colocynthis L. Mallotus philippensis Lam. Acacia nilotica L.
This paste is fed to animals up to a week. Fumaria indica Hausskn. Ziziphus nummularia Burm. Pyrus pashia Buch. Zanthoxylum armatum var. Aesculus indica Wall. Fresh leaves are slightly crushed and applied as bandages on bleeding wounds. Bergenia stracheyi Hook. An infusion of the dried, burnt leaves is applied topically onto the skin, nose and ear in livestock. Regression of the cultural importance of the families mCIf on the number of species in the family.
Of the 89 recorded plant species, frequently applied plant species against veterinary ailments included: Adhatoda vasica, Calotropis procera, Melia azedarach, Rumex nepalensis 6 diseases ; Cannabis sativa 5 ; Aesculus indica, Allium cepa, Citrullus colocynthis and Rumex hastatus 4.
Introduction: Lesser Himalayas—Pakistan and Medicinal Plant Wealth | SpringerLink
The methods of preparation of the therapeutic materials sometimes varied from individual to individual e. In most cases, water was the solvent employed in preparation of the remedy. Besides plants and water, some other materials were also commonly incorporated in the preparations: salt, sugar, milk, oil, eggs and ghee. Study participants identified more than 50 veterinary ailments that could be grouped into seven general categories: gastrointestinal disorders these were treated by 47 formulations ; skin infections 30 , parasites, fever and respiratory diseases 10 , reproductive disorders 9 , lactation 4 , and musculoskeletal system disorders 3.
More than 40 taxa were documented for their application to treat more than two veterinary conditions. By comparing the present data with all of the available ethnoveterinary literature concerning the surrounding geographic areas, it appears that nearly half of the quoted plants have never been described before as useful in folk veterinary practices. The other half has already been reported in the literature, but in some cases, for different ethnoveterinary purposes. In this section, we explore some reports on other ethnoveterinary applications of these species in the literature.
This discussion is organized by plant family. Regarding Adhatoda vasica , the leaves are used to treat stomach pains, fever, dehydration, diarrhea, dysentery, indigestion and gas troubles. The leaf paste of this plant has been reported for uses in the treatment of hoof rot in the literature [ 46 ]. Interestingly, aqueous extracts from the leaves have shown significant activity against Bacillus bacteria [ 47 , 48 ].
Paste prepared from whole plant of Amaranthus viridis is used here against weakness in cattle. The leaves of the same plant were reported as emollient in amenorrhea, scorpion sting and snake bite in a study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan [ 49 ]. The crushed bulbs of Allium cepa are administered to treat indigestion, stomach gripe, fever and for lactation in the study area, whereas in Italy, they are used to prevent pestilence [ 50 ].
The leaves, flowers and bulb extracts of A. The fruit pickle of Mangifera indica is used for mouth infections. Others have reported that the leaves of same plant are fed to livestock to treat retained fetal membrane [ 20 ]. Chloroform, ethanolic, water and petroleum ether extracts of M. Aerial parts of Foeniculum vulgare were used to treat indigestion and diarrhea.
Flowers and fruit of the same species have been reported as galactagogues and ruminative [ 50 ]. Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi are given to cattle as appetite stimulant and to increase milk production. In the Sargodha district of Pakistan, seed powder and decoctions of the same plant were reported for treatments against genital prolapse and to treat retained fetal membrane [ 20 ]. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of this plant species have shown antibacterial activity [ 54 ]. Leaves, stems and twigs of Calotropis procera are applied to cure mouth and eye watering, colic, indigestion, pain and inflammation.
Other reports regarding use of this plant include crushed leaves for the relief of flatulence, latex to increase lactation and bark decoction for hoof rot [ 46 ]. The leaves and seeds are also reported to be useful for silent estrus and delayed puberty [ 20 ]. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. Powder prepared from the roots and leaves of Carissa opaca is given to cattle to treat infected or sore throats and to heal wounds. In Uttar Pradesh, India, aerial parts of C. An aqueous extract of Hedera nepalensis is applied to remove leech in cattle.
Journal of Botany
In Italy, the use of fresh leaves and plant decoctions for abortive and anti-inflammatory purposes have been reported [ 50 ]. The seeds and paste made from the whole plant of Saussurea heteromalla are used to treat edema and to purify the blood. In Islamabad, the seeds were reported as carminatives and used also in tonics for horses and camels [ 49 ].
In the present study, we found that decoctions and pastes of Senecio chrysanthemoides are used for the treatment of sore joints and arthritis, whereas other work has reported the use of roots and leaves for treating blackleg disease and Evil-eye [ 55 ].
Medicinal Plant Biodiversity Of Lesser Himalayas Pakistan
The leaf paste of Trichodesma indicum is used to treat stomach disorders and intestinal worms in cattle in the study area, whereas others have reported the use of this paste in the treatment of mastitis and for uterine prolapse [ 46 ]. Brassica campestris seed oil is used for skin, eye and stomach infections. Other studies in Pakistan and India [ 20 , 46 ] have reported the use of this oil in topical applications for sores and the treatment of genital prolapses.
Eruca sativa seed oil is used to treat dysentery in the study area. Paste from the leaves, seeds and floral buds of Cannabis sativa are applied as an appetite stimulant, anti-leech, anti-lice, and for abdominal swelling and indigestion. Other studies have reported the use of decoctions and infusions for measles and East coast fever [ 56 ] and leaves for genital prolapse [ 20 ]. Paste prepared from Cuscuta reflexa is fed to cattle for treatment of swelling rumination problems , indigestion and short mammary glands. Other studies have documented its use as a galactagogue food after being fried [ 57 ].
Seed oil of Ricinus communis is administered to treat constipation. Other studies have documented the use of R. Acacia nilotica bark decoctions are used for the treatment of stomach pains in livestock. The bark of this same plant has been reported to be used in the case of hoof rot and genital prolapse in cattle [ 20 , 46 ]. The seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum are reported to treat diarrhea here, whereas in other areas of Pakistan they are used for treatment of genital prolapse, silent estrus and delayed puberty [ 20 ]. The fruit rind of Punica granatum is used to cure dysentery.
Other work reports the use of leaf paste for enteritis, bark powder for helminthic infection, flowers as a tonic and the rind as an astringent and to treat diarrhea [ 60 ]. Antibacterial studies on the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of this plant have demonstrated activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus [ 51 ].
The leaves and fruit of Melia azedarach are used against foot, mouth, skin infections, gas trouble and indigestion in the study areas while according to other studies; it is used as a cooling agent and for genital prolapse [ 20 , 46 ]. Adiantum incisum leaf paste is used for abdominal pain in the study area, whereas in Italy, a decoction of the plant is used to expel the placenta following delivery [ 50 ]. Paste prepared from the seeds of Oryza sativa is used to treat weakness and respiratory infection. It was reported [ 20 , 50 ] that seeds of the same plant are also used against diarrhea and to treat retained fetal membrane.
Triticum aestivum seeds are used against dysentery, sore mouth and to increase milk production in livestock. Other studies have reported its use as a ruminative, laxative, for dermatitis, delayed puberty, silent estrus and to treat retained fetal membrane [ 20 , 50 ]. Zea mays inflorescences are given to cure urinary inflammation in cattle. Local people use the roots and leaves of Rumex nepalensis for treating diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal worms, allergies and to stop bleeding in cattle. Crushed roots of this plant have been reported for treatment of blackleg disease an infectious disease attributed to Clostridium spp.
Citrus limon juice is used in the treatment of mastitis. Others have reported the use of citrus juice for uterine prolapse in cattle [ 20 ]. The powder and juice of Aesculus indica fruit and seeds is used against cough, fever, abdominal pain and to heal wounds in animals in the study area. However, in other regions of Pakistan, the seed endocarp is given to horses to relieve stomach pain, colic and swelling [ 61 — 63 ].
Fresh leaves and powder derived from the rhizomes of Bergenia ciliata are topically applied for use in wound healing.
Dried and fresh leaves of the same plant have been used to treat diarrhea in animals [ 64 ]. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. The fresh leaf paste of Verbascum thapsus is used to treat diarrhea. Others report the use of a leaf ointment for the treatment of rectal prolapse [ 50 ]. Solanum surattense is used for healing wounds, fever, indigestion, cough and as a tonic.
Others have reported the use of the leaves for genital prolapse [ 20 ]. A leaf extracts of S. The root paste of Withania somnifera is topically applied to treat bovine mastitis in this study area, whereas the crushed roots of this same species are used against an evil spirit Wan laffa in animals in Ethiopia [ 55 ].
Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of W. Decoctions of Camellia sinensis leaves are used to cure fever in cattle in this region, while another study in Sargodha district Pakistan reported the use of this decoction for treating retained fetal membrane in cows [ 20 ]. Fermented tea has been shown to be hypolipidemic and to reduce high blood pressure [ 49 ].
The leaf pulp of Aloe vera is administered orally as ruminative. The pulp of this same species has also been reported for similar use in the treatment of digestive problems [ 58 ]. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of this plant have shown significant activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus [ 54 , 66 , 67 ].
Leaves of Asphodelus tenuifolius were used to cure weakness in horses in our study, while others have reported that root paste of this plant is applied to wounds in cattle [ 46 ]. Turmeric powder from Curcuma longa rhizomes is topically applied for wound healing in cattle in the study area, while a study on equine medicines has mentioned that roots of this plant are used for hoof problems and sore joints [ 58 ].
Chloroform, ethanol, water and petroleum ether extracts of C. The Cultural Importance index CI of species is useful for estimating the significance of certain plants to a given culture [ 68 ] and takes into account not only the spread of the use number of informants for each species, but also its versatility, i.
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Based on medicinal applications, Trachyspermum ammi was found to be the most cited species followed by Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. It is notable that the top ten species of medicinal plants used to treat various livestock conditions were cited in all three major study sites Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. With regards to the diversity of species used, Fabaceae and Poaceae were the most important, with 6 species cited. Like the study by Pardo-de-Santayana et al.
This could be explained, perhaps, by the greater diversity of families with a more limited number of species per family, average of 1. Informant consensus values based on categories of veterinary conditions. Skin diseases incl. This overlap may be a reflection on how folk veterinary remedies may be the diachronic result of a deep observation of the efficacy of certain plants used in animal diseases or at least of intense transfers of local knowledge between the folk veterinary and the ethnomedical domains.
Factors perceived to be threats to the local medicinal flora. Ranking based on interviews from the three districts included in this study. A remarkable heritage of folk veterinary knowledge has been preserved within the framework of local knowledge and practices in the Pakistani communities of the Lesser Himalayas. However, like many other studies in this discipline have found, local knowledge is fragile and susceptible to rapid erosion with the expansion of biomedical paradigms and replacement of traditional resources with modern allopathic medicines. This is increasingly the case in both human and veterinary medicine.
Nevertheless, as the majority of the reported species are wild and sometimes rare or under threat, much heed must be taken not to diminish these plant populations. It is more urgent now than ever to record this rich body of knowledge not only for the purpose of bio-cultural conservation, but also to provide insights to scientists engaged in the search for new herbal veterinary therapies and especially to local stakeholders, who work on fostering endogenous trajectories of community-based rural development projects in mountainous areas.
Moreover, e mic visions of environmental protection and provision of health and dietary care both for humans and animals may represent the key to environmental and social sustainability of social-ecological systems [ 75 ]. The validation and eventual application of this knowledge into concrete, comprehensive and culturally appropriate participatory initiatives aimed at fostering the sustainable use of local natural resources would promote the well-being of both animals and local communities.
We are grateful to all the study participants and the local communities for having shared their valuable traditional knowledge. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Research Open Access. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9 Abstract Background Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. Methods Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires.
Results A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. Conclusion The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Study site An ethnobotanical study was conducted from March to April in different locations of the Lesser Himalayas, which is a hotspot for plant biodiversity in Pakistan.
The climate of the area is subtropical in the lowland plains and foot-hills zone and subtropical-sub alpine in middle Himalayas, Siwalik, Murree and entire Hazara hills. The vegetation of the Lesser Himalayas falls within the subtropical, temperate, sub-alpine and alpine zones. Figure 1 Map of the study area. Cultural importance index CI values for each species and mean cultural importance values for each family mCIf were calculated as described in a previous quantitative ethnobotanical work [ 30 ].
Briefly, CI values of species were calculated based on previously described methods [ 31 ] and express the sum of the proportion of informants that mention each species used. Informant consensus on the reported cures for a given group of aliments was calculated as an informant consensus factor ICF [ 32 ].
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Table 1 Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies for treating livestock in communities of the Lesser Himalayas in Pakistan. Stomach disorder, fever, dehydration B, C 45 1. Skin infection B, C, G, Sh 6 0. Bathu L Leaves are boiled in mustard oil, and then crushed and topically applied to wounds. Piaz B Bulbs are crushed with sugar.
Galactagogue B, C 35 1. Unequal mammary glands C, G 2 0. Mouth infection A, B, C, G 3 0. Galactagogue B, C 5 1. Mouth and eye watering C, Cam, G 15 0. Throat infection G, Sh 3 0.
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