These costumes may be seen at their best at bull-fights and at such popular festivals as the romarias or pilgrimages, which combine religion with the attractions of a fair. The national sport of bull-fighting q. The artistic sense of the nation is perhaps greatest among the peasantry, although Portugal has the most illiterate peasantry in western Europe.
It is manifested in their poetry and music even more than in their admirable costumes and in the good taste which has preserved the Roman or Moorish forms of their domestic pottery. Even the men and women who till the soil are capable of improvising verse of real merit, and sometimes excel in the ancient and difficult art of composing extempore amoebean rhymes.
In this way, although the ancient ballads are not forgotten, new Words are also fitted to the plaintive folk-tunes fades which every farm-hand knows and sings, accompanied sometimes by a rude clarinet or bagpipes, but more frequently by the so-called Portuguese guitaran instrument which resembles a mandolin rather than the guitars of Italy and Spain. The native dances, slow but not ungraceful, and more restrained than those of Andalusia or the south of France, are obviously Moorish in origin, and depend for their main effects on the movement of the arms and body. Many curious superstitious survive in the country districts, including the beliefs in witches feitigeiras, bruxas and werewolves lobishomens ; in sirens sereias which haunt the dangerous coast and lure fishermen to destruction; in fairies fadas and in many kinds of enchantment.
It will be observed that the nomenclature of Portuguese folk-lore suggests that the popular superstitions are of the most diverse origin-Latin, Greek, Arabic, native: lobishomem is the Latin lupus homo, wolf-man, sereia is the Greek aetphv, bruxa is Arabic, feitigeira and fada Portuguese. Other beliefs can be traced to Jewish and African sources. Chief Towns. All these are described in separate articles. Each class of road was named after the authority responsible for its construction and upkeep.
In some of the remoter rural districts there are only bridle-paths, or rough tracks, which become almost impassable in wet seasons, a11d are never suitable for vehicles less solid than the Portuguese ox-carts. The first railway was opened in to connect Lisbon with Badajoz. In m. In some of the chief towns there are electric tramways. The most important internal waterways are the lower Tagus and the Douro between Oporto and the Paiz do Vinho. In , 11, vessels of 19,, tons entered Portuguese seaports, but a very large-majority of these ships were foreign, and especially British.
The postal and telegraphic services are adequate; telephone systems are installed in Lisbon, Oporto and other large towns; and the Eastern Telegraph Co. Land Tenure. The poor and thinly-peopled region of Alemtejo is divided into large estates, and cultivated by tenant farmers. Numerous estates in various provinces are held on the metayage system q. In the north, where the land is much subdivided, peasant proprietorship and a kind of emphyteusis see Roman Law are the most usual tenures.
The Portuguese form of emphyteusis is called afaramenlo; the landlord parts with the user of his property in exchange for a quit-rent fora or canon. He may evict his tenant Should the rent be in arrear for five years, and may at any time distrain if it be overdue; but he cannot otherwise interfere with the holding. Should the tenant scll or exchange his interest in the property, the right of pre-emption is vested in the landlord, and a corresponding right is enjoyed by the tenant should the quitrent be for sale.
As this tenure is very ancient, though modified in and The characteristic spring less ox-cart which is used for heavy loads may be seen represented on Roman frescoes of even earlier date. One form of plough still used consists of a crooked bough, with an iron share attached. Oxen are employed for all field-work: those of the commonest breed are tawny.
The ox-yokes are often elaborately carved in a traditional pattern in which Gothic and Moorish designs are blended. The Moors introduced many improvements, especially in the system of irrigation: the characteristic Portuguese wells with their perpetual chains or buckets are of Moorish invention, and retain their Moorish name of noras. The principal grain-cro s are maize, wheat and rye; rice is grown among the marshes ofp the coast. Gourds, pumpkins, cabbages and other vegetables are cultivated among the cereals.
The large onions sold in Grcat Britain as Spanish are extensively produced in the northern provinces. The bush vines of this region are more exposed to the attacks of Oidium Tuckeri, which invaded the country in , and of Phyllaxera vaxtatrix, which followed in , than the more deeply-rooted vines trained on trellises or trees. Both these pests have been successfully combated. In addition to grapes the commoner fmits include quinces, apples, pears, cherries, limes, lemons and lo9uats Port.
Large quantities of olive oil are manufactured south of the Douro. Almost all cattle, except fighting-bulls, are stall-fed. The fighting-bulls are chiefly reared in the marshes and alluvial valleys; the are bred for strengt and swiftness rather than size, and a good specimen should be sufflcientl agile to leap over the in'ner barrier of the arena about 68 in. Large herds of swine are fed in the oak and chestnut woods of Alemteio; sheep and goats are reared in the mountains, where excellent cheeses are made from goats' milk.
The majority of these are employed in the sardine and tunny fisheries. This industry is carried on in a fleet of more than 10, small vessels, including the whalers of the Azores and the cod-boats which operate outside Portuguese waters. The fishermen and fisher women form a quite distinct class of the people; both sexes are noted for their bodily strength, and the men for their bold and skilful seamanship.
Tunny and sardines are cured and exported in large quantities, oysters are also exported, and many other sea fish, such as hake, sea-bream, whiting, conger and various fiat-fish are consumed in the country. In the early years of the 20th century the competition of foreign steam trawlers inflicted much hardship on the fishermen. The mineral deposits of the country are very varied, but their extent is probably exaggerated. Copper is mined in southern Portugal.
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Common salt chiefly from Alcacer do Sal near Setubal , gypsum, lime and marble are exported; marble and granite of fine quality abound in the southern provinces. Iron is obtained near Beja and Evora, tin in the district of Braganza. Lead, wolfram, antimony and auriferous quartz exist in the districts of Coimbra, Evora, Beja and Faro. Lignite occurs at many points around Coimbra, Leiria and Santarem; asphalt abounds near Alcobaca; phosphorite, asbestos and sulphur are common south of the Tagus.
Petroleum has been found near Torres Vedras; pitchblende, arsenic, anthracite and zinc are also mined. Gold was washed from some of the Portuguese rivers before the Christian era, and among the Romans the auriferous sands of the Tagus were proverbially famous; it is, however, extremely improbable that large quantities of gold were ever obtained in this region, although small deposits of alluvial gold may still be found in the valleys of the Tagus and Mondego. In zo years these industries became the most important in the country after agriculture, the wine and cork trades and the fisheries. In connexion with the wine trade there are many large cooper ages; cork products are extensively manufactured for ex rt.
Lisbon is the headquarters of the ship-building trade. There is a steady trade in natural mineral waters, which occur in many parts of continental Portugal and the Azores. Portuguese cabinet-work deteriorated in the I9th century; the glass works and potteries of the Aveiro and Leiria districts have lost much of their ancient reputation; and even the exquisite lace of Peniche and Vianna do Castello is strangely neglected abroad.
The finest Caldas da Rainha china-ware, with its fantastic representations of birds, beasts and fishes, still commands a fair price in foreign markets; but the blue and white ware originally copied from Delft and later modified under the influence of Persian pottery is now only manufactured in small quantities, of inferior quality. Skilful copies of Moorish metal-work may be purchased in the goldsmiths and silversmiths' shops of Lisbon and Oporto; conspicuous among these are the filigree omaments which are bought by the peasant women as investments and by foreign visitors as curiosities.
In the total industrial population of Portugal was , The following 'table shows the value for five years of the exports, and of all imports not reexported exclusive of coin and bullion In the principal exports, in order of value, were wine tchiefiy port, common wines and Madeira , raw and manufactured cork, preserved fish, fruits and vegetables, cottons and yarn, copper ore, timber, olive oil, skins, gra. The imports were raw and manufactured cotton, wool and silk, wheat and maize, coal, iron and machinery, dried codfish, sugar, rice, hides and skins, oils. Germany and the United States rank respectively second and third among the countries which export to Portugal; S ain, which buys bullocks and pigs, Brazil, which buys wine, and the Portuguese colonies, which buy textiles.
In addition to its direct foreign commerce Portugal derives much benefit from its share in the trade between South America and Europe. Large liners from Live ool, Southampton, London, Hamburg, Havre and Antwerp callin regularly for passengers or cargo at Leixoes or Lisbon, or both rts, on their way to and from South America. In Connexion with this trade an important tourist traffic, chiefly from Great Britain and Germany, was developed towards the end of the 19th century. Banks and Money. There are also many private banks, including savings banks.
Gold is the standard of value, but the actual currency is chiefly Bank of Portugal notes. The values of coin and notes are expressed in multiples of the real plural reis , a monetary unit which does not actually exist. The milreis, reis of the par value of 4s. Gold pieces of IO, 5, 2 and I milreis were coined up to ; 10, 5, and 2 testoon lestdo pieces, worth respectively , and reis, are coined in silver; testoons of reis and half testoons of 50 reis, in nickel; pieces of 20, IO and 5 reis in bronze.
The milreis fluctuates widely in value, the balance of exchange being usually adverse to Portugal; for the purposes of this article the milreis has been taken at par. The British sovereign is legal tender for reis, but in practice usually commands a premium. The metric system of weights and measures has been officially adopted, but many older standards are used, such as the libro lb avoirdupois , alquetre 0.
The practice of meeting deficits by loans, together with the great expenditure, after , on public works, especially roads and railways, explains the rapid growth of the national debt in modern times. A law of the 9th of August provided for the conversion of certain gold debts into three series of consolidated debt, at reduced interest. The revolution of the 5th of October brought the monarchy to an end and substituted republican government for it.
The monarchical constitution recognized four powers in the state, the executive, moderating, legislative and judicial. The two first of these were vested in the sovereign, who might be a woman, and who shared the legislative power with two chambers, the Camaro dos Pares or House of Peers,.
The royal veto could not be imposed on legislation passed twice by both houses. The annual session lasted four months, and a general election was necessary at the end of every four years, or immediately after a dissolution. A committee representing both houses adjudicated upon all cases of conflict between Peers and Commons; should it fail to reach a decision, the dispute was referred to the sovereign, whose award was final. Up to some members sat in the House of Peers by hereditary right, while others were nominated for life. It was then decided that such rights should cease, except in the case of princes of royal blood and members then sitting, and that when all the hereditary peerages had lapsed the house should be composed of the princes of the royal blood, the archbishops and bishops of the continental dioceses, a hundred legislative peers appointed by the king for life, and fifty elected every new parliament by the Commons.
In the number of nominated life peers was reduced to ninety and the elective branch was abolished. Subject to certain limitations and to a property qualification, any person over 40 years of age was eligible to a peerage. The titles and social position of the Portuguese aristocracy were not affected when its political privileges were abolished. In the nomination of life peers, and in certain administrative matters the sovereign was advised by a council of state, whose twelve members were nominated for life and were principally past or present ministers.
The sovereign exercised his executive power through a. The House of Commons was composed of members, representing the 26 electoral divisions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira, which returned elected members and 35 representatives of minorities, and of 7 members representing the colonies.
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All male citizens 21 years old who could read and write, or who paid taxes amounting to reis yearly, had the parliamentary franchise, except convicts, beggars, undischarged bankrupts, domestic servants, workmen permanently employed by the state and soldiers or sailors below the rank of commissioned officer. Local Government. The province of Douro, another administrative division of less antiquity, comprised the present districts of 'Aveiro and Oporto, or part of Beira and Entrel-Minho-e-Douro.
In the Azores comprised three districts and Madeira formed one. Each district was governed by a commission composed of 1 the civil governor, who was nominated by the central authority and presided over the commission; 2 the administrative auditor; and 3 three members chosen by indirect suffrage. The districts were divided into communes concelhos , each administered by an elected council, and a mayor nominated by the central authority. The mayor could not preside over the council, which appointed one of its own members to preside and to give effect to its decisions.
The communes were subdivided into parishes freguesias , which were administered by the elected council junta de parochia over which the parish priest prerbitero presided, and by the regedor, an official who represented the mayor of the commune and was nominated by the civil governor. The central authority had almost complete control over local administration through its representatives, the civil governor, mayors and regedores.
Their total area was about , sq. In all the white population is in a minority; in most the climate is unsuitable for European colonization, nor is the commercial value of the colonies commensurate with their extent. Viewed as a whole, Portuguese administration has been carried on under difficulties which have rendered it costly and inefhcient, the home government being compelled to contribute a large annual subsidy towards its maintenance.
There are three ecclesiastical provinces-Braga, Lisbon and Evora, each under an archbishop. The archbishop of Braga, whose see is the most ancient, has the title of Primate; the archbishop of Lisbon has the honorary title of Patriarch, and is usually elected a cardinal. His province includes Madeira, the Azores and the West African colonies.
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There are fourteen dioceses, of which Oporto is the most important. See further under History. This law has not been strictly enforced; primary education was never properly organized; and, according to census returns, the proportion of the population including children unable to read was There were in public and private primary schools. In the chief towns there are training schools for teachers. The system of secondary education was reorganized in In there were state lyceums in each district capital and in Guimaraes, Lamego and Amarante; 5 municipal lyceums, at Celorico de Basto, Chaves, Ponte de Lima, Povoa de Varzim and Sctubal; military and naval colleges; a secondary school for girls in Lisbon; numerous private secondary schools and ecclesiastical seminaries; industrial, commercial and technical schools; and pilot schools at Lisbon, Oporto, Faro and Ponta Delgada Azores.
Other important educational institutions are described under Lisbon and Oporto. The national university is at Coimbra q. The cortes fixed the number of conscripts to be enrolled in each year: in , 15, men for the army, for the navy, for the municipal guards and for the fiscal guards. The organization of the army was based on the acts of the 7th of September and the 24th of December With certain exceptions all men over 21 years of age were liable for service—3 years in the regular army, 5 years in the first reserve and 7 years in the second reserve; but exemption could always be purchased.
In time of war, the municipal guards, numbering about , and the fiscal guards, numbering about , might be incorporated in the army. The total effective force of the active army on a peace footing was officers, 31, men, horses and mules and guns. The total effective force on a war footing, inclusive of reservists, municipal guards and fiscal guards, was officers, , men, 19, horses and mules and guns.
Lisbon, Elvas and Angra in the Azores, were considered first-class fortresses, but only Lisbon had modern defences. The Portuguese navy in consisted of 1 armoured vessel, 5 protected cruisers, 2 third-class cruisers, 19 gunboats, 1 torpedo gunboat, 4 torpedo boats, 16 river gunboats, 4 transports and 3 training ships. Twelve other vessels, including 2 submarines, were under construction. The whole fleet was manned by about men. Read in conjunction with the British consular and diplomatic reports, they afford 2.
For geology, see the section of Le Portugal Le Portugal Paris, , by 18 writers, is a brief but encyclopedic description of continental Portugal.
See also Portugal: its Land and People, by W. Koebel London, , and Portuguese Architecture, by W. Watson London, The following books deal comprehensively with the Portuguese colonies; As Colonias portuguezas, by E. Throughout the centuries which witnessed the destruction of Carthaginian power by Rome, the establishment and decline of Latin civilization, the invasion by Alani, Suevi and other barbarian races, the resettlement under Visigothic rule and the overthrow of the Visigoths by Arab and Berber tribes from Africa, Portugal remained an undifferentiated part of Hispania, without sign of national consciousness.
The Iberian Peninsula was one: and its common history is related under Spain. It is true that some Portuguese writers have sought to identify their race with the ancient Lusitani, and have claimed for it a separate and continuous existence dating from the 2nd century B. The revolt of Lusitania against the Romans has been regarded as an early manifestation of Portuguese love of liberty, Viriathus as a national hero. But this theory, which originated in the 15th century and was perpetuated in the title of The Lusiads, has no historical foundation.
In Portugal was an obscure border fief of the kingdom of Leon. Its territories, far from the centres of European civilization and consisting largely of mountain, moorland and forest, were bounded on the north by the Minho, on the south by the Mondego. Its inhabitants, surrounded by Moorish or Spanish enemies and distracted by civil war, derived such rudiments of civilization as they possessed from Arabic or Leonese sources.
But from these obscure beginnings Portugal rose in four centuries to be the greatest maritime, commercial and colonial power in Europe. The history of the nation comprises eight periods. The Establishment of the Monarchy. Towards the close of the 11th century crusading knights came from every part of Europe to aid the kings of northern and central Spain in Count Henry. Among these adventurers was Count Henry of Burgundy, an ambitious warrior who, in , married Theresa, natural daughter of Alphonso VI.
The county of Portugal, which had already been won back from the Moors — , was included in Theresa's dowry. Count Henry ruled as a vassal of Alphonso VI. After three years of war against Urraca and other rival claimants to the throne of Leon, Count Henry himself died in Theresa renewed the struggle against her half-sister and suzerain Urraca in —, and again in ; in she was besieged in Lanhoso and captured. But a peace was negotiated by the archbishops Diogo Gelmires of Santiago de Compostela and Burdino of Theresa, — Braga, rival churchmen whose wealth and military resources enabled them to dictate terms.
But the quarrel was temporarily suspended because both Gelmires and Burdino had reason to dread the extension of Urraca's authority. It was arranged that Theresa should be liberated and should continue to hold the county of Portugal as a fief honor of Leon. During the next five years she lavished wealth and titles upon her lover Fernando Peres, count of Trava, thus estranging her son, the archbishop of Braga and the nobles, most of whom were foreign crusaders.
In , after her power had been crushed in another unsuccessful conflict with Leon and Castile, she was deposed by her own rebellious subjects and exiled in company with Peres. She died in The annals of his reign have been encumbered Alphonso I. Alphonso was occupied in almost incessant border fighting against his Christian or Moorish neighbours. Twelve years of campaigning on the Galician frontier were concluded in by the peace of Zamora, in which Alphonso was recognized as independent of any Spanish sovereign, although he promised to be a faithful vassal of the pope and to pay him a yearly tribute of four ounces of gold.
In , however, the war was renewed. Alphonso succeeded in conquering part of Galicia, but in attempting to capture the frontier fortress of Badajoz he was wounded and forced to surrender to Ferdinand II. Ferdinand was his son-in-law, and was probably disposed to leniency by the imminence of a Moorish invasion in which Portugal could render useful assistance.
Alphonso was therefore released under promise to abandon all his conquests in Galicia. He had already won many victories over the Moors. At the beginning of his reign the religious fervour which had sustained the Almoravide dynasty was rapidly subsiding; in Portugal independent Moorish chiefs ruled over cities and petty states, ignoring the central government; in Africa the Almohades were destroying the remnants of the Almoravide power.
Alphonso took advantage of these dissensions to invade Alemtejo, reinforced by the Templars and Hospitallers, whose respective headquarters were at Soure and Thomar. On the 2 5th of July he defeated the combined forces of the Moors on the plains of Ourique, in Alemtejo. Legend has magnified the victory into the rout of , Moslems under five kings; but so far was the battle from being decisive that in the Moors were able to seize the fortress of Leiria, built by Alphonso in as an outpost for the defence of Coimbra, his capital.
In they defeated the Templars at Soure. But on the 15th of March Alphonso stormed the fortress of Santarem, and about the same time a band of crusaders on their way to Palestine landed at Oporto and volunteered for the impending siege of Lisbon. Among them were many Englishmen, Germans and Flemings, who were afterwards induced to settle in Portugal. Aided by these powerful allies, Alphonso captured Lisbon on the 24th of October This was the greatest military achievement of his reign.
The Moorish garrisons of Palmella, Cintra and Almada soon capitulated, and in Alcacer do Sal, one of the chief centres of Moorish commerce, was taken by storm. At this time, however, the Almohades had triumphed in Africa and invaded the Peninsula, where they were able to check the Portuguese reconquest, although isolated bands of crusading adventurers succeeded in establishing themselves in various cities of Alemtejo. In Alphonso concluded a seven years truce with the Moors; weakened by his wound and by old age, he could no longer take the field, and.
Between and the Moors retrieved many of their losses in Alemtejo, but were unable to retake Santarem and Lisbon. Alphonso died on the 6th of December He had secured for Portugal the status though not the name of an independent kingdom, and had extended its frontier southwards from the Mondego to the Tagus.
He had laid the foundation of its navy and had strengthened, if he did not inaugurate, that system of co-operation between the Crown and the military orders which afterwards proved of incalculable service in the maritime and colonial development of the nation. Sancho I. In he won Silves, then the capital of Algarve; in he lost not only Algarve but the greater part of Alemtejo, including Alcacer do Sal.
A peace was then arranged, and for the next eight years Sancho Sancho I. The motives and course of this indecisive struggle are equally obscure. Lisbon had already received a charter from Alphonso I. Sancho also endeavoured to foster immigration and agriculture, by granting estates to the military orders and municipalities on condition that the occupiers should cultivate or colonize their lands.
He had insisted that priests should accompany their flocks in battle, had made them amenable to secular jurisdiction, had withheld the tribute due to Rome and had even claimed the right of disposing of ecclesiastical domains. Finally he had quarrelled with Martinho Rodrigues, the unpopular bishop of Oporto, who was besieged for five months in his palace and then forced to seek redress in Rome As Sancho was in weak health and had no means of resisting Papal pressure, he made full submission ; and after bestowing large estates on his sons and daughters, he retired into the monastery of Alcobaga q.
The reign of Alphonso II. The was no warrior, but in a Portuguese contingent Alphonso II. Alfonso II. Even then he compelled the heiresses to take the veil. Sancho II. To secure the removal of the interdict the leading statesmen who were identified with the policy of his father—Gongalo Mendes the chancellor, Pedro Annes the lord chamberlain mordomo-mor and Vicente, dean of Lisbon—resigned Sancho II. Estevao Soares, archbishop of Braga, placed himself at the head of the nobles and churchmen who threatened to usurp the royal power during Sancho II. Elvas was taken from the Moors in , and in Sancho assumed control of the kingdom.
He continued the crusade against the Moors, who were driven from their last strongholds in Alemtejo, and in —, after a dispute with Rome which was once more ended by the imposition of an interdict and the submission of the Portuguese ruler, he won many successes in the Algarve.
But his career of conquest was cut short by a revolution , for which his marriage to a Castilian lady, D. Mecia Lopez de Haro, furnished a pretext. The legitimacy of the union has been questioned, on grounds which appear insufficient; but of its unpopularity there can be no doubt. The bishops, resenting the favour shown by Sancho to his father's anti-clerical ministers, took advantage of this unpopularity to organize the rebellion.
They found a leader in Sancho's brother Alphonso, count of Boulogne, who owed his title to a marriage with Matilda, countess of Boulogne. The pope issued a bull of deposition in favour of Alphonso, who reached Lisbon in ; and after a civil war lasting two years Sancho II. One of the first acts of the usurper, and one of the most important, was to abandon the semi-ecclesiastical titles of visitor visitador or defender curador of the realm, and to proclaim himself king rei. A second stage was reached shortly afterwards by the conquest of Algarve, the last remaining stronghold of the Moors.
This drew down upon Portugal the anger of Alphonso X. The war which followed was ended by Alphonso III. In Alphonso III. Fortified by their support the king refused to submit to Rome. At the cortes of Coimbra , he further strengthened his position by conciliating the representatives of the cities, who denounced the issue of a debased coinage, and by recognizing that taxation could not be imposed without consent of the cortes.
The clergy suffered more than the laity under a prolonged interdict, and in Pope Urban VI. Thus ended the contest for supremacy between Church and Crown. The monarchy owed its triumph to its championship of national interests, to the support of the municipalities and military orders, and to the prestige gained by the royal armies in the Moorish and Castilian wars.
In Alphonso X. Lisbon was henceforth recognized as the capital. Alphonso III. Diniz,  the heir-apparent. The Consolidation of the Monarchy: — It is true that the reign of Diniz was not a period of uninterrupted peace. At the outset his legitimacy was disputed by his brother Alphonso, and a brief civil war ensued. Hostilities between Portugal and the reunited kingdoms of Leon and Castile were terminated in by a treaty of alliance, in accordance with which Ferdinand IV.
A further outbreak of civil war, between the king and the heir—apparent, was averted in I by the queen-consort Isabella of Portugal, who had married Diniz in , and was canonized for her many virtues in the 16th century. She rode between the hostile camps, and succeeded in arranging an honourable peace between her husband and her son. These wars were too brief to interfere seriously with the social reconstruction to which the king devoted himself. At his accession the Portuguese people was far from homogeneous; it would be long before its component races—Moors and Mozarabs of the south, Galicians Diniz, — There were also urgent economic problems to be solved.
The Moors had made Alemtejo the granary of Portugal, but war had undone their work, and large tracts of land were now barren and depopulated. Commerce and education had similarly been subordinated to the struggle for national existence. The machinery of administration was out of date and complicated by the authority of feudal and ecclesiastical courts.
The supremacy of the Crown, though recognized, was still unstable. It was Diniz who initiated the needful reforms. He encouraged maritime trade by negotiating a commercial treaty with England and forming a royal navy under the command of a Genoese admiral named Emmanuele di Pezagna Manoel Pessanha. In he founded the university of Coimbra q. He was a poet and a patron of literature and music see Literature , below , His chief administrative reforms were designed to secure centralized government and to limit the jurisdiction of feudal courts. He encouraged and nationalized the military orders.
In the Portuguese knights of Sao Thiago Santiago were definitely separated from the parent Spanish order. The orders of Crato and of St Benedict of Aviz had already been established, the traditional dates of their incorporation being and After the condemnation of the Templars by Pope Clement V. As the Templars were rich, influential and loyal, Diniz took advantage of the death of Clement V. Alphonso IV. He arranged that his daughter Maria should wed Alphonso XI. Pedro, the crown prince, afterwards married Constance, daughter of the duke of Penafiel near Valladolid , and Alphonso IV.
In the victory won by the Christians on the banks of the river Salado, near Tarifa, he earned his title of Alphonso the Brave The later years of his reign were darkened by the tragedy of Inez de Castro q. He died in , and the first act of his successor, Pedro the Severe, Pedro, was to take vengeance on the murderers of Inez. Pedro I. Throughout his reign he strengthened the central government at the expense of the aristocracy and the Church, by a stern enforcement of law and order.
In , at the cortes of Elvas, it was enacted that the privileges of the clergy should only be deemed valid in so far as they did not conflict with the royal prerogative. The foreign policy of Diniz, Alphonso IV. They had supported the monarchy because it was a national institution, hostile to the tyranny of nobles and clergy. During the reign of Ferdinand — and under the regency of Leonora the ruling dynasty ceased to represent the national will; the Portuguese people therefore made an end of the dynasty and chose its own ruler.
The complex events which brought about this crisis may be briefly summarized. Ferdinand, a weak but ambitious and unscrupulous king, claimed the thrones of Castile and Leon, left vacant by the Ferdinand death of Pedro I. When Ferdinand and Leonora, — Ferdinand, however, preferred his Portuguese mistress, Leonora Telles de Menezes, whom he eventually married. To avenge this slight, Henry of Castile invaded Portugal and besieged Lisbon. Ferdinand appealed to John of Gaunt, who also claimed the throne of Castile, on behalf of his wife Constance, daughter of Pedro I.
In Richard II. In , however, Ferdinand made peace with John I. By the treaty of Salvaterra it was agreed that Beatrice should marry John I. Six months later Ferdinand died, and in accordance with the terms of the treaty Leonora became regent until, the eldest son of John I. Leonora had long carried on an intrigue with the count of Ourem, whose influence was resented by the leaders of the The aristocracy, while her tyrannical rule also aroused bitter opposition.
The malcontents chose D. John, grand-master of the knights of Aviz and illegitimate The Rebellion of Leonora fled to Santarem and summoned aid from Castile, while D. John was proclaimed defender of Portugal. In a Castilian army invested Lisbon, but encountered a heroic resistance, and after five months an outbreak of plague compelled them to raise the siege. John I. John was chosen king. No event in the early constitutional history of Portugal is more important than this Cortes of Coimbra.
The choice of the grand-master of Aviz ratified the old alliance between the Crown and the military orders; his election by the whole cortes not only ratified the alliance between the Crown and the commons, but also included. The nation was unanimous. Ferdinand had been the last legitimate descendant of Count Henry of Burgundy. With John I. But on the 14th of August the Portuguese army, aided by English archers, utterly defeated the Castilians at Aljubarrota. By this victory the Portuguese showed themselves equal in military power to their strongest rivals in the Peninsula. Against such a.
Diniz, eldest son of Inez de Castro, claimed the throne and invaded Portugal in , but his supporters were easily crushed. The domestic and foreign policy pursued by John I. At home he endeavoured to reform administration, to encourage agriculture and commerce, and to secure the loyalty of the nobles by grants of land and privileges so extensive that, towards the end of his reign, many nobles who exercised their full feudal rights had become almost independent princes. Abroad, he aimed at peace with Castile and close friendship with England. Diniz; Henry IV. The convent of Batalha q.
The cortes of Coimbra, the battle of Aljubarrota and the treaty of Windsor mark the three final stages in the consolidation of the monarchy. A period of expansion oversea began in the same reign, with the capture of Ceuta in Morocco. The three eldest sons of King John and Queen Philippa—Edward, Pedro and Henry, afterwards celebrated as Prince Henry the Navigator—desired to win knighthood by service against the Moors, the historic enemies of their country and creed.
In a Portuguese fleet, commanded by the king and the three princes, set sail for Ceuta. English men-at-arms were sent by Henry V. The town was captured and garrisoned, and thus the first Portuguese outpost was established on the mainland of Africa. The Period of Discoveries: — As the south-westermnost of the free peoples of Europe, the Portuguese were the natural inheritors of that work of exploration which had been carried on during the middle ages.
They began where the Arabs left off, by penetrating far into the Atlantic. The long littoral of their country, with its fine harbours and rivers flowing westward to the ocean, had been the training-ground of a race of adventurous seamen. It was impossible, moreover, to expand or reach new markets except by sea: the interposition of Castile and Aragon, so often hostile, completely prevented any intercourse by land between Portugal and other European countries. Consequently the Portuguese merchants sent their goods by sea to England, Flanders, or the Hanse towns.
The whole history of the nation had also inspired a desire for fresh conquests among its leaders. Portugal had won and now held its independence by the sword. The long struggle to expel the Moors, with the influence of foreign Crusaders and the military orders, had given a religious sanction to the desire for martial fame. Nowhere was the ancient crusading spirit so active a political force.
To make war upon Islam seemed to the Portuguese their natural destiny and their duty as Christians. It was the genius of Prince Henry the Navigator q.
Prince Henry placed at the disposal of his captains the vast resources of the Order of Christ, the best information and the most accurate Prince Henry the Navigator. The conception of an ocean route to India appears to have originated after his death. In Cape Bojador was doubled; in the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon; and slave trading soon became one of the most profitable branches of Portuguese commerce.
The Senegal was reached in , Cape Verde was passed in the same year, and in Alvaro Fernandes pushed on almost as far as Sierra Leone. This was probably the farthest point reached before the Navigator died Meanwhile colonization progressed in the Azores and Madeira, where sugar and wine were produced; above all, the gold brought home from Guinea stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese. It had become clear that, apart from their religious and scientific aspects, these voyages of discovery were highly profitable. Under Alphonso V. Under John II. After the discovery of the West Indies by Columbus rendered desirable a delimitation of the Spanish and Portuguese spheres of exploration.
This was accomplished by the treaty of Tordesillas June 7, which modified the delimitation authorized by Pope Alexander VI. The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of leagues west of Cape Verde. Spain received the lands discovered west of this line. As, however, the known means of measuring longitude were so inexact that the line of demarcation could not in practice be determined see J. On its provisions were based both the Portuguese claim to Brazil and the-Spanish claim to the Moluccas see Malay Archipelago : History.
The treaty was chiefly valuable to the Portuguese as a recognition of the prestige they had acquired. That prestige was enormously enhanced when, in —, Vasco da Gama q. While the Crown was thus acquiring new possessions, its authority in Portugal was temporarily overshadowed by the growth of aristocratic privilege. At the cortes of Evora King Edward had obtained the enactment of a law  declaring that the estates The monarchy and the Nobles.
After the death of Edward further attempts to curb the power of the nobles were made by his brother, D. Pedro, duke of Coimbra, who acted as regent during the minority of Alphonso V. The head of the aristocratic opposition was the duke of Braganza, who contrived to secure the sympathy of the king and the dismissal of the regent. The quarrel led to civil war, and in May D. Pedro was defeated and killed. Thenceforward the grants made by John I. An unwise foreign policy simultaneously injured the royal prestige, for Alphonso married his own niece, Joanna, daughter of Henry IV.
At the battle of Toro, in , he was defeated by Ferdinand and Isabella, and in he was compelled to sign the treaty of Alcantara, by which Joanna was relegated to a convent. His successor, John II. A cortes held at Evora empowered judges nominated by the Crown to administer justice in all feudal domains. The nobles resisted this infringement of their rights; but their leader, Ferdinand, duke of Braganza, was beheaded for high treason in ; in the king stabbed to death his own brother-in-law, Ferdinand, duke of Vizeu; and 80 other members of the aristocracy were afterwards executed.
He was succeeded in by Emanuel Manoel I. The Portuguese Empire: — It was now upon schemes of conquest that the energy of the nation was to be concentrated, although the motives which called forth that energy were unchanged. This expansion of national interests proceeded rapidly in almost every quarter of the known world. Equally barren was the intermittent fighting in Morocco, which was regarded as a crusade against the Moors. In the South Atlantic, however, the African coast was further explored, new settlements were founded, and a remarkable development of Portuguese-African Civilization took place in the kingdom of Kongo see Angola.
Pedro de Covilham had reached Abyssinia q. In the Red Sea Massawa was the most northerly point frequented by the Portuguese until , when a fleet under Estevao da Gama penetrated as far as Suez. On the Asiatic mainland the first trading-stations were established by Cabral at Cochin and Calicut ; more important, however, were the conquest of Goa and Malacca by Albuquerque, and the acquisition of Diu by Martim Alfonso de Sousa. East of Malacca, Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam , and dispatched to the Moluccas two expeditions , , which founded the Portuguese dominion in the Malay Archipelago q.
In one of the ships of Ferdinand Magellan q. But Hindu and Mahommedan interests were found to be so closely interwoven that this policy became impracticable, and it was superseded when D. Almeida sought to subordinate all else to sea power and commerce, to concentrate the whole naval and military force of the kingdom on the maintenance of maritime ascendancy; to annex no territory, to avoid risking troops ashore, and to leave the defence of such factories as might be necessary to friendly native powers, which would receive in return the support of the Portuguese fleet.
The Portuguese could never penetrate far inland; throughout the 16th century their settlements were confined to the coasts of Asia, Africa or America, and the area they were able effectively to occupy was far less than the area of their empire in the 20th century. But their artillery and superior maritime science made them almost invulnerable at sea, and their principal military achievements consisted in the capture or defence of positions accessible from the sea, e. Command of the sea could not be maintained—least of all in the monsoon months—while the Portuguese fleets were based on Lisbon, which could only be reached after a six months' voyage; and experience had proved that almost every Portuguese factory required a fortress for its defence when the fleets were absent.
In Albuquerque seized Goa, primarily as a naval base, and in so doing recognized the fact that his country was committed to a policy of territorial aggrandisement. Other seaports and islands were conquered or colonized in rapid succession, and by Portugal had acquired a line of scattered maritime possessions extending along the coasts of Brazil, East and West Africa, Malabar, Ceylon, Persia, Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago.
The most important settlements in the East were Goa, Malacca and Hormuz. To a superficial observer the prosperity of Portugal might well seem to have culminated during this period of expansion. Vast profits were derived from the import trade in the innumerable products of the tropics, of which Portugal was the sole purveyor in Europe.
This influx of wealth furnished the economic basis for a sudden development of literary and artistic activity, inspired by contrast with the new world of the tropics. Oriental splendour and Renaissance culture combined to render social life in Lisbon hardly less brilliant than in Rome or Venice. In order to understand the apparently sudden collapse of Portuguese power in — it is necessary to examine certain facts and tendencies which from the first rendered a catastrophe inevitable.
Chief among these were the extent of the empire and its organization, the financial and commercial policy of its rulers, the hostility, often wantonly provoked, of the chief Oriental states, the depopulation of Portugal and the slave trade, the expulsion of the Jews, the growth of ecclesiastical influence in secular affairs, and the decadence of the monarchy. It is necessary to exclude Brazil from any survey of the Portuguese imperial system, because the colonization of Brazil q. Otherwise the whole empire was governed on a more or less uniform system, although it included communities of the most diverse nature—protectorates such as Hormuz and Ternate in the Moluccas, colonies such as Goa and Madeira, captaincies under military rule such as Malacca, tributary states such as Kilwa, fortified factories as at Colombo and Cochin.
West of the Cape the settlements in Africa and the Atlantic were governed, as a rule, by officials directly nominated by the king. East of the Cape the royal power was delegated to a Viceroy or governor—the distinction was purely titular—whose legislative and executive authority was almost unlimited during his term of office. The vice royalty was created in , and from the Indian capital was Goa. Between and only four holders of the office—Almeida — , Albuquerque — , D. Vasco da Gama and D. All officials, including the Viceroy and naval and military officers, were usually appointed for no more than three years.
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Even judges were expected to live on their perquisites, in the shape of bribes. The competition for appointments was naturally very keen; Couto mentions the case of one grantee who received the reversion of a post to which 30 applicants had a prior claim. In the Viceroy, D. Garcia de Noronha, publicly sold by auction every vacant appointment in Portuguese India—an example followed in by the king. Hardly less disastrous than the system by which officials were chosen and paid was the influence exercised by the Church. In a. The empire in the East was rarely solvent. Almeida and Albuquerque had hoped to meet the expense of administration mainly out of the fees extorted for safe-conducts at sea and trading-licences, with the tribute wrung from native states and the revenue from Crown lands in India.
But the growth of expenditure—chiefly of an unremunerative kind, such as the cost of war and missions—soon rendered these resources inadequate; and after the empire became ever more dependent on the spoils of hostile states and on subsidies from the royal treasury in Lisbon. Systematic debasement of the coinage was practised both in India, where the monetary system was extremely complex,  and in Portugal; and owing to the bullionist policy adopted by Portuguese financiers little permanent benefit accrued to the mother country from its immense trade. Seeking for commercial profit, not in the exchange of commodities, but solely in the acquisition of actual gold and silver, and realizing that the home market could not absorb a tithe of the merchandise imported, the Lisbon capitalists sent their ships to discharge in Antwerp where a Portuguese staple was established in , or in some other port near the central markets of Europe.
The raw materials purchased by Flemish, German or English traders were used in the establishment of productive industries, while Portugal received a vast influx of bullion, most of which was squandered on war, luxuries or the Church. In theory the most lucrative branches of commerce, such as the pepper trade, were monopolies vested in the Crown; the chartered companies and associations of merchant adventurers, which afterwards became the pioneers of British and Dutch colonial development, had no counterpart Commercial Policy.
But the Crown frequently farmed out its monopolies to individual merchants, or granted trading-licences by way of pension or reward. These were often of great value; e. Great loss was necessarily inflicted on native traders by the monopolist system, which pressed most hardly on the Mahommedans, who had been the chief carriers in Indian waters.
Two great powers, Egypt and Turkey, challenged the naval and commercial supremacy of the Portuguese, but an Egyptian armada was destroyed by Almeida in , and though Ottoman fleets were on several occasions as in and dispatched from Suez or Basra, they failed to achieve any success, and the Portuguese were able to close the two principal trade routes between India and Europe.
One of these trade routes passed up the Persian Gulf to Basra, and thence overland to Tripoli, for Mediterranean ports, and to Trebizond, for Constantinople. But by occupying Hormuz the Portuguese gained command of the Gulf route; and though they thrice failed to capture Aden , , , and so entirely to close the Red Sea, they almost destroyed the trafhc between India and Suez by occupying Socotra and sending fleets to cruise in the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb.
In Malacca they possessed the connecting link between the trade routes of the Far and Middle East, and thus they controlled the three sea-gates of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea—the Straits of Hormuz, Bab el-Mandeb and Malacca—and diverted the maritime trade with Europe to the Cape route. During the critical period in which their empire was being established c.
A coalition of the minor Mahommedan states was prevented by the great Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, which comprised the southern half of the Indian Peninsula. Vijayanagar gave the militant Mahommedanism of Northern India no opportunity for a combined attack on the Portuguese settlements. After , when the power of Vijayanagar was broken at the battle of Talikot, a Mussulman coalition was at last formed, and the Portuguese were confronted by a line of hostile states stretching from Gujarat to Achin; but by this time they were strong enough to hold their own.
It is characteristic of their native policy that they had not only refrained from aiding Vijayanagar in , but had even been willing to despoil their Hindu allies. Albuquerque was almost the only Portuguese statesman who strove to deal justly with both Hindus and Mahommedans, to respect native customs, and to establish friendly relations with the great powers of the East. Apart from the rigorous restrictions imposed by his successors upon trade, the sympathies of the natives were estranged by the harshness and venality of Portuguese administration, by such barbarities as the wholesale mutilation of non-combatants in war-time, and by religious persecution.
After the arrival of the Franciscan missionaries, in , Goa gradually became the headquarters of an immense proselytizing organization, which by had extended to East Africa, China, Japan and the Malay Archipelago see Goa : Ecclesiastical History. Wherever the Portuguese were supreme they endeavoured to obtain converts by force. In the early 20 th century, Quinta do Crasto was purchased by Constantino de Almeida, the founder of the renowned Constantino wine house, which was dedicated to exporting and producing Port wines and brandies.
Quinta do Crasto offers a comprehensive selection of products, from white and red Douro wines to premium Ports and top olive oil. Since , the estate has been one of the founding members of the famous winemaker group Douro Boys. Maria and Quinta do Vallado. The last few years have confirmed that the five member estates in the group are also able to deal with capricious weather conditions. Vintage is just more proof of that.
Manuel Lobo , winemaker at Quinta do Crasto , tells us: was a challenging year for our entire team — in the vineyard as well as in the cellar. We had a very dry winter, followed by heavy rainfall throughout the spring. By contrast, August was very dry and hot. Our great luck was the splendid weather in autumn: hot days with very cool nights. This resulted in very well balanced fruit with good physiologic ripeness. These wines will have very impressive aging potential once they get in the bottle! Francisco Ferreira , the proprietor of Quinta do Vallado , confirms this: We had a lot of rain, some heavy hailstorms and then heat waves.
Everything one could imagine, so to speak. Nevertheless, we are extremely happy about this vintage. Quantitatively, the vintage produced less volume than the one before. Quality is exceptionally good. The white wines are developing wonderfully, with modest alcohol and well-integrated acidity. The reds this year are — although quite fruit-forward — extremely fresh and light. Why the Douro defies climate change and why there are no bad vintages anymore: The expectations for and demands place upon the quality of Douro wines have risen appreciably in recent years.
Along with the extraordinary passion of the winegrowers for their wines and their unique landscape in the Douro Valley, it is the complexity of the region that makes it possible to consistently produce wines of the highest quality. Of course, there are some vineyards that handle climatic turbulence less well, and hailstorms that can endanger an entire crop — but seen as a whole, the Douro Valley takes what the weather gives it, producing wonderful grapes year after year.
This is partly due to the many different expositions west, south, east and north and the old vines, some of which are eighty years of age — or even older. Their roots penetrate very deeply into the soil, due to the slightly brittle nature of the slate, and thus always find adequate nutrients to nourish the vine. And in addition, the knowledge of the winegrowers has also grown — and they most certainly have certainly gained a lot of experience with extreme vintages over the last two decades.
Apply now! From 24—27 February the Douro Boys will once again invite top sommeliers working in the hospitality industry to make an informative and exciting trip to the Douro Valley. Sorry, this entry is only available in German. Sommeliers, importers and wine merchants from thirteen different countries were invited by the Douro Boys to come to their region in the north of Portugal, where they spent three days devoted to sophisticated, high-class vertical tastings and intense discussions, before returning home with previously unimagined experiences and unmistakable enthusiasm.
These international experts received an extensive and detailed update on the wines of the Douro Valley, presented in four master classes:. And of course there had to be a boat ride on the Douro River on the docket. On the last evening at Quinta do Vallado, the pool party ran to late at night, where friendships were formed and lively exchange of opinions took place over exceptional, previously unknown Douro wines that the visitors tasted. The enthusiasm of the participants was enormous. The combination of the hearty and good-humoured hospitality of the growers with the sophisticated professionality of the wine tastings was just as distinctive as were the wines themselves.
It shows that we are on the right track, and that we have already accomplished a lot. Both concepts are indeed part of the project that German Port wine specialist Axel Probst has brought into being. And the twenty-five growers were instantly in agreement that this singular Port wine should serve a good cause. Most people remain unaware that while the Douro Valley in northern Portugal presents one of the loveliest and most breathtaking landscapes in Europe, it must also at the same time struggle against extreme poverty.
One can easily imagine that this vintage Port not only has an unforgettable story to tell, but would also attain the best ratings on the international stage. You can read more at: O Port Unidade. Because people have difficulty imagining that there are so many needy children and poor youths living in this dreamlike setting, who are in desperate need of assistance and support.
The Douro Valley — which has developed into an up-and-coming region for tourism in the last few years and been declared a world heritage site by UNESCO — has struggled for a long time with various problems and challenges. To date there are not enough jobs, not enough possibilities to build a future; this is true above all for the currently adolescent generation.
But with the recent emergence of sustainable tourism, many new employment opportunities have been created. Such a historic jubilee merits a wine with an equally impressive pedigree. The grapes for this Port were grown on ungrafted vines, planted before the appearance of phylloxera. The wine has been maturing in litre wooden casks for more than years. Many courageous and diligent individuals have paved the way for the success that we are now able to harvest. We are well aware that this sense of diligence, this curiosity and courage must be conscientiously maintained, in order to equip the estate to meet the challenges of the next years, and to preserve this valuable foundation for the following generations.
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One thing in common: they all exclusively offer regional products, most of them prepared according to traditional and authentic recipes. A Presunteca — Casa do Presunto. Arte, Sabor e Douro. Arte Vinho. Casa de Santo — Amaro. Casa Painova. Padaria Lalinense Lda. Qualifer — Fumados e Enchidos. Transmontano Lda.
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