Art, and tragic drama in particular, by effecting the catharsis of emotions such as pity and fear, ensured that they were proportionate and appropriate. This theory of the tragic has been debated in almost all periods of literary history. It underpinned the French classical conception of tragedy, even though both Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine interpreted it in rather idiosyncratic ways. Religious and civic authorities have often believed or imagined that theatrical activity can be subversive or threatening. Comedy, like other forms of caricature, portrays authority figures as ridiculous, while serious drama or tragedy might call into question the nature of justice.
Accordingly, there has frequently been tension between theater companies, dramatic authors and government officials whose role was to protect public morality and control all forms of entertainment. However, these plays did explicitly criticize both the hypocrisy and the gullibility of contemporary religious observances, and many plays were in practice tolerated despite their implicit challenges to religious and social orthodoxy.
As the French Revolution approached, it was political rather than religious authority that became defensive in the face of challenges from the theater. After the Revolution, the declaration of the rights of man included a basic right to freedom of speech and opinion, but some control over public performance was retained on the grounds that uninhibited challenges to established authority or to accepted taste could jeopardize public order.
Central censorship of theatrical repertoire was reestablished in , when the Ministry of the Interior would supply via the prefects a list of condemned plays to each performing company, and although censorship of publication was lifted in , that of theater performance remained in place until After , responsibility for approving or banning specific plays was devolved to local municipal authorities. This could have the effect that local pressure groups had a disproportionate impact: traders, for example, did not dare to attend plays of which their more influential customers might disapprove.
This example of auto-censorship was criticized both by theater colleagues and by political authorities and probably contributed to the failure of Bozonnet to obtain reappointment. Most significant Francophone author of the postcolonial period, although more associated with political journalism and poetry than with theater. He was born in Martinique. Stage name of Charles Chevillet — , actor and dramatist. Stage name of Marie Desmares — , actress. Posterity has shared this opinion. Stage director, actor and film director.
His productions have often been based on a radical redefinition of the nature of heroism, involving a negative reevaluation of classical heroes such as Hamlet or Peer Gynt. Originally a group of actors in ancient Greek drama who represented a particular element of society citizens, slaves, women and whose reactions, presented in song, dance and gesture, steered the audience toward a moral interpretation of the events of the play. The constant presence of the chorus throughout a performance was partly responsible for the unities of time and place.
This established also the convention of double enunciation: the chorus expresses its own emotional reaction while conveying crucial information to the audience. Thereafter, although choruses remained an integral part of opera, they were seldom if ever used in French plays until the 20th century, when their use both as narrator and as defamiliarizing device was again appreciated, particularly by Jean Cocteau and Jean Anouilh.
Set designer and machinist. LE CID. Five-act verse play by Pierre Corneille, first performed as a tragicomedy at the Marais theater in Paris in January ; slightly revised and republished as a tragedy in ; further revised for republication in One of the most successful plays of the 17th century, it prompted the company to begin the practice of allowing wealthy patrons to sit on the stage during the performances. This ending is susceptible to various interpretations. This ambiguity although modern opinion might consider it a strength was one of several criticisms leveled against the play in the querelle du Cid, which dominated literary discussion and divided informed opinion for the following year.
With its use of a multiple set and problematic relationship with the unities of both time and action, the play retains several features of baroque drama, although its coherence, its concentration on internal conflict rather than external danger, and its poetic qualities point toward the approaching classical period. Feminist writer and intellectual who sees theater as a useful tool in the feminist campaign.
Born in Algeria, she moved to France in and published a series of important theoretical essays. Influenced by Jacques Derrida — , she combines serious philosophical and political thought with a playful style and with inventive development of literary forms. Her more recent works for the theater have become increasingly concerned with ethical and political questions in contemporary history, especially the effects of colonialism, corruption and social injustice.
Supported by Voltaire, she spent some time at his home in Ferney recuperating from illness in and retired from public performance shortly afterward, although she remained active in campaigns to ameliorate the social reputation of her profession and to resist opposition to it from ecclesiastical authorities.
Literary term applied generally to forms of art in which regularity and harmony are valued above rich or varied creativity. In theater history, the term is associated particularly with drama that adheres to the three unities. Dominant French dramatist of the first half of the 20th century. A career diplomat, Claudel traveled to China in , to Brazil in with the composer Darius Milhaud as his secretary and to America in Partage de midi Break of Noon, draws on autobiographical elements, investigating both the guilt of adulterous love and the conflict between a religious vocation and sexual passion.
He was awarded the Prix Ludmilla Tcherina in in recognition of his lifetime contribution to theater. Although often impossible to classify, his works show affinities with both Surrealism and Expressionism: in the latter category, his emotional monologue La Voix humaine The Human Voice achieved success onstage , in a film version by Roberto Rossellini — , and when set as an opera by Francis Poulenc Theorists of drama, especially those working within the classical tradition, have expressed disquiet at the use of coincidence on the grounds that it defies verisimilitude, but dramatists have always known that theater audiences are seldom in practice troubled by such rational preoccupations.
The French national theater company and its home in Paris. Rachel led a renewed vogue for classical tragedy in the middle years of the century. Significant internal reconstruction of the building took place in — During the Franco-Prussian War and the siege of Paris — , the theater could not function normally, although fund-raising performances without costume were held, and the buildings were frequently commandeered for use as hospitals.
Perrin also introduced a system of season tickets. Les Beaux Jours Happy Days in The Salle Richelieu was extensively renovated in — and in Muriel Mayette — has held the post of administrative director since August French term meaning lachrymose or sentimental drama and referring to a genre popular in the 18th century. Succeeding companies at the same venue used the same name and became established as the most significant performers of drama in France. After , under the leadership of Bellerose and with royal patronage, and particularly after their theater building was refurbished in , they reestablished themselves as the leading Paris company and for the first time put on rival productions of plays previously performed at the Marais; when Floridor joined them from that company, Pierre Corneille also gave them the first performances of his new plays.
This definition encompasses a very wide range of tones, from hilarious and grotesque clowning to sophisticated wit.
In both the 19th and 20th centuries, the clear distinction between the tragic and the comic was broken down: Victor Hugo insisted that his drame fused together the sublime and the grotesque, and Absurd Theater similarly drew on extremes of hilarity and comic inventiveness to explore fundamentally serious themes. An Italian theatrical tradition dependent on stock characters, schematized gestures, use of masks or visors and improvisation.
Their performances, although based on a strong central story line Italian canovaccio, French canevas , consisted of separate comic routines for which the Italian word lazzi is also used in French , enabling the actors to incorporate local and contemporaneous references and to respond dynamically to each audience.
Movement promulgating the political engagement of theatrical activity, particularly associated with the period after World War II. A company of actors established in Paris in to perform mystery plays and given official status by Charles VI in Major French stage director of the interwar years. He was also involved in antisemitic politics at the time of the Dreyfus affair — If that play, which seems Shakespearean in its systematic defiance of all the aspects of unity, harmony and concision that were to characterize French classicism, had achieved greater success, the path of 17th-century French drama might have been very different.
Horace and Cinna are Roman tragedies exploring the relationship between politics and personal emotion, while Polyeucte is a martyr play. Following the failure of Pertharite in , he abandoned the theater for almost a decade, devoting himself to religious verse writing, but during that period he revised many of his earlier plays and published them, together with critical and theoretical texts, in a collected edition in Brother of Pierre Corneille and himself a top-ranking dramatist and opera librettist, although posterity has accorded him considerably less status than Pierre.
Like the latter, he produced successful works in many genres, and his tragedy Timocrate , performed at the Marais theater in the presence of the king, was the single most successful play in 17thcentury France. The complexity of his plots, often based on mistaken identity or other misunderstandings, and the sentimentality of his characterization and poetic language, appealed to his contemporaries, who were less concerned than posterity about his lack of originality and the artificiality of many of his situations.
The clothes worn by actors form an integral part of the message received by the spectators. The director and designer have discretion to impose a balance between realism and convention: costumes may reflect the period in which the action of the play is set, the period in which it was first performed or a different period to which the action has been transferred, or they may be purely symbolic.
Seventeenth-century French actors owned their costumes and tended to use them indiscriminately, with at most some symbolic additions—ribbons or patches of ermine—to suggest a specific status or location. Evocation of the ancient world was achieved by the use of togas for male characters. Costume provided an essential ingredient in the Realist and Naturalist theater of the 19th century, dominated by the quest for accuracy and authenticity.
Modern theater generally stresses the symbolism of costume rather than the depiction of any precise period. Pseudonym of Georges Victor Marcel Moinaux — , comic dramatist in the boulevard farce and vaudeville tradition, which he carried into the early 20th century. She gained some notoriety through a particularly gruesome and spectacular suicide scene in Le Sphinx by Octave Feuillet — She retired in to live in the country with the banker Jacques Stern, whom she married in Her brother-in-law, the prolific portrait painter Carolus Duran — , left an impressive painting of her on horseback.
Belgian actor, journalist and dramatist who divided his life between Brussels and Paris. Le Cocu magnifique obtained an international reputation, being directed all over Europe and by Vsevolod Meyerhold — in the Soviet Union. Artistic movement that flourished between and , associated particularly with Pablo Picasso — and Georges Braque — These plays are characterized by the exploration of a somewhat morbid psychology. His thesis plays, exploring philosophical ideas and moral dilemmas in a Naturalist style, also included La Nouvelle Idole The New Idol, , which tackles the moral implications of scientific progress, and Terre inhumaine Inhuman Land, A nihilistic version of Surrealism, associated particularly with Tristan Tzara.
Noted developer of early photography, also distinguished in his day as a scenic artist and stage lighting specialist. They combine witty dialogue with a realistic depiction of the society of the time, poking fun at snobbery and pretentiousness and portraying with cynicism all levels of society, including the peasantry. He also wrote court entertainments and operatic parodies. Prolific popular novelist best known for racy police thrillers published under the pseudonym San Antonio. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson — Stage name of Joseph Jean-Baptiste Albouy — , actor.
Stage name of Catherine Le Clerc du Rozet — , actress. Born Catherine Leclerc, she was both the daughter and the wife of actors: her father Claude Leclerc? Term used to describe the result of any technique, acting style or production device that has the effect of reminding the spectators that what they are witnessing is a performance rather than reality.
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Defamiliarization has its roots in Russian Formalist criticism of the early 20th century, when it was perceived as a function of all art to cast new light on the everyday; in drama it is often seen as having a double function, making the spectators reassess both their conventional lives and the role of theater in society.
She performed at the Gymnase and with Scribe and the actor-director Charles-Gaspard Delestre-Poirson — made it the most successful rival to the royal theater companies at that time. Late in her career she became a supporter of Victorien Sardou, and bought a theater which still bears her name in order to promote his plays. Dramatist, novelist and academic. Dramatist and poet whose lyrics were widely set to music. Prolific author of sentimental novels and melodramas, including Les Deux Orphelines The Two Orphan Girls, , and a dramatization of the popular novel Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours Around the World in Eighty Days, published , stage adaptation performed by Jules Verne — He has also appeared in more than 50 films and television dramas.
Actor, diplomat and dramatist whose works were successful in his lifetime but have been forgotten by posterity. Deutsch is also a prolific translator, particularly of English science fiction. He was opposed to Wagnerism but put forward a new conception of total performance to which painters, musicians and scenario writers all contributed.
Philosopher and author, a major figure in the Enlightenment and the most prominent of the French Encyclopedists. Diderot wrote a further comedy, Estil bon? Is He Good? Is He Evil? Hardouin appears to be partly autobiographical. In the course of his exploits he finds the statue of a Commander whom he has earlier killed; he playfully invites the statue to dine with him, and the play ends spectacularly when the statue drags Dom Juan down to a flaming underworld. Former professor of dramaturgy at the Paris Conservatoire who succeeded Robert Abirached as French national director of theater and spectacle in Stage name of Marie Delaunay — , actress, the illegitimate daughter of members of a touring company.
All speech in drama effectively operates on two levels: the characters address each other, and their remarks are conveyed to or overheard by an audience. Such devices present problems to those theoretical schools of thought that insist on total verisimilitude. Double enunciation is the source of dramatic irony, since the full meaning of any remark is likely to be different in the minds of the onstage interlocutor and of the spectator.
In French as in many languages the basic word for theater, derived from the Greek word for action. The French word drame has a more technical sense, in both the 18th and 19th centuries, to refer to a theatrical genre supported both by Denis Diderot and by the Romantic dramatists Victor Hugo and Alfred de Musset, in which elements of tragedy and comedy are combined to produce a more authentic and realistic representation.
Actor, dramatist and stage director. He built his reputation initially on witty improvisatory dialogues, performed on radio or stage and published under the title Diablogues Duchesnois was less physically attractive but won supporters for her voice and spontaneous delivery. She retired in Dramatist who adapted the plays of William Shakespeare for performance in French.
Because he was not versed in English, he based his version on earlier literary translations and like English dramatists of the 17th and 18th centuries produced plays that were more regular and classical than the originals.
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He insisted on the primacy of text over directorial gimmicks. Early Romantic author most remembered for his novels but also an important dramatist in the period when the influence of William Shakespeare was first being felt. She was a rival of Adrienne Lecouvreur and Mlle Clairon: her own reputation was based on the passionate intensity of her acting. Professional name used by Dora Angela Duncan — , American dancer and choreographer. She worked in Paris from In he returned to journalism and became an influential critic, author and dramatist.
Authorial pseudonym of Marguerite Donnadieu — , author and dramatist. From an Indochinese background, she came to Paris in and began her literary career as a novelist. Le Square , revised , based on her own novel of had more impact as a radio play than onstage. Publicly critical of Alexandre Hardy in , he belonged to the generation of dramatists who heralded the classical period by fostering the introduction of greater regularity.
Stage and professional name used by Alex Martin — , actor, stage director and theater administrator. Although tempted to leave, they feel obliged to remain on this spot, where they are to meet Godot. Their desultory, often meaningless and directionless conversation is interrupted by the arrival, not of Godot but of Pozzo, a theatrical sadist who leads his slave, Lucky, on a long lead. It is not so much a play about waiting, whatever Godot may be taken to represent, but a demonstration of the act of waiting; the characters have more in common with clowns than with representational types, the dialogue is more like the content of a nightmare than a rational discourse.
It is in these ways that En Attendant Godot, like much French drama of the midth century, challenges both the lifestyle of the theater-going classes and their expectations about theater itself. They were characterized by wearing the costume of traditional court jesters and by a light-hearted approach to material, which sometimes brought them into conflict with religious authorities. Stage director. It has been plausibly argued that his influence, replacing to some extent that of Seneca, which had dominated previous French tragic drama, was more decisive than Jansenism in shaping the bleak tragic outlook of Jean Racine.
In France, Vincent van Gogh — conveyed inner turmoil through the swirling brush strokes of such works as The Starry Night , while Henri Matisse — and the Fauvists scandalized the public by their unconventional use of color. Later Expressionist painters, such as Emil Nolde — , Georges Rouault — and Paul Klee — , were increasingly disenchanted with bourgeois materialism, and it was this attitude that allied them with other art forms, including literature, drama and opera.
Equivoques de la pudeur - Librairie Droz
Although Expressionism in literature is primarily associated with Germany, whereas the French reaction against Realism is found in Symbolism, the creation and production of French drama in the first three decades of the 20th century were significantly influenced by the fiction of Franz Kafka — , the operas of Alban Berg — and the dramas of August Strindberg — and Gerhart Hauptmann — , all of which depicted a world in which the human spirit had been distorted by industrialization, bureaucracy and mechanization.
Belgian dramatist and translator. A verse tale, generally earthy and satirical. This popular form balanced the longer and more grandiloquent epic poems that dominated medieval French literature. Naturalist dramatist. After unsuccessful careers as a soldier and as a provincial actor, he devoted himself to writing and won a prize at the Jeux Floraux de Toulouse. French name for one of the recurrent stock characters in comedy, a braggart soldier who is in reality an inept coward but who boasts of military and amorous exploits.
Comic drama usually characterized by suggestive crudity and whimsical wit. With its origins in the fabliau, it was established as a distinct dramatic genre in medieval times, associated with La Basoche and Les Enfants sans souci. The dialogue was characterized by eloquence and wit, and the play as a whole directed biting satire against current behavior and social or political authority.
In the classical period, farce was considered a style of acting rather than a genre, associated particularly with Gros-Guillaume, Gaultier-Garguille, Jodelet, Tabarin and Turlupin. Dramatist, librettist and theater director. Stage name of Edwige Caroline Cunati — , actress. Best known author of boulevard farces. Dramatist and journalist. Stage name of Josias de Soulas, sieur de Primefosse — , actor. His daughter married the author Antoine de Montfleury in Author and politician. These events divided acting communities between those who supported the need for reform of feudal abuses and those who remained loyal to an aristocracy that had provided patronage.
An artistic and poetic movement started in Italy by Filippo Marinetti — and associated with Dadaism. Futurist artists, excited by the promise of the early 20th century, celebrated the mechanization and motion of city life and sought to abolish the past. Ornate theater building in central Paris built in for performances of opera, musicals and ballet. In — it was redesigned and refurbished as a center for the performance of contemporary music and digital art. Humanist scholar, poet and dramatist who established the forms of tragedy and tragicomedy in the preclassical period.
A lawyer by profession, he wrote tragedies in imitation of Seneca, most notably Hippolyte and MarcAntoine , tragedies on Greek models, La Troade The Trojan Women, and Antigone , a tragicomedy, Bradamante , and a biblical tragedy, Les Juives The Jewish Women, , generally regarded as his masterpiece. All are characterized by eloquent lyricism, as victims lament their misfortunes, the chorus explains and comments on the action, and all characters punctuate their speeches with maxims, rhetorical devices and moral discussions, but not without a sense of the dramatic, through which Garnier conveyed a sense of fatality and tragic irony.
The death of his anarchist father in the course of a political demonstration no doubt consolidated his own political convictions, but it was always through writing that he sought to achieve political change. Le Labyrinthe, dealing with the political problems of Northern Ireland, was performed at the Avignon Festival in From , he was closely associated with Gros-Guillaume and Turlupin, and this trio dominated the Paris stage until He also had a reputation as a witty burlesque author.
Professional pseudonym of Firmin Tonnerre — , actor and stage director. He was particularly associated with the early work of Romain Rolland. In all these roles his object was to modernize theatrical activities and bring them to a wider public. The last play was written in and performed in German in Munich and Berlin and in English in London directed by Peter Brook before its first performances in French. He transferred in to the Palais-Royal, where he continued working in a similar repertoire until He supported Pierre Lafon against the ageing Talma, and Mlle George against Mlle Duchesnois, and resisted the increasing influence on early Romantic drama of Shakespearean and German models.
One of the literary giants of the French 20th century, although his involvement with theater was limited. His early works reflect the influence of Symbolism, his novels and journals contain a somewhat introverted and at times tortured reflection on the nature of humanity, on religion and on sexuality, and his output as a whole is marked by its confessional tone and its constant questioning of literary and social conventions.
He won the Nobel Prize for literature in Writer, best known as novelist, although he also wrote poems and plays. Dramatist in the classical school of the interwar period, particularly associated with Louis Jouvet. A dramatist of ideas, he wrote intense and linguistically sophisticated comedies incorporating serious political debates, although his reputation has become somewhat tarnished due to an association with rather dated preciosity. Although many of them explore a sense of fatality, and he was a perceptive critic of Racinian tragedy, he is inclined to challenge blind fatalism in his characters rather than conniving with their sense of helplessness.
Giraudoux also wrote novels and worked as a diplomat and civil servant. Brothers whose strongly Naturalist literary work was published under their joint names. After a number of youthful attempts at drama and vaudeville, they concentrated mainly on fiction, social history and art criticism. In , Edmond tried in vain to persuade Sarah Bernhardt to appear in his adaptation of his novel La Faustin, which is about an actress. He was also an operatic librettist and published a two-volume journal. Painter and illustrator whose use of the human body as an art object makes his work a point of intersection between art, dance and drama.
French operatic composer, conductor and church organist. After World War II, the theater also staged detective thrillers and science fiction dramas until it closed in His early works were judged too ornate by Paris audiences, so like Jean-Baptiste Lully in the previous century he imitated the prosody of French classical acting to combine more effectively Italianate melody with French diction.
Poet and dramatist, although more distinguished in his own day as a medical doctor. As a convert to Protestantism, he spent much of his life in exile. Poet and dramatist. His name first appears in legal documents as leader of a troupe of actors in Paris in He also used the stage name La Fleur, probably to distinguish his work in more serious genres from his principal reputation as a farceur.
From , he was closely associated with Gaultier-Garguille and Turlupin, and this trio dominated the Paris stage until Theater building and acting company in Paris. Actor, a member of the Parisian Marais company from about Although he signed a fresh fiveyear contract with Bellerose in , he broke it to pursue a medical career. Son of Lucien Guitry, and an even more famous boulevard and later film actor than his father.
Theater building and company in Paris, founded in , and a major center for social drama under the Realist director Lemoine-Montigny during the Second Empire. She had previously performed in both Algiers and Cairo. She obtained a minor reputation as a singer in operetta before going on to make her name in social dramas such as those by Georges Ohnet and an adaptation of Sapho by the popular Realist novelist Alphonse Daudet — Inspired by Jean-Paul Sartre and Bertolt Brecht, he sought to use theater as a medium for debate and social change and acknowledged also the influence of the verbal dexterity of Jacques Audiberti.
Prolific dramatist, librettist and author of vaudevilles, mostly in collaboration with Henri Meilhac. Prolific playwright who furnished the staple repertoire of Paris theater in the early 17th century. The first author to make writing plays in French a professional career, he wrote in a variety of genres—tragedy, tragicomedy, pastorale and comedy—all characterized by irregularity and coarseness and using either mythological or romantic subjects. There is some evidence that he may also have been an actor. His resistance to the imposition of formal rules for regular tragedy was marked by his continuing depiction of violence, his use of trivial and nonstandard vocabulary, and his mixing of genres; he defended these practices in his polemical preface to Le Ravissement de Proserpine The Abduction of Persephone.
Historian and poet who wrote a small number of unsuccessful tragedies and comedies. The play was almost designed to provoke conservative elements in the audience, with unconventional metrical features in the verse, undignified behavior from regal characters, extravagant sets and a systematic undermining of the unities. The resulting controversy triggered the bataille de Hernani. The resulting controversy probably did little to change the minds or tastes of either party but ensured the ongoing interest of the public in new drama. Dramatist, novelist, professional diplomat and journalist.
French term for a ham actor or mountebank. Swiss composer, brought up in Le Havre and largely resident in Paris. A system of social conventions, based on reason, good taste and compromise, that dominated polite society in 17th-century France and had a significant influence on what was considered acceptable in theater. Impresario, stage and film actor and stage director. Although some alterations to the exterior of the building were authorized in , financial difficulties prevented any major improvements to the auditorium.
Renovation and modernization of the building eventually took place in , using the recently refurbished Marais as a model. The theater was directed from until by Marcel Pinard? Romantic poet, novelist and dramatist whose work dominated 19th-century France. The invention on the spot, properly of text, but by extension of gesture, facial expression or other action.
Techniques of improvisation are very widely used in the training of both actors and directors, and the advance preparation of almost all performances will involve experiments in which actors improvise delivery and action and may suggest enhancements to a given text. In French theater in particular, the widespread use of rhyming verse in serious plays, and the slickness of timing associated with the comic tradition, make most productions reliant on predictable and well-rehearsed effects. Leading exponent of Absurd Theater. Romanian by birth, with a French mother, he was largely educated in France although this process was interrupted by World War I and by the divorce of his parents in and wrote consistently in French.
He settled definitively in France in and was naturalized after the war. His humor, with its celebration of the irrational, and the nightmarish quality of his scenarios, often recalls Surrealism. He has in this way put popular music at the disposal of officialdom for public events such as the opening of the Winter Olympics and the centenary of the Eiffel Tower. Innovative dramatist whose work pushed to an extreme the Symbolist tendency to dehumanize character and who is seen as a forerunner of Surrealism.
Jarry also wrote science fiction. Monsieur Orgon wishes his daughter Silvia to marry Dorante but indulgently respects her desire to get to know the young man before entering into a firm commitment. Silvia accordingly changes positions with her maidservant Lisette in order to observe her suitor. This quadruple disguise leads to a series of comic scenes in which the real servants relish their ability to seduce their supposed masters and the real masters are astounded by the sensitivity of the supposed servants.
The tone changes slightly in the final act when Silvia, having already learned the true situation, tests Dorante by provoking him to declare his love while still believing her to be a maidservant, but all is finally revealed and the two couples are united. The role of Dorante was probably created by the then-leader of the Italian troupe, Jean-Antoine Romagnesi — , those of Mario and Silvia by the husband-and-wife team of Joseph Baletti?
Arlequin was played by Thomaso-Antonio Vicentini — He was one of the earliest proponents of a move toward a more natural acting style, which after the Romantic period led to Realism and Naturalism in the theater. Stage name of Julien Bedeau c— , celebrated comic actor, distinguished in his day by very heavy make-up and by his nasal intonation.
Dramatist and poet who was the first Frenchman to apply the principles of Renaissance humanist thought to dramatic composition. He aimed at creating a classical drama in contrast to the morality plays and soties that then occupied the French stage. His plays have historical rather than intrinsic value. Each act ends with a chorus that moralizes on such subjects as the inconstancy of fortune and the judgment of heaven on human pride.
Most significant French actor and director of the midth century. Dramatist whose tragedy Sylla , performed by Talma, was the most successful new work of the neoclassical period that preceded the introduction of Romantic drama. Belgian-born dramatist and journalist of Polish-Jewish extraction whose father perished in Auschwitz. Failing to achieve theatrical recognition in Belgium, Kalisky moved to Corsica in before settling in Paris in Algerian poet, novelist and dramatist whose works are published under the pseudonym Kateb Yacine.
He was a militant nationalist who nevertheless remained attached to the French cultural and literary heritage and wrote in French until the late s. Paolo Sarpi August 14, January 15, was an Italian patriot, scholar, A scarce collection of sermons on the mysteries of the Virgin Mary. In French. A very scarce military and historical pamphlet. An early eighteenth century edition of Bouhours' dialogues. Bound in leather with gilt decoration.
In the original French. With an engraved frontispiece and red and black title page. Bound in the original leather with gilt lettering and decoration. A very important work, of which only An autobiographical account of the life of Jean Franois Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de Retz, told through his own memoirs. During the last ten years of his life, Retz wrote his Memoirs, which go up to the year They are addressed in Complete in two volumes.
With an itinerary, and six fold-out maps to volume I, and eight fold-out maps to volume II. The volumes are useful equally to the French A uniformly-bound set of works from Jean Rousset, detailing European laws after the Treaty of Utrecht. Bound in calf leather with gilt lettering and spine decoration. This work is written in the French. Leather bound copy of The catechism of the Council of Trent.
New translation, fourth edition. The Catechism of the Council of Trent or Roman Catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the Collated complete. Complete in two volumes A well-preserved copy of this French work on witness evidence in civil matters from M. Fourth edition. With decorative head-and-tail pieces. Two volumes in one in the French language. The Duchat Jacob Formey had an extensively annotated library from which these remarks on history Complete in Two Volumes. Two Volumes bound as One. Containing additional information, as well as corrections to the original text.
In need of a sympathetic binding, and priced accordingly. Bound in leather with gilt lettering Full calf leather binding with marbled end papers and attractive head and tail pieces. Jacques-Benigne Bossuet September 27, - April 12, was a French bishop, theologian, and renowned pulpit orator and court preacher. The Abbe Jean-Baptiste Ladvocat January - December a Hebrew scholar and a man of letters who became a polygraph during his trips abroad. He composed two Small Dictionaries: Dictionnaire gographique, and the Dictionnaire A beautiful French volume describing revolution in England since the start of Monarchical reign.
New edition printed forty-seven years after the original Features several plates depicting English monarchs and political figures. Illustrated with an engraved plate and two engraved vignettes. Collated, missing the final eight pages. It played for the first time in the private theater of the Hotel de la Duchesse de Villeroy in An uncommon copy of J. Morand's treatise on fires. About the thermal properties of coal and the heating and ventilation of houses.
Jean Franois Clment Morand Paris taught anatomy and obstetrics Concernant la Rgie du Droit sur les Cartes. Published by the Royal printer in Paris. A collection of edicts, declarations, Includes a chapter that translates as 'The Illness that God Intends'. Also features various tables for reference. A scarce edition of Raynal's famous Histoire Philosophique et Politique. Bound in leather with gilt lettering and decoration. With Four Maps. A collection of educational lecutres and lessons from French philosopher and epistemologist Etienne Bonnot de Condillac.
De Condillac became a tutor at the court of Parma, and his Cours d'Etudes were written for the Franoise Bertaut de Motteville c. A copy of Alletz's popular agricultural reference book. Derniere edition. Alletz spent some years living The writings are on several aspects of society such as God, Man, Science, A bright, scarce set of the Works of Madame Riccoboni. Bound in half leather and marbled paper-covered boards, with gilt lettering and decoration.
One of Two Volumes. Around for both volumes. A scarce first edition of this work by the French inventor of pasigraphy, written during the year of the French Revolution. First Edition. Presumed first. A scarce edition of this picaresque novel by Alaine-Rene Lesage. Bookplate of George Groves to front pastedowns. With engraved frontispieces to each volume. Gil Blas is related to Lesage's play Turcaret A comprehensive dictionary of engravers In French.
Containing the main engravers, and a catalogue of their best works, from the beginning to the present day . Arranged chronologically, and divided by school. Tome premier A French description of the series of erotic engraved plates, depicting pairs of lovers in different positions of intercourse. The plates depict couples Signed by Mercier. Prior to this translation A description of the different nervous disorders of the sexes, and their treatments, written in French. Sixth edition. Published whilst the author was in Switzerland, having fled France after the Revolution. The Georgics A scarce edition of this mathematics textbook intended for military usage.
This is the first of two parts; though capable of standing alone, which purports to cover 'elements of arithmetic' - in fact containing much more material Second edition. With notes on grammar and pronunciation. Two volumes of this work aimed at children. Title pages attribute authorship Impremees sur le Manuscrit autographie de l'Auteur'.
Includes the publishers signature opposite the title page which was Volume III of a three part set. Felix Vicq d'Azyr 23 April - 20 June was a French physician and anatomist, the originator of comparative anatomy and Leatherbound volume. Lindley Murray 7 June 16 January , grammarian, was born in a house near his father's mill, just north of Harper Tavern in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, 18 miles northeast of Harrisburg.
He was the The first two volumes of Christoph Wilhelm von Kochs survey of political upheaval in Europe since the Roman Empire, the first edition. In the s Koch was a successful and popular teacher at the University of Strasbourg. Featuring an engraved portrait frontispiece. Includes the funeral orations of Henriette-Marie de France, Pome en cinq chants, Suivie Du Premier Navigatuer. Illustrated with eight engraved plates.
Solomon Gessner - was a Swiss A medical study on the diseases which affect women at 'the critcal age' menopause by medical student E. With a second dissertation bound to the rear, entitled "L'Imagination des Femmes enceintes contribue A collection of the plays of Voltaire. An illustrated History of France. The third volume only. Illustrated, with seven full page plates of historical scenes and artefacts. A nineteenth-century copy of the official dictionary of the French language. In a lovely patinated leather binding. A smart set. Fifth edition. A collection of the fables of L.
With an index in English to the rear. An early edition of de Jouy's collected famous satirical sketches. Lucien Bonaparte's epic poem on the life and reign of Charlemagne. A nineteenth-century copy of Fenelon's best-known work, The Adventures of Telemachus, written to fill the gap in Homer's Odyssey.
Leather bound with paper covered boards. A first edition, first printing, printed in French but in London. An English edition was published later in the year by the same publishers An English translation of the second edition of Conversations d'Emilie, which was given the award for most useful publication of by the French Academy. With an engraved frontispiece. A fifteen volume set of the satirical works of manners by Etienne de Jouy.
Works not issued as a set by publisher but uniformly bound. Contains various mixed editions of the 'L'Hermite' works by Etienne de Jouy under the collected titles Featuring illustrations of famous Greek figures throughout, this book was originally written as a book for juvenile students of Greek history A collection of essays on morality in literature, including the place of narration, dialogue, descriptions and more.
Second edition As almost the father of a kind of literature An early nineteenth-century historical work from Francois Clement on the dating of historical items and monuments. A very scarce genealogical dictionary of the origins of the French nobility. Revealing the true "ducs, marquis, comtes vicomtes et barons". With a preface to each volume by Nicholas Viton de St.
Historical Dictionary of French Theater
Allais, a French genealogist and A scarce first edition of this novel by Victor Ducange. Victor Ducange was a French novelist and playwright who produced over 60 novels and other works in his lifetime. A history of Italy with many beautiful engravings. Deuxieme edition. This interesting work charts the history of Italy from the Barbarian invasions to the time of publication in This is an interesting Six pamphlets containing French and Italian legal reports and records.
Morgan was one of the most vivid An uncommon edition of this French physics volumeby Francouis Sulpice Beudant. Jean-Nicolas Bouilly was a French playwright, librettist and children's writer. He was a politician of the French Revolution but was best It has no title page and no text - and we have been unable to locate any other copy. Whether there was ever an associated text remains to be seen: the plates may well have been available as a visual study reference in association with the first-year lectures given by Fernand?
Bound in half red leather over marbled boards with titles in gilt on a leather spine label, and heavily decorated gilt spine. Very good condition with some bumping to the leather and a little rubbing to the marbled paper. Internally endpapers are foxed and have an owner inscription dated , repeated on the title page, but this time dated Pages are lightly toned, but otherwise clean. Text in French. Small octavo, Miniature book, 5. Red silk eps, all edges gilt. Illustrated with three tiny engraved plates. The book is in very good condition, with the pile worn on the spine velvet and the title on the top board a little rubbed.
The silk eps are a trifle dusty around their edges. Pages are evenly lightly age-toned, but supple and intact. The text pages are clean and are tight in their binding. All text pages are printed within a decorative border. Plates are clean and bright. These tiny prayer books were intended for children coming up to their first communion. One quarter Morocco leather binding of an interesting topical book published by JB Bailliere, Paris Just a little wear on cover, and has some spotting at beginning of book and end of book.
And a little bit here and there, but mainly clean. The pages have not been pressed back. So I presume it has not been read. And will arrive to you safely. Calligraphic or stencilled title and captions. Size: approx. Undated but c The page is finely hand-coloured and heightened with silver paint. The calligraphic titling also appears to be done by hand or stencil. Alphonse Daudet. Major defects will be described. Poor - Really bad and possibly seriously incomplete. Fair - As with good only above but with other faults. Here for sale is a fantastic antique book in French by Henry Greville, Dosia.
Publised in , half leather binding with wear to the spine. Binding is tight. Keep in Touch.
Shows signs of wear and tear as it is old and has been used, but only adds to its character. Hector Malot. Marie Par Les Pretres. Fourth Edition. Histoire de la Republique d'Angleterre et de Cromwell. The letter could be to either Dorothy's father Charles Tennant, who would have paid for her education in Paris, or to one of Dorothy's siblings. This is an antique leather bound book. It is a religious book and written in French. Arnaud Berquin.
The most famous work of children's author Arnaud Berquin. Berquin did not want his work to contain fairy tales or imaginative literature. L'ami Des Enfants. In original French. In a half calf binding. G Eugene Fasnacht Editor. Contes Et Nouvelles. Alphonse Karr. A collection of short stories by Alphonse Karr. Les Diaboliques. It is considered D'Aurevilly's masterpiece. Barbey D'Aurevilly.
An attractive edition of this collection of short stories.
Related La Chute des vierges (érotique) (French Edition)
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