Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The city must completely disappear from the surface of the earth and serve only as a transport station for the Wehrmacht. No stone can remain standing. Every building must be razed to its foundation. Warsaw has to be pacified, that is, razed to the ground. Main article: Pabst Plan. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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John's Cathedral Jesuit Church St. Casimir's Church St.
Hyacinth's Church St. Warsaw Old Town marketplace, Warszawa: "Interpress" Publishers. Biuletyn IPN. Archived from the original PDF on December 17, Berliner Zeitung. Retrieved December 16, Retrieved July 14, Gessner, "For over two months Retrieved March 16, FYI France. Retrieved February 17, Welcome to Warsaw. Archived from the original on February 4, Archived from the original PDF on March 30, Retrieved September 11, Retrieved August 1, Retrieved August 21, Problemy: organ Towarzystwa Wiedzy Powszechnej.
Burning books and leveling libraries: extremist violence and cultural destruction. Where would it happen? Core parts of the Internet have been digitally assaulted before —and there's no reason to believe it won't happen again.
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The first step on this trip is mental. We need to begin by no longer treating the Internet like a ghost. It's made of more metal, plastic, and fiber than you can fathom—and it's spread across the whole world, a monster machine that hugs the entire globe. So we hunted down the web's physical foundation, across land and sea, to pinpoint exactly what you'd need to take out. It turns out, Anonymous' threat isn't insane—just the way they talked about doing it.
You can't destroy a signal while using it; the Internet's destruction requires analog violence, not some beefed up DDoS strike. We always think of threats agains the Internet as cyberwarfare or some abstraction, virtual to the point of meaningless. But this is mostly bluster and software-mongering.
Notre-Dame: Massive fire ravages Paris cathedral
The enormous, invisible truth of the Internet is that it's enormously strong. There's no main switch, no self-destruct button, no wire to be snipped for an easy blackout. The Internet, through a mix of chaotic serendipity and brilliant planning, is redundant to the point of near invincibility.
Like a fiber optic hydra, you can hack off great expanses of it, and the thing will keep chugging. It's smart—almost self—sustaining, able to repair and reroute its paths from one continent and country to another, making up detours on the fly. This happens from time to time. Alan Mauldin, an expert with Internet infrastructure analysis firm TeleGeography, rattles off a few recent instances:. It impaired connectivity for some customers in a few Eastern African countries, but most folks were smart enough to have capacity on multiple cables on both coasts. There have been many cases of multiple cables damaged in the Med.
The Japanese tsunami last year damaged a lot of cables - yet, the Internet connectivity to Japan was relatively unaffected due to multiple restoration options. But for all its durability, the Internet isn't immortal. It's strong because it was built to be strong. And because it was built, like you'd build a monument or bench, it can be destroyed. Just like every other physical thing on the planet.
We think of it as a crystal cloud, an inexorable force of the cosmos that runs on its own, as susceptible to destruction as gravity. But let's get one thing straight: With enough effort, you could destroy the internet as thoroughly as a tree chopped straight through. The thousand-headed beast can be decapitated in full, not just hindering it, but slaying it.
You just need to know where to start slicing. Forget wireless. The Internet exists because of hundreds of thousands of miles of thick, old fashioned cables. Hundreds upon hundreds of undersea, intercontinental cable lines, cross-crossing around the world, are what put your tweets onto a monitor in Pakistan. As mentioned, the cables are wired to back each other up—when one fails, another picks up the slack.
But hey—what if you snipped them all? The Internet is a network of networks. The laptops in your house, the desktops in your office, a server farm in Moscow—they're all wrangled together by these byzantine cable connections. Kill the connections, and the networks can't speak across oceans. The Internet is instantly fractured. Cables 2. Open www. Don't take TeleGeography's word for it—they're aggregating data given out freely. Feel free to ask the FCC , which mandates a publicly available license for every single cable that touches our shores.
These servers, like much of the internet's vulnerable innards, are an "open secret," explains Andrew Blum, author of Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet. Here's the latest list from their end:. The cables, as with anything underwater, come straight out of the water, often just lying atop a beach like this one. They're sometimes disguised or partially buried. But sometimes they're just lying out on the sand like an abandoned boogie board. We asked the burly crew at Best Made, crafter of damn-fine axes, what they'd recommend for cutting through the Internet's backbone, and how much elbow grease it'd take.
In the final weeks of battle, more than 5, sites were destroyed. The iconic Great Mosque of al-Nuri was also destroyed. The UN's initial satellite analysis suggests housing has been the most heavily hit, with at least 8, residential buildings severely damaged or completely destroyed, most of them in the Old City. This figure is sure to increase when comprehensive damage assessments are conducted on the ground. Coalition air strikes also destroyed all bridges linking the east and west of the city across the Tigris river, with the aim of limiting the jihadists' ability to resupply or reinforce their positions in the east.
The area was the largest health facility in the Nineveh governorate, housing several hospitals, a medical school and laboratories. In the last weeks of the battle to liberate the city from IS, the Old City in particular was hit hard. IS forces were pushed back into the densely built-up area after being encircled by pro-Iraqi government forces. When they were finally able to emerge, many were malnourished, injured and traumatised. Amira, aged 10, was among them. After mortar fire hit her house, injuring her legs and killing her mother, she was left alone.
With her father gone, trying to escape with her sisters and younger brother, Amira remained where she fell for three days. Satellite imagery suggests that more than 5, of the 16, residential buildings in the Old City - about one in three - have been severely damaged or completely destroyed. An estimated homes were destroyed in the final weeks of the offensive. The mosque was Mosul's most famous landmark. It was blown up by IS in June , according to Iraqi forces. IS claimed the mosque was destroyed in a US air raid, but there was no evidence of this.
It finally succumbed on 22 June The last UN estimate in January put the figure at 2,, but since then Amnesty International has said 5, have been killed by air strikes alone. Meanwhile, a Kurdish intelligence report revealed to the Independent newspaper claims as many as 40, have lost their lives.
What we know about the fire
But with bodies still being recovered, the full death toll may not be known for some time. In addition, one million civilians have left the city - about half the pre-war population - since the beginning of the Mosul offensive last October, according to UN estimates. More than half are children and about , are from western Mosul, the area worst affected by the battle. By the beginning of August, more than , were still regarded as displaced by the International Organization for Migration IOM , more than half of those housed in camps or emergency sites.
Others have returned to the city, are renting elsewhere, staying with friends or families or living in war-damaged buildings. The most significant exodus from the city was during the last months of the offensive. In the eight months from mid-October last year to the middle of June, 7, families fled their homes in Mosul, according to IOM figures.
Destruction of Warsaw - Wikipedia
In the month following, that figure grew to more than , families - equivalent to a city the size of San Francisco. The number now stands at almost , However, the recent large rise is, in part, down to the IOM merging its figures with those from local groups after the city became safer to enter. More than , families remain displaced within Mosul itself. The population of the east of the city has doubled, according to UN partner organisations, with families from western Mosul choosing to move in with relatives or friends in the east, rather than move to displacement camps.
Among those to make this move was Jumana Najim Abdullah, a year-old hairdresser, who fled the fighting in the west to stay with family in the east. Jumana, a divorced mother, was banned from practicing her trade under IS rule, but managed to earn some money by cutting the hair of known and trusted clients within the safety of their homes. Now, with the militants gone, she has moved into a rented apartment and started her own business, Jumana Salon.
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