The politically active author's work included avant-garde dramas, philosophical crime novels, and macabre satire. The family moved to Bern in In , he decided to become an author and dramatist and dropped his academic career. In —46, he wrote his first play It Is Written.
On 11 October , he married the actress Lotti Geissler]. She died on 16 January Next to Brecht, he has been called its "most original theorist". When he was 26, his first play, It Is Written , premiered to great controversy. The story of the play revolves around a battle between a sensation-craving cynic and a religious fanatic who takes scripture literally, all of this taking place while the city they live in is under siege.
The play's opening night in April , caused fights and protests in the audience. His first major success was the play Romulus the Great. Papa Pio Sesto pontefice massimo da fra Paolino da S. Abridged edition of a Romanian 1st edition, titled Getica. O protoistorie a Dacia [Getica. A Proto—history of Dacia], of Pippidi, D. Festsammlung zum Geburtstag, edited by Helmuth Frisch, Bochum: N. Klaproth, Paris: Merlin, 2 vols. Propp, Vladimir Iakovlevich, , Istoricheskie korni volshebnoi skazki, Leningrad.
Vasili V. Radlov, , Aus Sibirien, Leipzig, 2 vols. Vasiliev, Vasili P. Reprinted New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Handbuch der Religionsgeschichte, Vienna: Herder Verlag, vol. Riazanovski, T. Reprint of , Delhi. Rozenberg, Otto O. Anton von Schiefner and from the German by W. Ralston, London. Schindler, Bruno [and Marmorestein, A. In Honour of Haham Dr. Gaster 80th Birthday Gaster Anniversary Volume. Streclyn, Stefan, and Reychman, Jan ed. Studii critice [The History of Romanian Philology.
With special regard to the last decades, —95], forword by B. Hasdeu, 2nd edition, Bucharest: Socec. Researches into the Field of Folk Literature], Bucharest. Introducere, vol. Vocabularul 1. Vorbe populare.
VIAF ID: 22220131 (Personal)
Vorbe istorice [The Oriental Influence on Romanian language and culture], 2 vols. Slovenci in neevropske kulture [The Call of the Distant Worlds. From Z. Pluchart and co. Vakarelski, Christo, , Bulgarische Volkskunde, Berlin. Manual pentru Institutele teologice [History of Religions.
Verkovitsh, Et. Bucharest: R. Romania Academy Publishing House. Antohi, Sorin, ed. Religion, Fiction, and History. Essays in Memory of Ioan Petru Culianu, 2 vols. Bucharest: Nemira. The Man and the work]. Iasi—Bucharest: Polirom. Iz fondov Muzea istorii Buryatii im. Badmazhapov, Tsyren—Bazar, ed. Balcerowicz, Piotr, and Mejor, Marek eds. Ancient Indian Religion], Warsaw. Bogdanov, B. Mircea Eliade. Assisi: Cittadella Editrice, The correspondence Eliade—Culianu], ed.
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Historical Interpretation of Archaeology, Historia Eizelchriften vol. Georgieva, R. Jahrtausend v. Greimas, Algirdas J. French and Romanian translations available. La vision de G. Jablokov, I. Kitov, G. Lazova, Ts. Litvinsky, Boris I. Lobazova, O. Indian edition New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Nacev—Skomal, S. Stavskij, Boris I. Irula Lore.
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Texts and Translations, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Xb, Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica. Dubjanskij eds. Neveleva, Ya. Vassilkov et al. A Dictionary], Moskva: Respublika, pp. Alexandrescu, Vlad, Geertz, Randi R. Warne eds. Bell, Imogen, ed. Lopez, jr. Bloch, Jules, , review of C. Biale, David, , ed. Bivar, A.
Bongard—Levin, Gregory M. Bonnet, Corinne, ed. A Life Devoted to the Humanities, Studies in the history of religions. Numen Bookseries vol. Brockington, Mary, and Schreiner, Peter eds. Brower, Daniel R. Lazzerini eds. Burstein, Sona R. Neue Pfade in der Religions—wissenschaft. Second Edition, vol. The Panegyric of Peter the Great It is problematic to differentiate between her literary and non-literary language, because she uses poetic metaphors across different modes of writing. The idea of support evokes a cause and effect scenario where a physical force from one direction is countered with an opposite force of equal strength.
The two forces cancel each other out. When physical support counters the force of the burden, it helps the entity to stay upright. Staying upright can be read as a therapeutic effect of poetry because of the common metaphorical association of health with being in an upright position unless you are on the gallows! Man kann sie ganz, wortgenau und lautlos aufsagen. The subject and the self become separate entities, since the subject can physically manipulate the self as an object.
Talmy observes that the subject and the self are commonly construed as two distinct entities the metaphorical conceptualisation of the psyche through the vehicle of force dynamics relies on the imaginary divide between the mind and the body,22 as well as on the construal of the subject and the self as independent of each other.
Lakoff and Johnson discuss the figurative nature of the split between the subject and the self. The silent reading of a poem to oneself secures the integrity of the self and guarantees its support. These objects can be used for support and keeping oneself under control. While support implies the application of force outwards from the subject to counter external forces , having control over the self indicates the use of force in the opposite direction to contain internal pressure.
The author locates support in the container of the mind, which makes it possible that the physical force providing support is also directed inwards to keep in check deleterious emotions and feelings as well as to prevent the possible disintegration of the self under the conditions of subjugation. The oppressed individual either withstands this burden or is crushed under its weight. Loss of identity is a key motif in concentration camp literature,29 and here the self could be regarded as the identity of the subject who cannot afford to keep it, as it becomes a heavy burden in the camp.
Poetry writing is understood as a survival activity which enables the person to withstand the alienating force of oppression. Gerd Kadelbach, Frankfurt a. She explains how poems helped people cope with fear, and evokes the trope of force to make sense of poetry. Poems acquire agency and manipulate fear as an object that can be put into words. Andrew Ortony, Cambridge , pp.
In meinem Kopf haben sie sich viele Jahre gesprochen und gesungen. The songs provide lightness, whereby the contradiction of their capacity both to enable lightness and to recognise the existence of harm becomes a productive conflict which generates further associations and allows the author to represent the complex therapeutic impact of art. She is appalled when she finds out that they knew only party poems and have never learnt poetry free from ideology and propaganda.
Gedichte, ed. While writing cannot protect the writer from the outside, it exerts a counterforce directed inside which protects the writer from her fear.
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Fear becomes an inner force directed outwards and capable of causing damage. The receipts in the book include the weight rubric, but the wholesale scale is incommensurate with the meagre amounts of everyday shopping. Aber er suchte Halt in dieser Praktik, die seinen Niedergang dokumentierte.
The image of force is implied by the discrepancy between the weight indicated in the receipt-book and the possible weight of retail shopping. The discrepancy between the weights metaphorically rationalises the ultimate failure of writing to save the grandfather: the counterforce is not strong enough to prevent the fall and provide support. But writing still allows some degree of resistance and documents the downfall. The grandfather can keep his dignity via writing.
Because the grandfather writes down everyday purchases, he daily finds support for his dignity and puts up resistance to subjugation.
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