It is unknown how many of the Moriscos complied with the decree and destroyed their own Arabic books and how many kept them in defiance of the King's decree; the decree is known to have triggered one of the largest Morisco Revolts . In Pasquale Vassallo, a Maltese Dominican friar , wrote a collection of songs, of the kind known as "canczuni", in Italian and Maltese. The poems fell into the hands of other Dominican friars who denounced him for writing "obscene literature". At the order of the Inquisition in the poems were burned for this allegedly 'obscene' content.
With the 16th-century extension of the Portuguese Empire to India and Ceylon, the staunchly Catholic colonizers were hostile to Muslims they found living there. An aspect of this was a Portuguese hostility to and destruction of writings in the Arwi language, a type of Tamil with many Arabic words, written in a variety of the Arabic script and used by local Muslims.
Much of Arwi cultural heritage was thus destroyed, though the precise extent of the destruction might never be known. The Florentine Codex itself was for centuries afterwards only known in heavily censored versions. The Bibliotheca Palatina , most important library of the German Renaissance , greatly suffered, many books being torn up by rampaging soldiers or "dispersed among private hands".
Fortunately, Von Tilly and his employer, Maximilian of Bavaria , intervened to confiscate the remaining manuscripts and present them to Pope Gregory XV — their transfer from Protestant custody to a Catholic one saving them from destruction. Martin Luther 's German translation of the Bible was burned in Catholic-dominated parts of Germany in , by order of the Pope.
The book An Examination of the Traditions of the Pharisees , written by the dissident Jewish intellectual Uriel da Costa , was burned in public by joint action of the Amsterdam Jewish Community and the city's Protestant-dominated City Council. The book, which questioned the fundamental idea of the immortality of the soul , was considered heretical by the Jewish community, which excommunicated him, and was arrested by the Dutch authorities as a public enemy to religion.
The theologian and scientist Marco Antonio de Dominis came in into conflict with the Inquisition in Rome and was declared "a relapsed heretic ". He died in prison, which did not end his trial. On December 21, his body was burned together with his works. Sixty identified printed books, pamphlets and broadsheets and 3 newsbooks were ordered to be burned during this turbulent period, spanning the English Civil War and Oliver Cromwell 's rule.
As noted by Jonathan Israel , the Dutch Republic was more tolerant than other 17th Century states, allowing a wide range of religious groups to practice more or less freely and openly disseminate their views. However, the dominant Calvinist Church drew the line at Socinian and Anti-Trinitarian doctrines which were deemed to "undermine the very foundations of Christianity". In the late s and s, Polish and German holders of such views arrived in the Netherlands as refugees from persecution in Poland and Brandenburg.
Dutch authorities made an effort to stop them spreading their theological writings, by arrests and fines as well as book-burning. For example, in , the burgomasters at Rotterdam discovered a stock of a books by Cellius and destroyed them. In Lancelot van Brederode published anonymously copies of a page book assailing the dominant Calvinist Church and the doctrine of the Trinity. The writer's identity was discovered and he was arrested and heavily fined, and the authorities made an effort to hunt down and destroy all copies of the book — but since it had already been distributed, many of the copies survived.
The book Bescherming der Waerheyt Godts by Foeke Floris , a liberal Anabaptist preacher, was in banned by authorities in Friesland which deemed it to be Socinian, and all copies were ordered to be burned. In the Hof high court of Holland ordered the Amsterdam municipal authorities to raid booksellers in the city, seize and destroy Socinian books — especially the Biblioteca fratrum Polonorum "Book of the Polish Brethren " , at the time known to be widely circulating in Amsterdam.
The Amsterdam burgomasters felt obliged to go along with this, at least formally — but in fact some of them mitigated the practical effect by warning booksellers of impending raids. The first book burning incident in the Thirteen Colonies occurred in Boston in when William Pynchon , founder of Springfield, Massachusetts , published The Meritorious Price of Our Redemption , which criticised the Puritans , who were then in power in Massachusetts. The book became the first banned book in North America, and subsequently all known copies were publicly burned.
Pynchon left for England prior to a scheduled appearance in court, and never returned. During the Northern Wars in , the well-known Bohemian Protestant theologian and educator John Amos Comenius , then living in exile at the city of Leszno in Poland, declared his support for the Protestant Swedish side.
In retaliation, Polish partisans burned his house, his manuscripts, and his school's printing press. In the authorities at Boston imprisoned the Quaker women preachers Ann Austin and Mary Fisher , who had arrived on a ship from Barbados. Among other things they were charged with "bringing with them and spreading here sundry books, wherein are contained most corrupt, heretical, and blasphemous doctrines contrary to the truth of the gospel here professed amongst us" as the colonial gazette put it.
The books in question, about a hundred, were publicly burned in Boston's Market Square. As part of his intensive campaign against the Jansenists , King Louis XIV of France in ordered the book " Lettres provinciales " by Blaise Pascal — which contained a fierce defense of the Jansenist doctrines — to be shredded and burnt. In , during the Great Fire of London , many booksellers moved their books to the stone crypts of Old St. Paul's Cathedral to escape destruction of their books, but falling masonry broke through into the crypt and let the fire in and all the books were burned.
In several books by Thomas Hobbes and other authors were burnt in Oxford University. Following the capture of the Hungarian capital Buda from Ottoman Turkey by the Austrian-led Holy League , the victorious troops rampaged in the city and carried out a large-scale massacre of the resident Muslim population — as well as of the Buda Jews, who were considered allies of the Ottomans. The mosques and minarets of Buda were burned and destroyed, as were three synagogues.
Numerous valuable books perished in the fire. In , gross negligence caused the burning down of the Tre Kronor in Stockholm, including the National Library and its archives, resulting in irreparable loss of much information about centuries of Swedish history. During the s rabbis in Italy and Germany ordered the burning of the kabbalist writings of the then young Moshe Chaim Luzzatto.
The Messianic messages which Luzzatto claimed to have gotten from a being called "The Maggid" were considered heretical and potentially highly disruptive of the Jewish communities' daily life, and Luzzatto was ordered to cease disseminating them. Though Luzzatto in later life got considerable renown among Jews and his later books were highly esteemed, most of the early writings were considered irrevocably lost until some of them turned up in in a manuscript preserved in the Library of Oxford. In Count Leopold Anton von Firmian — Archbishop of Salzburg as well as its temporal ruler — embarked on a savage persecution of the Lutherans living in the rural regions of Salzburg.
As well expelling tens of thousands of Protestant Salzburgers, the Archbishop ordered the wholesale seizure and burning of all Protestant books and Bibles. During the 18th Century, when the Catholic Church in Scotland was illegal, a Catholic seminary at Scalan in Glenlivet was the preliminary centre of education for Catholic priests. Since this was illegal, the seminary was on several occasions burned to the ground by soldiers sent from beyond The Highlands, with Catholic books being often consumed by the flames - but always replaced by the persistent Catholics .
John Warburton was an avid collector of old book and manuscripts, but often careless. At one occasion, he left a pile of drama manuscripts in the kitchen. When he came looking for them a year later, nearly all were gone. His cook, Betsy Baker, had used over fifty manuscripts as scrap paper while cooking—either for lighting fires or for lining the bottoms of pie pans while baking pies.
In , Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni burned his tragedy Amalasunta due to negative reception by his audiences. In addition, Edelmann was also an outspoken opponent of royal absolutism. With Frankfurt's entire magistracy and municipal government in attendance and seventy guards to hold back the crowds, nearly a thousand copies of Edelmann's writings were tossed on to a tower of flaming birch wood. Edelmann himself was granted refuge in Berlin by Friedrich the Great , but on condition that he stop publishing his views.
China's Qianlong Emperor — embarked on an ambitious program — the Siku Quanshu , largest compilation of books in Chinese history possibly in human history in general. The enterprise included, however, also the systematic banning and burning of books considered "unfitting" to be included — especially those critical, even by subtle hints, of the ruling Qing Dynasty. During this Emperor's nearly sixty years on the throne, the destruction of about "evil" titles books, poems, and plays was decreed, the number of individual copies confiscated and destroyed is variously estimated at tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands.
As well as systematically destroying the written works, 53 authors of such works were executed, in some cases by lingering torture or along with their family members see literary inquisition Qing , Qianlong Emperor Burning of books and modification of texts. The four remaining copies, though suffering some damage during World War II , are still preserved at four Chinese museums and libraries. The tract by Simeon Uriel Freudenberger from Luzern , arguing that Wilhelm Tell was a myth and the acts attributed to him had not happened in reality, was publicly burnt in Altdorf , capital of the Swiss canton of Uri — where, according to the legend, William Tell shot the apple from his son's head.
In his Lettres philosophique , published in Rouen in , he described British attitudes toward government, literature, and religion, and clearly implied that the British constitutional monarchy was better than the French absolute one — which led to the book being burned. Later, Voltaire's Dictionnaire philosophique , which was originally called the Dictionnaire philosophique portatif , had its first volume, consisting of 73 articles in pages, burnt upon release in June An "economic pamphlet ", Man With Forty Crowns , was ordered to be burnt by the Parlement of Paris , and a bookseller who had sold a copy was pilloried.
It is said that one of the magistrates on the case exclaimed, "Is it only his books we shall burn? In , an attempt by the Catholic authorities at Mainz to introduce vernacular hymn books encountered strong resistance from conservative Catholics, who refused to abandon the old Latin books and who seized and burned copies of the new German language books.
What Were the Burning Times?
In and much of Cluny Abbey 's library — earlier targeted in by Huguenots — was burnt during French Revolutionary violence. The abolition of aristocratic privileges was accompanied by the public burning of the Libro d'Oro — formal directory of nobles in the Republic of Venice which included those of the Ionian Islands. Many French scholars accompanied Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in , where they made many important finds.
When forced to surrender to the British in , the scholars initially strongly resisted the claim made by the British to have the collections of the expedition handed over. In , Rabbi Nachman of Breslov burned the only copy or copies of one of his own books for an unknown reason. Many Hasidic Jews continue to search for "The Burned Book," as they call it, by looking for clues in his other writings. The vast destruction caused by the great Moscow fire of during the Napoleonic occupation included destruction of the entire library of Count Aleksei Musin-Pushkin — statesman, historian and art collector.
Among the irreplaceable old books destroyed was the only known manuscript of the Medieval Tale of Igor's Campaign. Fortunately, Musin-Pushkin had already published the text; still, historians mourn the lost original. In the Goa Inquisition was suppressed, after hundreds of years in which it had been enacting various kinds of religious persecution in the Portuguese colony of Goa , India.
In the aftermath, most of the Goa Inquisition's records were destroyed — a great loss to historians, making it is impossible to know the exact number of the Inquisition's victims. On August 24, ,  during the Burning of Washington , British and Canadian troops set fire to the Capitol building, thereby destroying some 3, volumes in the initial collection of the Library of Congress which was established fourteen years earlier.
Most of these books had been ordered from London before the outbreak of the War of Immediately following the British withdrawal, former President Thomas Jefferson sold to the US Government his entire private library, volumes, to replace the loss — from which the Library of Congress went on to expand to its enormous present size though a fire in destroyed around two-thirds of Jefferson's collection. The material destroyed in is the modern digital storage equivalent of 3.
On October 18, about students, members of the newly founded German Burschenschaften "fraternities" , came together at Wartburg Castle to celebrate the German victory over Napoleon two years before, condemn conservatism and call for German unity. Karl Ludwig Sand , one of the students participating in this gathering, would assassinate Kotzebue two years later.
The poet William Blake died in , and his manuscripts were left with his wife Catherine. After her death in , the manuscripts were inherited by Frederick Tatham , who burned some that he deemed heretical or politically radical. Tatham was an Irvingite , member of one of the many fundamentalist movements of the 19th century, and opposed to any work that smacked of "blasphemy". When Blake was re-discovered some decades later and recognized as a major English poet, the damage was already done. In , officials at the school for the blind in Paris, France, were ordered by its new director, Armand Dufau , to burn books written in the new braille code.
After every braille book at the institute that could be found was burned, supporters of the code's inventor, Louis Braille , rebelled against Dufau by continuing to use the code, and braille was eventually restored at the school. On May 8, , the Irish St. The fire also destroyed the nearby St. Augustine Academy, with many of the rare books in its library — though in this case the arsonists did not specifically target the books, but rather sought to destroy indiscriminately everything belonging to Irish Catholic immigrants.
In , during the Second Opium War , twenty captive Westerners were tortured and killed by the Chinese government. The palace complex had been built up by succeeding Chinese dynasties for nearly a thousand years, and many unique works of art were destroyed or looted by the soldiers. Also unique copies of Chinese literary work and compilations, stored there, were burned down as part of the general destruction.
Blackmar who published this music. Though books were not specifically targeted, the conflagration destroyed various private and public libraries. For example, the wartime diaries of Columbia resident Emma LeConte include the following reference: "The library building opposite us seemed framed by the gushing flames and smoke, while through the windows gleamed the liquid fire".
The papers, which might have been of considerable value to historians, have disappeared irrevocably and are assumed to have been destroyed.
A Brief History of Book Burning, From the Printing Press to Internet Archives
Following its publication in , the book on the Ancient Cypriots by Greek Cypriot priest and scholar Ieronymos Myriantheus was banned by the Ottoman Empire and copies of it were burned. In a punitive measure towards Myriantheus the Ottomans refused to recognize him as Bishop of Kyrenia. In the Siege of Strasbourg during the Franco-Prussian War , Strasbourg was heavily and indiscriminately bombarded by the Prussian Army , aiming to break the inhabitants' morale.
Many of the destroyed books and artifacts formed part of the German historical and cultural heritage, dating to periods long before Strasbourg became a French city. On May 23, , during the suppression of the Paris Commune , 12 men under the orders of a Communard , Dardelle, set various public buildings in Paris on fire. The library and other portions of the Louvre were also set on fire and entirely destroyed. The museum itself was only miraculously saved. Lobbying the United States Congress also led to the enactment of the Comstock laws.
After establishing his rule over Sudan in , Muhammad Ahmad , known as the Mahdi, authorized the burning of lists of pedigrees — which is his view accentuated tribalism at the expense of religious unity — as well as books of Muslim law and theology because of their association with the old order which the Mahdi had overthrown. Following the death of noted American poet Emily Dickinson in , her sister Lavinia Dickinson burned almost all of her correspondences in keeping with Emily's wishes, but as it was unclear whether the forty notebooks and loose sheets all filled with almost poems were to be included in this, Lavinia saved these and began to publish the poems that year.
In the Russian Council of Ministers banned a five-volume work on the socio-economic conditions of Jews in the Russian Empire , the result of a decade-long comprehensive statistical research commissioned by Ivan Bloch. The research's conclusions — that Jewish economic activity was beneficial to the Empire — refuted antisemitic demagoguery and were disliked by the government, which ordered all copies to be seized and burned. Only a few survived, circulating as great rarities. In the tense period following the Bosnian crisis of —09, the Austrian authorities in Trieste cracked down on the Italian Irredentists in the city, who were seeking to end Austrian rule there and annex Trieste to Italy which would actually happen ten years later, at the end of World War I.
A very large quantity of Italian-language books and periodicals whose contents were deemed "subversive" were confiscated and consigned to destruction. The authorities had the condemned material meticulously weighted, it was found to measure no less than 4. Thereupon, on February 13, , the books and periodicals were officially burned at the Servola blast furnaces. James Joyce had to go through considerable trouble before seeing his early book of short stories, Dubliners , in print. Various publishers objected to sexually-explicit passages in the stories — in particular in Two Gallants — which might have led to prosecution under British law as it then stood.
Joyce offered to pay the printing costs himself if the sheets were turned over to him and he was allowed to complete the job elsewhere and distribute the book, but when Joyce arrived at the printers they refused to surrender the sheets. They burned them the next day. Joyce managed to save one copy, which he obtained "by ruse". These page proofs saved from Maunsel were used as copy when five years later Joyce found the publisher ready to publish the book. On August 25, , in the early stage of the First World War, the university library of Leuven , Belgium was destroyed by the German army, using petrol and incendiary pastilles, as part of brutal retaliations for the extensive activity of " francs-tireurs " against the occupying German forces.
Among the , books destroyed were many irreplaceable books, including Gothic and Renaissance manuscripts. One of the notable losses was that of Rongorongo text E , which was one of only two dozen surviving examples of the as yet undeciphered rongorongo script of Easter Island. Rubbings and possibly 3-dimensional replicas were preserved in libraries and collections elsewhere. Bulgaria engaged in a campaign of cultural genocide. Serbian priests, professors, teachers and public officials, were deported into prison camps in pre—war Bulgaria or executed, they were later replaced by their Bulgarian counterparts.
The use of the Serbian language was banned. Books in Serbian were confiscated from libraries, schools and private collections to be burned publicly. Books deemed to be of particular value were selected by Bulgarian ethnographers and sent back into Bulgaria. MacNamara never returned to the area, his father James MacNamara was boycotted and subsequently emigrated, and a court case was even sought.
The book criticised the village's inhabitants for being overly concerned with their image towards neighbours, and although it called the town "Garradrimna," geographical details made it clear that Delvin was meant. In June the left-wing German cartoonist George Grosz produced a lithographic collection in three editions entitled Gott mit uns. A satire on German society and the counterrevolution, the collection was swiftly banned.
Grosz was charged with insulting the army , which resulted in a court order to have the collection destroyed. The artist also had to pay a German Mark fine. At the culmination of the April fighting in and around the Four Courts in Dublin, as the Republican forces hitherto barricaded in the building were surrendering, the west wing was obliterated in a huge explosion, destroying the Irish Public Record Office located at the rear, with nearly one thousand years of irreplaceable archives being destroyed.
Responsibility for the incident has never been established. Blame has been placed on either the national army which was shelling anti-Treaty forces or anti-Treaty forces who were believed to have purposely blown up the records in an act of defiance. He himself was abroad at the time, but the fire took with it many of the records of the Plunkett family, which had played a significant part in Irish history for several generations, and which Sir Horace had gathered to prepare a work on the subject.
In the anarchist Guy Aldred and his partner and co-worker Rose Witcop , a birth control activist, published together a British edition of Margaret Sanger 's Family Limitation — a key pioneering work on the subject. They were denounced by a London magistrate for this "indiscriminate" publication. Despite expert testimony from a consultant to Guy's Hospital and evidence at the appeal that the book had only been sold to those aged over twenty-one, the court ordered the entire stock to be destroyed.
In the revolutionary and Soviet secret agent Yakov Blumkin was arrested in Moscow and sentenced to death because of his support for the exiled Leon Trotsky. In his Memoirs of a Revolutionary , Victor Serge relates that Blumkin was given a two-week reprieve so that he could write his autobiography.
However, Blumkin's autobiography remains undiscovered - never turning up in the post decade when hitherto secret Soviet archives were opened to researchers. It can be assumed that, if indeed it ever existed, the manuscript was destroyed, probably sometime during the period of Stalin's rule. The works of some Jewish authors and other so-called "degenerate" books were burnt by the Nazis in the s and s.
Richard Euringer , director of the libraries in Essen , identified 18, works deemed not to correspond with Nazi ideology, which were publicly burned. Student groups throughout Germany in 34 towns also carried out their own book burnings on that day and in the following weeks. Radio broadcasts of the burnings were played in Berlin and elsewhere, and 40, turned up to hear Joseph Goebbels make a speech about the acts. See here for a partial list of authors whose books were burned. In May ,  Micha Ullman 's underground "Bibliotek" memorial was inaugurated on Bebelplatz square in Berlin, where the Nazi book burnings began.
The memorial consists of a window on the surface of the plaza, under which vacant bookshelves are lit and visible. A bronze plaque bears a quote by Heinrich Heine : "Where books are burned in the end people will burn. Trustees of Warsaw, Indiana ordered the burning of all the library's works by local author Theodore Dreiser in Ioannis Metaxas , who held dictatorial power in Greece between and , conducted an intensive campaign against what he considered Anti-Greek literature and viewed as dangerous to the national interest.
Targeted under this definition and put to the fire were not only the writings of dissident Greek writers, but even works by such authors as Goethe , Shaw , and Freud. In his Open Letter to Stalin Old Bolshevik and former Soviet diplomat Fyodor Raskolnikov alleges that Soviet libraries began circulating long lists of books, pamphlets and pictures to be burnt on sight, following Joseph Stalin 's ascension to power.
Those lists include the names of authors whose works were deemed as undesirable. Raskolnikov was surprised to find his work on the October Revolution in one of those lists. This was after , others had burned when the library was attacked in World War I. The Nazis intended to Germanize the area, its Polish population subjugated and degraded and the large Jewish community to be completely annihilated.
Already in the early stages of Nazi rule, in , all Jewish and Polish libraries in the region were closed down, and their books - as well as books from bookshops - were sent to paper mills in Germany, to be pulped . In addition some or all of the collections of other libraries were removed to Japan, including the University of Nanking , Royal Asiatic Society in Shanghai, University of Shanghai , and Soochow University . It is not believed that it was intended to hit the Museum in particular, but volumes were destroyed and other volumes were damaged past repair.
From May 10—11, , the Museum's book collections now the British Library were bombed again, this time burning more than , books. On night of 29—30 December , the German Air Force conducted one of the most destructive air raids of the Blitz. Approximately , bombs, many of them incendiary, fell on the city, causing what an American correspondent called the Second Great Fire of London. Stationers' Hall , neighbouring offices, the book wholesalers Simpkin Marshall, and several bookshops were lost.
An estimated five million books were lost in the fires caused by tens of thousands of incendiary bombs - including, on the one hand, old and rare books and on the other the whole or most of the print run of recently published books. In Jean Genet — then an obscure petty criminal — underwent one of the many prison terms in his life. The prison authorities provided to prisoners sheets of rough brown paper, from which they were supposed to make bags.
Instead, Genet used the paper to write a largely autobiographical book which would eventually be named Notre Dame des Fleurs Our Lady of the Flowers. As later recounted by Jean-Paul Sartre in his forward to the book, a prison guard discovered that the prisoner Genet had been making this "unauthorized" use of the paper, confiscated the manuscript and burned it. Undaunted, Genet wrote it all over again. The second version survived and Genet took it with him when leaving the prison.
On December 13, in Alessandria , Italy, a mob of supporters of the German-imposed Italian Social Republic attacked the synagogue of the city's small Jewish community, on Via Milano. Books and manuscripts were taken out of the synagogue and set on fire at Piazza Rattazzi. The burning of the Jewish books was a prelude to a mass arrest and deportation of the Jews themselves, most of whom perished in Auschwitz. The name was apparently inspired by the Jacob story in the Bible.
A surviving opening part named The Walnut Trees of Altenburg , was published after the war. German Verbrennungskommandos Burning detachments were responsible for much of the targeted attacks on libraries and other centers of knowledge and learning. In October , the National Library of Poland 's manuscript collection was burned to erase Polish national history. In September , an original collection of , items was shelled by German artillery, although many books were saved by being thrown out the windows by library staff. In October, what had survived was deliberately burned by the authorities, including 26, manuscripts, 2, incunables printed before , 80, early printed books, , drawings and printmakings, 50, note and theatre manuscripts, and many maps and atlases.
Out of about , printed items, maps and manuscripts , only some manuscripts and 30, printed materials survived. Unlike earlier Nazi book burnings where specific books were deliberately targeted, the burning of this library was part of the general setting on fire of a large part of the city of Warsaw. The extensive library of the Polish Museum, Rapperswil , founded in in Rapperswil , Switzerland, had been created when Poland was not a country and was thus moved to Warsaw in The entire collection was destroyed, including 1, ancient Cyrillic manuscripts  and , books.
The library had been founded by Louis XV in and included many rare and valuable books. Also destroyed in the fire were many of the former holdings of the University of Douai and the collections of the Jesuits of the College of Anchin , both of which had been transferred to the Municipal Library during the French Revolution. The above is only a shortlist of the most notable losses; in all it is estimated that a third of all German books were destroyed.
As the Nazis were retreating from Brussels, they set fire to the Palace of Justice and its library. An eye witness reported, "In the Place Poelaert the people formed a chain to rescue the valuable books from the burning library. Following the liberation of Norway from Nazi occupation in , angry crowds burned the books of Knut Hamsun in public in major Norwegian cities, due to Hamsun's having collaborated with the Nazis.
On May 13, the Allied Control Council issued a directive for the confiscation of all media that could supposedly contribute to Nazism or militarism. As a consequence a list was drawn up of over 30, titles, ranging from school textbooks to poetry, which were then banned. All copies of books on the list were to be confiscated and destroyed; the possession of a book on the list was made a punishable offence.
All the millions of copies of these books were to be confiscated and destroyed.
The representative of the Military Directorate admitted that the order was no different in intent or execution from Nazi book burnings. In August the order was amended so that "In the interest of research and scholarship, the Zone Commanders in Berlin the Komendantura may preserve a limited number of documents prohibited in paragraph 1. These documents will be kept in special accommodation where they may be used by German scholars and other German persons who have received permission to do so from the Allies only under strict supervision by the Allied Control Authority.
Following the suppression of the pro-Soviet Kurdish Republic of Mahabad in north Iran in December and January , members of the victorious Iranian Army burned all Kurdish-language books that they could find, as well as closing down the Kurdish printing press and banning the teaching of Kurdish. In , children — overseen by priests, teachers, and parents — publicly burned several hundred comic books in both Spencer, West Virginia , and Binghamton, New York. Once these stories were picked up by the national press wire services , similar events followed in many other cities. Around , the books that Shen Congwen pseudonym of Shen Yuehuan had written in the period — were banned in the Republic of China and both banned and subsequently burned by booksellers in the People's Republic of China.
As part of Joseph Stalin 's efforts to stamp out Jewish culture in the Soviet Union in the late s and early s, the Judaica collection in the library of Birobidzhan , capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast on the Chinese border, was burned. In United States Senator Joseph McCarthy recited before his subcommittee and the press a list of supposedly pro-communist authors whose works his aide Roy Cohn found in the State Department libraries in Europe. The Eisenhower State Department bowed to McCarthy and ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers , etc.
Eisenhower initially agreed that the State Department should dispose of books advocating communism: "I see no reason for the federal government to be supporting something that advocated its own destruction. That seems to be the acme of silliness.
The Burning Candle: A Medieval Novel
Don't be afraid to go in your library and read every book In he suddenly resigned for reasons which remain unclear and went into retirement. Leino returned to the public eye in with his memoirs of his time as Minister of the Interior. The manuscript was prepared in secret — even most of the staff of the publishing company Tammi were kept in ignorance — but the project was revealed by Leino because of an indiscretion just before the planned publication.
It turned out the Soviet Union was very strongly opposed to publication of the memoirs. Fagerholm said that the government could legally do nothing, because the work had not yet been released nor was there censorship in Finland. Filippov advised that if Leino's book was published, the Soviet Union would draw "serious conclusions".
Later the same day Fagerholm called the publisher, Untamo Utrio, and it was decided that the January launch of the book was to be cancelled. Eventually, the entire print run of the book was destroyed at the Soviet Union's request. Almost all of the books — some 12, copies — were burned in August with the exception of a few volumes which were furtively sent to political activists. Deputy director of Tammi Jarl Hellemann later argued that the fuss about the book was completely disproportionate to its substance, describing the incident as the first instance of Finnish self-censorship motivated by concerns about relations to the Soviet Union see Finlandization.
Noted psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich was prosecuted in , following an investigation by the U. Food and Drug Administration in connection with his use of orgone accumulators. Reich refused to defend himself, and a federal judge ordered all of his orgone energy equipment and publications to be seized and destroyed.
In June , federal agents burned many of the books at Reich's estate near Rangeley, Maine. In , the rabbi Mordecai Kaplan was excommunicated from Orthodox Judaism in the United States, and his works were publicly burned at the annual gathering of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis. Communist books were burned by the revolutionaries during the Hungarian Revolution of The burning of the university library sent shock waves, especially across the Arab world.
The effect on other countries in the region can be seen through commemorative stamps. Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Algeria itself, after independence introduced stamps depicting either the burning of a book, or of the library itself. Among the books he branded as subversive was Stendhal's The Red and the Black.
It is the Chinese tradition to record family members in a book, including every male born in the family, who they are married to, etc. Traditionally, only males' names are recorded in the books. During the Cultural Revolution — , many such books were forcibly destroyed or burned to ashes, because they were considered by the Chinese Communist Party as among the Four Old Things to be eschewed. Many copies of the Buddhist , Taoist and Confucian books were destroyed, thought to be promoting the "old" thinking. In , the British publishing house Penguin Books was torn by an intense power struggle, with chief editor Tony Godwin and the board of directors attempting to remove the company founder Allen Lane.
John Lennon , member of the popular music group The Beatles , sparked outrage from religious conservatives in the Southern 'Bible Belt' states when his quote ' The Beatles are more popular than Jesus ' was taken out of context from an interview he had done in England five months previous to the Beatles' US Tour their final tour as a group. Disc Jockeys, evangelists, and the Ku Klux Klan implored the local public to bring their Beatles records, books, magazines, posters and memorabilia to Beatles bonfire burning events. After the victory of Augusto Pinochet 's forces in the Chilean coup of , bookburnings of Marxist and other works ensued.
Following The Fall of Saigon , Viet Cong gained nominal authority in South Vietnam and conducted several book burnings along with eliminating any cultural forms of South Vietnam. This act of destruction was made since the Vietnamese Communists condemned those values were corruptible ones shaped by "puppet government" derogatory words to indicate Republic of Vietnam and American Imperialism.
In May a mob composed of Sinhalese civilians and plainclothes police officers went on a rampage in minority Tamil -dominated northern Jaffna , Sri Lanka, and burned down the Jaffna Public Library. At least 95, volumes were destroyed, including a very rare collection of ancient palm leaf volumes. The publication of the novel The Satanic Verses , by Salman Rushdie , was followed by angry demonstrations and riots around the world by followers of political Islam who considered it blasphemous. In the United Kingdom, book burnings were staged in the cities of Bolton and Bradford. It is estimated that over 2.
Other books that ended up in flames were books on communism and socialism published during socialist era in Yugoslavia,  as well as books about Jasenovac concentration camp. Almost all the contents of the library were destroyed, including more than 1. Georgian troops entered Abkhazia on August 14, , sparking a month war. At the end of October, the Abkhazian Research Institute of History, Language and Literature named after Dmitry Gulia , which housed an important library and archive, was torched by Georgian troops; also targeted was the capital's public library.
It seems to have been a deliberate attempt by the Georgian paramilitary soldiers to wipe out the region's historical record. In , the Nasir-i Khusraw Foundation was established in Kabul , Afghanistan due to the collaborative efforts of several civil society and academic institutions, leading scholars and members of the Ismaili community. This site included video and book publishing facilities, a museum, and a library. With the withdrawal of the Soviet forces from Afghanistan in the late s and the strengthening of the Taliban forces, the library collection was relocated to the valley of Kayan.
However, on August 12, , the Taliban fighters ransacked the press, the museum, the video facilities and the library, destroying some books in the fire and throwing others in a nearby river. Not a single book was spared, including a thousand-year-old Quran. Some days after publishing a novel entitled The Gods Laugh on Mondays by Iranian novelist Reza Khoshnazar , men came at night saying they are Islamic building inspectors and torched the publisher book shop in August 22, The materials inside the National Library had been stolen, reading room furniture smashed, and the card catalogue had been dumped in the basement.
The library workers were kept out for a week while the KFOR peacekeeping troops checked the building for any hidden explosives. According to national and international organizations about , books in Albanian language have been sent to the paper mill in Lipjan for pulping. Among those books were collections of national heritage, which explained the nation's origins and history.
Flynn 's book on Mumia Abu-Jamal after verbally shouting him down during his scheduled speech. In January , the Egyptian Ministry of Culture ordered the burning of some 6, books of homoerotic poetry by the well-known 8th Century Persian-Arab poet Abu Nuwas , even though his writings are considered classics of Arab literature.
Following the invasion of Iraq , Iraq's national library and the Islamic library in central Baghdad were burned and destroyed by looters. The destroyed Islamic library of Baghdad included one of the oldest surviving copies of the Qur'an. There have been several incidents of Harry Potter books being burned, including those directed by churches at Alamogordo , New Mexico and Charleston, South Carolina in Rowling 's comments on Donald Trump. On May 27, , Tom Wayne and W. Leathem, the proprietors of Prospero's Books, a used book store in Kansas City, Missouri , publicly burned a portion of their inventory to protest what they perceived as society's increasing indifference to the printed word.
The protest was interrupted by the Kansas City Fire Department on the grounds that Wayne and Leathem had failed to obtain the required permits. Conflicting accounts have the deputy mayor of Or Yehuda, Uzi Aharon of Haredi party Shas , claiming to have organized the burnings or to have stopped them. He admitted involvement in collecting New Testaments and "Messianic propaganda" that had been distributed in the city.
The burning apparently violated Israeli laws about destroying religious items. Jakes and most musical genres to be heretical expressions. However, a confluence of rain, oppositional protesters  and a state environmental protection law against open burning resulted in the church having to retreat into the edifice to ceremoniously tear apart and dump the media into a trash can as recorded on video which was submitted to People For the American Way 's Right Wing Watch blog ;  nevertheless, the church claimed that the book "burning" was a success.
In the US military burned Bibles in Pashto and Dari that were part of an unauthorized program to proselytize Christianity in Afghanistan. Terry Jones of the Dove World Outreach Center in Gainesville, Florida announced in July that he threatened to burn copies of the Quran on September 11 , , then did not do so. On September 20, the Pentagon bought  and burned  9, copies of Operation Dark Heart , nearly all the first run copies for supposedly containing classified information.
Images of men on TV were shown dancing around the fire. They burnt thousands of rare books, journals and writings. The cost of the material is estimated at tens of millions of dollars — much that was lost was considered priceless. Sometime during the weekend of April 15—17, , books and other items designated for a new public library in the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints polygamous community Colorado City , Arizona were removed from the facility where they had been stored and burned nearby.
On February 22, , four copies of the Qur'an were burned at Bagram Airfield due to being among 1, books slated for destruction. The remaining books, which officials claimed were being used for communication among extremists, were saved and put into storage. Islamist rebels in Timbuktu in the breakaway region of Azawad in Mali reportedly burned two libraries containing thousands of the Timbuktu Manuscripts on January 27—28, Notable works included copies of the Tarikh al-Sudan and Heinrich Barth 's letters of recommendation.
The university initially posted it on their website, but then took it down. During the unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina , large amounts of historical documents were destroyed when sections of the Archives of Bosnia and Herzegovina, housed in the presidential building, were set on fire. Among the lost archival material were documents and gifts from the Ottoman period, original documents from the — Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina , as well as documentations of the interwar period, the — rule of the Independent State of Croatia , papers from the following years, and about files from the — Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Both were also mandated to report to the police once every week. However, the author's proclaimed aim of setting "an alternative to the narrative of Hindu history" aroused controversy and the anger of more conservative Hindu groups. In February , litigation was started against the book on the grounds of its being "deliberate and malicious acts intended to outrage the feelings of a religious community. The court order was not completely carried out; some bookshops in India are known to be still selling it, wrapped in brown envelopes. Numerous libraries and other cultural properties have been destroyed by the Islamic State , including the Mosul Public library.
The other objects were an umbrella with a Hello Kitty pattern, an elephant figurine, a tribal mask and a figurine of a Hindu god. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Main article: Burning of books and burying of scholars. Main article: Book burning at Ephesus. Main article: Bonfire of the Vanities. Main article: Nazi book burnings. Main article: Denazification. Main article: Wilhelm Reich. Main article: Book burnings in Chile. Main article: Burning of Jaffna library. Main article: The Satanic Verses controversy. Main article: Bookocide in Croatia. Main article: Bagram Bible program. Main article: Qur'an-burning controversy. This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
May Main article: Afghanistan Quran burning protests. Lists portal Literature portal. Retrieved July 18, The Classical Quarterly 42, no. Journal of the History of Ideas 6, no. London: Harmondsworth, ; cited in Cramer, Frederick H. Retrieved January 5, August 31, An history of the corruptions of Christianity pg.
An irreverent commentary on religion". April 6, Boston: Little, Brown and Company. II, p. March 1, Archived from the original on August 23, Meisami, Julie Scott and Paul Starkey Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, Vol. London: Routledge. Chisholm, Hugh Cambridge, England: University Press. Johnston Encyclopedia of Monasticism: A-L. Cambridge University Press. The Albigensian Crusade. London: Faber and Faber, Ltd. March 7, Journey Through Jewish History Book 2.
Eventually she is able to live a full and rich life with the man who is in truth that love of her heart and soul. While Isabel does find deep romance later in her life, this does not feel like a romance story. At least, the real romance does not happen for the heroine until late in her life. The reader may be able to anticipate that eventual result, and the frustrating wait for the resolution lends a bit to the reserve of this recommendation. Isabel is a strong-willed woman, but for too much of the story her strong will seems mostly to manifest in her demonstrating willfulness, rather than showing the "sense and understanding beyond her years.
The medieval age is not one easily understood, by feminists or any other authors. None of us lived there. Most of us have never endured being beaten because that is God's will or because it will make us submissive. Isabel definitely displays a strong, developed character as years go by, because she does not continue that cycle of beating. She really does attempt to live a life of duty and dedication to her husband. While readers may despair a bit of her holding to that, one must applaud her doing well enough to finally understand the guiding of her heart.
She did not let her parents, or her society, dim any of that. In Isabel's age, women were expected to marry and bear sons or at least to be bedded and then bear sons. She does better than that. How would any of us have done in her shoes? Nov 16, Patty rated it liked it. Young Isabel de Vermandois is a spitfire. She does not follow the conventions of her day and is not a sweet and retiring young 11 year old. When a visitor comes with news of her intended betrothed instead of waiting quietly in her room she storms into her parents' hall and demands to know the name of the man she will marry.
When she finds out that he is as old as her father she is appalled and refuses her consent. Her father has her beaten day after day after day until she breaks and goes into t Young Isabel de Vermandois is a spitfire. Her father has her beaten day after day after day until she breaks and goes into the marriage. She realizes that by marrying she can escape her father and perhaps her new life will be better.
Her husband to be turns out to be not quite as cruel as her father - at first - but when Isabel presents him with a daughter instead of a son because we all know that is all HER fault all bets are off.
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This being medieval times, women have no rights, no power and no where to turn. Isabel accepts her lot and eventually does present her husband with his much desired heir but as their life moves from France to England she finds that despite her vows she is falling in love with a man she thought she would hate forever because he had injured her betrothed on the day of their wedding almost ruining her chances of escaping her father's cruelty. But as is often the case, love and hate walk a thin line together and Isabel falls in love with William de Warrenne, the Earl of Surrey.
This tale is based on historical fact and they do make the best stories - the Earl of Surrey kidnaps Isobel and they go on to live a full and happy life together.
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After a bit of adjustment. Isobel has some problems with the breaking of her wedding vows but her husband has done some things that she finds very abhorrent and it helps her to find her happiness. My biggest problem with this novel was the lack of character development. Most of them just didn't change in temperament over the course of decades. Isobel is a prime example - she still reacted to situations in the same way she was reacting as that 11 year old child from the first page of the story. And it was a great story so it really was sad that the characters didn't keep up with the tale.
The history and the background descriptions were beautifully written and woven in to an engrossing story of love, loss and betrayal but the heart of the story - the people - didn't keep up with their surroundings. And that made me sad. Nov 03, Mary rated it it was amazing. Lisa J. Yarde writes a captivating historical novel about Isabel, the Comtesse de Meulan.
The era is 11th century France and Isabel is eleven years old; prime age to marry in medieval times. As women are betrothed soon after birth, they have no choice regarding the men they wed. Isabel marries Robert de Beaumont, Comte de Meulan, who is about forty years older than she is. It is here that Robert reveals his true colors.
Isabel struggles with what is right from wrong, as she deals with a hidden love for William while being married to Robert, abandoning her children, keeping secrets until no longer possible and pure angst in her life. The best compliment I can give Lisa J. Yarde is that due to her outstanding research, I was able to experience everyday life during the medieval era, while learning about Isabel the Comtesse de Meulan. She was a strong woman for her times who endured more adversity than any woman ever should.
The Burning Candle by Lisa J. Varde is a fascinating story, with its numerous unpredictable turns - some violent, and some pleasant. It is written so well it was difficult to put down. I always enjoy learning about a historical person by reading a well-researched historical novel. Jan 06, Darcia Helle rated it really liked it Shelves: ebooks , fiction , historical-fiction. The Burning Candle is a fictionalized story of real people living in eleventh century Europe.
The details are well researched, and Lisa Yarde does an excellent job of capturing this period in history. Young Isabel is born into a time when women are possessions and love has little to do with marriage. We follow her life from the age of eleven, when she is married off to a fifty year old man. I enjoyed the interplay with the characters and the honesty in the way the era is portrayed.
We see the po The Burning Candle is a fictionalized story of real people living in eleventh century Europe. We see the power religious leaders held within the communities, as well as how little power women had over their own lives. Yarde's writing style is engaging, easily drawing me into the story.
On the down side, I thought the plot moved a bit slowly at times. And, for me, Isabel didn't evolve enough as a character. This made it difficult for me to read the scenes when she interacted with her much older husband. I had to skip the sex scenes completely, because my brain kept screaming 'pedophile'. Isabel was, at that point, mid to late teens.
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