In an hour-long documentary on BBC Two tonight, Professor Beard will draw on some of the latest finds, as well as her own experience researching Pompeii and Ancient Rome, to uncover little-known facts and bust some long-standing myths about the most famous excavation site in the western world. The programme, Pompeii: Life and Death in a Roman Town, starts with a simple premise — that an ancient town known best for the disaster in which it was destroyed, actually tells us most about how the average Roman lived. Rather than focus on the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD79, therefore, Professor Beard instead examines the details of daily life revealed by the buildings, skeletons and other remains which were preserved when Pompeii was buried under several feet of volcanic ash.
Using the latest forensic techniques, researchers have been able to answer key questions about the lives of these people — including how well-nourished they were and what diseases they had survived.
The Fall and Rise and Fall of Pompeii | History | Smithsonian
The remnants of Roman graffiti found on the site, which are replete with lewd talk and sexual gossip, combine with erotic posters and dubious frescoes to reveal just what a sexualised bunch the Pompeiians of the first century AD were. Contrary to the gleaming, elegant Hollywood image of the Roman world, the town was also far from clean. Rather, Beard shows it to have been a foul-smelling, noisy place, where stepping stones had to be placed on the streets so that pedestrians could negotiate the fetid water that periodically flowed down them.
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Even the baths — supposedly civilised centres of cleansing, lacked some basic features modern bathers would consider essential. Beard points out the shortage of plugholes in particular — meaning that bathers most likely often immersed themselves in a mixture of water, sweat, urine and bacteria. Yet more evidence comes from a surviving cesspit at Herculaneum, close to Pompeii. Guided by Andrew Wallace Hadrill, the Master of Sidney Sussex College, who has excavated the site, Beard inspects the surviving contents of ancient Roman lavatories and finds out what ordinary Pompeiians had for breakfast.
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The programme itself will be shown on BBC Two tonight at 9pm. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence. If you use this content on your site please link back to this page. It was of immense importance to ancient Egyptians for thousands of years and has yielded up many fabulous artifacts now in museums around the world.
He excavated many of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt during the nineteenth century such as Naukratis, Tanis, Abydos and Amarna.
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However it would be 20 years before he got a great result. In at the turn of the new millennium he made a quite startling find, fourteen ancient boats buried in their own brick lined boatsheds enclosures next to the tomb of a still unknown king. Just like the servants who were buried with their pharoahs the boats were meant to provide their owner with essential services in the afterlife. Today through the continual efforts of a dedicated band of archaeologists and their helpers Abydos continues to reveal its hidden treasures. Herculaneum was discovered when building a well in the 16th century and excavated from onward.
Works have been ongoing, albeit sometimes restricted, well up to modern times. Unlike its sister town of Pompeii, Herculaneum following the eruption on the 24th August 79AD of the volcano Vesuvius nearby to Naples was almost perfectly preserved, right down to the tiniest detail.
Mud engulfed the site and while harder than the ash that covered Pompeii to remove, it helped to preserve the remains in pristine condition. The thing the two sites have in common is boat sheds. It was long thought nearly all the inhabitants of Herculaneum had managed to escape. In , when the excavations reached the beach area of Herculaneum, archaeologists discovered the remains of hundreds of skeletons huddled together in 12 boat houses facing the sea. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill has excavated at both sites and for he and his colleagues today it is a race against destructive weather and flooding that is the main challenge.
You cannot get closer to the Roman world than in its excrement and Wallace-Hadrill excavated a cesspit at Pompeii to reveal that both rich and poor in ancient Rome both had a decent diet. It included sea urchins to nuts and figs, eggs and chicken. He discovered all sorts of information, including the fact residents of both cities were taller than the average height of the people living at Naples today.
The ancient city of Herculaneum lies underneath a modern-day suburb of Naples. The parts excavated are only about a third of the entire site.
It has been difficult for Dr Wallace-Hadrill to expropriate the land to further excavate the enormous site of the Villa dei Papyri at Herculaneum on which the famous Getty Villa in California was modeled. Excavation work at the Villa dei Papyri recommenced in after an eight-year gap, because they discovered two extra floors to the building.
However it is now in abeyance again, due to flooding. The Villa dei Papyri where charred scrolls containing the writings of philosopher Philodemus of Gadara and several other fellow Epicureans were recovered. The difficulty today is that most of it lies underneath Naples modern town hall. It was Greek colonists during the 8th century who first established trading stations throughout Campania, that part of Italy which is south of Rome.
The Romans called Campania Felix, the happy land because of its exceptional fertility, proverbial beauty and ideal climate. It eventually passed into the control of Italic tribesmen who moved down from the mountains of the interior and intermarried with the Greeks.
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All were quick to learn the lessons of civilisation and the union, to coin a phrase, was a fruitful one. The encounter between the Roman world and Greek Hellenistic art resulted in an enthusiastic appreciation of beauty as an end in itself. Roman aristocrats throughout the first century flocked to the countryside of Campania to escape the stresses and strains of urban life. At least until the year 79 and the eruption. The excavation to date at Herculaneum has revealed not only treasures but also well-preserved buildings and a wealth of information about how Romans lived, worked and why they died.
When the tunnels were dug into the city during the 18th century they brought up all sorts of fabulous statues and frescoes from the walls.
In the first complete painted statue ever found, the head of an Amazon warrior was unearthed near the also recently found Basilica. Excavated remains of a house at Herculaneum, the rest goes in under the hillside beneath the modern city. If Professor Wallace-Hadrill is successful and conservation and excavation continues hand in glove at Herculaneum they may yet find more important public records of life on papyri.
Their two beautifully illustrated, and authoritative books fill a significant gap in the literature on the ancient world. An independent cultural and social historian, Carolyn is an interior designer by trade. She has been involved in the creative sector for over thirty years in Australia; completing interior design projects, creating and producing innovative corporate and not-for profit social profit community events.
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