Produced by Pol-ka. Based on the original concept by Gilberto Braga. Co-produced by TV Azteca and Globo. It is a story of four women who start finding out secrets their men were keeping from them. Produced by Caracol. It is a story full of mystery, romance and drama that revolves around the lives of a group of friends who witness a crime.
Produced by Telemundo Studios. It is a new interpretation set in current times where two brothers from a powerful family have to face each other.
An original drama by M. Angelique Boyer plays the beautiful, smart and ambitious Teresa. Produced by Televisa. VIP This romantic comedy tells the story of a successful executive producer who is desperately searching for a nanny to take care of her two mischievous kids. Produced by Mediapro. Her life becomes a nightmare when she starts suspecting the man she loves.
Starring Blanca Soto and Guy Ecker. Produced by Venevision Productions. Premiered in Venezuela with excellent results, leading the pm time slot with a Produced by Argos. Three women are serving time in prison for crimes they never committed. Suddenly, a riot breaks out and they escape. On their way to freedom an accident involving three nuns takes place and the women take on the nuns identities and personalities in order to survive. Produced by TV Azteca.
Tells the story of a man Juan Soler , who decides to take vengeance of the woman Silvia Navarro , who is allegedly responsible for the suicide of his brother. The detective in charge of the case Isabel Macedo , will infiltrate the world of soccer to uncover the assassin. Produced by Telefe, Underground and Endemol. Produced by Record TV Network. A fiction by Walcyr Carrasco. It tells the story of Dafne and Gabriel, two people with strong temperament that belong to two different social classes, but who are capable of falling deeply in love.
Produced by TV Globo. Watercolors of love x45min. Diana y Manuel work at a law firm. While they work some cases together, a fiery love will ignite despite their age difference. Produced by Telefe and On TV. Is a modern fairy-tale, a charming story that features unique characters living their lives, their dreams and dramas in the most picturesque environment: a small village, a place out of time, the identity of which has been formed for centuries by the spirit of some very unusual people. It is the story of three brothers who are honest and good-hearted, until the day their sister Lidia tragically dies with her lover, the powerful businessman Bernardo Elizondo.
R ec o r d TV N e t w o r k A series featuring special effects and state-of-the-art recording technology. The plot takes place in Persia, where a young beautiful Jewish girl saves her people from extermination by winning over the love of the king. Produced Dori Media Contenidos.
Susi, Virgi and Male are three sisters with different personalities who despite being smart, young and beautiful, are still single. It is an intense comedy with a high dose of dark humor. It is the story of Emma Blinder, a widow who is shocked to discover that her late husband, an important judge, was in fact a corrupt man. On each episode, Emma, along with three professional female thieves, will pull dangerous stunts to try to bring justice.
Produced by Hibou Producciones. Is the story of an old conspiracy and the disparity that arises between two different worlds in the darkest depths of Mexico City. It also follows the trials and tribulations of a tenacious investigator from an elite police agency. This is allowing some of these stories to make it to primetime Marcel Vinay, Comarex. Because it is not an after-lunch product. I believe it would have done much better in primetime or access prime.
My feeling is that these powerful and realistic stories will work in Western Europe if they are adapted for weekday primetime. There is also room in Spain to adapt period telenovelas to weekly series. What I see everyday in Europe is that there are lots of room for. In Spain there are more opportunities after the phasing out of analog. The channel Nova from Antena 3, for example, has 8 hours of telenovelas programmed daily, and decided to open its primetime with a telenovela from Televisa. The preference for certain types of novelas depends more on the programming style of the different channels than their territory.
Channels create their own identities and work hard to maintain a style. They focus promotions on their slogan to try to secure a niche in the television market. Effectively, that slogan. The telenovela of today still keeps the essence of the genre. What has changed is the production technology and the makeup used to dress the story. More than change, the telenovela has evolved and that evolution defines how we dress the story up for a simple reason: if a comedy-themed telenovela obtains good ratings on a few channels, then it is generalized erroneously that comedic telenovelas work.
After six months, I had gotten to where I was eating dinner at their house regularly. This allowed me to bug Shoji's office take documents out of his trash, and copy files off his computer. I reported everything to my brother faithfully. I was never sure if the information I was providing was doing any good, but gradually, it became apparent that Shoji Okamura's business was failing. He grew more and more desperate, and one day he disappeared completely.
The happiness of the Okamura family, who had taken so much from us, had been stolen piece by piece. My brother swore he wouldn't stop until Shoji Okamura was driven to the point of taking his own life, even if it meant pushing the Three Sisters into lives of prostitution and worse. The only problem is, I had fallen in love with those same three sisters One of the most popular English-translated bishoujo games to come out of the 's, Three Sisters Story combined a complex dramatic story with beautiful female characters and many twists and turns as the game winds through its rich story.
Can you stop your insane brother and save the three sisters from his wrath? Season of the Sakura It's April. The cherry blossoms are in full bloom, exploding with beautiful shades of pink and red and white like they do every year. Their fleeting existence will end soon enough, but for now the Season of the Sakura has come again to Japan. I turn to her, standing at my side, and speak.
Do you remember? I know that she is happy. I look up at the sakura once more, and speak again That was the beginning of it all A year-long simulation in which you interact with eight beautiful girls, exploring many game paths as you try to win the hearts of each girl, Season of the Sakura is also great for fans of 90's anime because it's a parody and tribute to shows like Evangelion, Magical Knight Rayearth and St. Tail, and the game is filled with themes from these shows.
One of the most deep and romantic story-based games to be translated to English, we know you'll love Season of the Sakura! Runaway City I have the power of Good Luck It's true. I win at pachinko whenever I play, and when it rains and I'm stuck without an umbrella, a girl appears out of nowhere to let me share hers.
No matter what I do, my power never lets me down. My good luck enabled me to survive when my family decided to commit suicide together ten years ago. I wish my mother had been as lucky, but she died, leaving Dad and me to carry on. There is one thing about my power: it's getting stronger. Someday it seems like it may swallow all of Japan It's almost as it some power makes women do whatever he wants. At first it's a great power to have, then as time goes by it scares him more and more.
Unchecked, this power will be the destruction of all Japan. Can you find out the nature of your power and find a way to stop it before it goes too far? Es un juego 3D hentai RapeLay se juega desde la perspectiva de pervertir llamado Kimura Masaya, y posteriormente tallos que viole a una familia una madre y sus dos hijas.
Etiquetas: Illusion , Rapelay. Una sirvienta, la sabionda de la clase y una enfermera esperan ansiosas tus decisiones. Tienes que elegir una seleccion nacional y lanzarte a jugar a la playa donde las chicas estaran sin cubiertas pero la mejor parte es cuando ganas un partido te pasan un buen video y puedes jugar de a dos y campeonatos, son varias las selecciones entre ellas las maximas potencias y otras coladas.
Solamente por eso merece la pena hablar de Singles. Buscamos nuestras victimas en los autobuses y en el metro. Etiquetas: Illusion , Interact Play. Manejamos en distintas fases a cuatro personajes, dos agentes y dos fugitivas. En cada uno las muchachas atractivas singulares de este Flipperti lo esperan, usted anzufeuern. Etiquetas: Hot Pinball. KARI es todo acerca de desarrollar personalidades. KARI se embarca con una personalidad que es muy amistosa y ansiosa para ser su amiga. Etiquetas: Kari Virtual Girlfriend. Etiquetas: Des Blood 3 , Illusion.
Usted tiene una parte de tres personas que luchan ordinario de enemigos y jefes, a su vez, basado en el combate, usando los ataques, hechizos, etc La gira de batalla participantes son visibles en un bar. Etiquetas: Brutish Mine , Illusion. Etiquetas: Virtual Hottie 2. Let's Meow Meow! Our hero is a young man named Ibuki, a real cat lover who can't resist scratching a puss on the head.
One night, he had a vision of the Cat God, who told him that he wanted to grant Ibuki any wish as a reward for being kind to his feline friends. Ibuki wasted no time in his reply: "I want a nekomimi! Several days later, Ibuki heard a meowing sound coming from a cardboard box left outside his door. He opened the box but was shocked to see a beautiful naked cat girl curled up inside, purring.
I'm the luckiest guy in the world -- thank you, Cat God! You play the interactive game by moving through the story and making choices that affect the outcome, allowing for many different potential endings and excellent replay value. The game features the original Japanese voices along with an accurate English translation. Virtual Mate 2. For more information on the V-Mate system, see here. Find the patch at support. This cat girl maid came to this world to serve Ibuki, under the orders of the Cat God.
Mikan is very good at doing general housework, but she's always clumsy. She's always wanted to have a human family, and always asks that you ejaculate inside her when you make love. Age A bunny girl from the Bunny Kingdom, she is a famous thief who was accidentally brought to Earth when she got trapped in the portal that Mikan used to come here. She's proud of her sexual abilities and always takes the lead during sex. A police detective from the Dog Kingdom who was chasing Hanabi when she was pulled to Earth. She feels guilty when she thinks about sex, but eventually opens up when she finds the right person.
A pure and lovely person. She's the assistant of Shinju. She's very smart but somehow, nothing ever goes the way she plans it to. She's programmed for learning, and picks up plenty of knowledge about how to have sex from Ibuki. Nanami Aoba. The daughter of your landlord, she's your senpai at college.
She's known you all your life, and likes to tidy up your apartment for you. She can't seem to make up her mind whether she's going to act like your older sister or your wife. She's very jealous of the amorous cat girls who have come to live with you. A shrine maiden from the Cat Kingdom, who was sent to Ibuki by the Cat God in order to create a balance between the two kingdoms. She's very modest and loves to combine sex with Shinto rituals. Etiquetas: Biko 2 , Illusion. Create tu novia virtual y disfruta con ella a solas en una isla en la que, segun los creadores, "recrea todos los ambientes de la mayoria de los juegos hentai".
Ahi es nada. Entre sus caracteristicas esta la posibilidad de personalizar completamente a la chica. Este juego te lo permite.
Etiquetas: Artificial Girl 2 , Illusion. Original juego en el que manejas un burdel. El trabajo no es para perezosos. El completo control de los flujos financieros, la compra necesario de la maquinaria y los muebles que corresponde. Este juego es muy interesante comienzas con cierta cantidad de dinero empezando por comprar tu local tus mesas contratar personal vino muchachas lo que sea para atraer a la gente es muy bueno demasaido bueno se los recomiendo mucho.
Etiquetas: Rotlicht Tycoon 2. Newly lowered holiday price effective on all orders! My name is Tachibana Yuuji, a regular student with no particular plans for the future - until my parents left for Hawaii on a business trip last fall, leaving me in the care of my uncle in the wintry countryside of Hokkaido. Small-town life on Japan's northern island didn't have time to get dull, as from the moment I got there I was reunited with my cousin and childhood friend Saki. She's pretty demanding, but when I'm hanging out with her and her school friends I don't mind; as I get close to them I feel like I'm finding meaning in life that I didn't know I was looking for.
Legend says there is a flower that blooms here in the depth of winter Will we be able to uncover its mystery in this fleeting moment? With a captivating story from veteran scriptwriter and novelist Kitagawa Samui Erogamescape Wikipedia and beautiful, subtly erotic art from doujin artist and game illustrator Shikei, G-Collections is proud to present a classic "renai" "true love" bishoujo game.
With the windswept background of the Hokkaido winter countryside as its setting, full of moments of laughter, joy, and tender passion, Snow Sakura is a heartwarming tale of romance that you'll never forget. Tachibana Saki. Your cousin, and now housemate. Rather than a sister she feels more like another guy friend to you, which eases your transition into her circle of friends. Her house used to be a ryokan Japanese-style inn , and she's good friends with everyone in the neighborhood.
She does the cleaning and laundry herself, and thanks to her chef father she's a pretty good cook, too. Her grades aren't great, though, and academically she's a bit on the slow side. Souya Misaki. She's always full of energy and is generally level-headed, but is a terrible cook. As the class beauty she's always been popular among her male classmates, but because Kozue is constantly protecting her she's virtually impossible to approach - considered an "impossible dream" by most. Her grades are average, except for Japanese History which she learns from her older sister.
Hiyama Kozue. Your classmate and Misaki's inseparable best friend, who seems to have faint yuri tendencies. She's smart and capable, quick with wordplay and enjoys making verbal jabs that exploit others' weaknesses. There are none who surpass her intelligence-gathering capability. Her grades are above average but not outstanding, though there are rumors that she deliberately marks questions wrong to avoid unwanted attention. Kisaragi Rei. A third-year student, your senpai and a leader of Misaki's school club.
While she's the diligent, hard-working class president type, she doesn't treat others harshly, more like a kind older sister. She enjoys mahjong, often using it in metaphors. Her grades are of course top class, and she's considered the brightest hope of the school.
She lives in a Shinto shrine, and helps out there as a miko shrine priestess during the New Year's festivities. Souya Misato. Misaki's older sister, and your Japanese History teacher. She's a fan of the Bakumatsu period and of Hijikata Toshizou. She's naturally airheaded, and outside of her chosen field is rather useless for anything else, though for some reason she's a really good cook. She's capable of stumbling on perfectly level ground, and has been known to fall asleep during her own lessons.
This seems to make her all the more attractive, forming with Misaki the school's popular pair of sisters. Etiquetas: Peach Princess , Snow Sakura. American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese. Accessed January 4, Diego, Gerardo de. Madrid: Signo. Madrid: Taurus. Accessed November 4, Eliot, T. The Hudson Review 2 3 , pp. The Hudson Review, Inc. Accessed April 18, Englekirk, John E, Edgar Allan Poe in Hispanic literature. Ferguson, John De Lancey, American Literature in Spain. New York: Columbia University Press. Accessed November 1, Flores Moreno, Cristina, Odisea 10, pp.
Accessed April 9, Franz, Thomas R, University of Pennsylvania Press. Accessed February 3, Grantz, David. Hawking, Stephen W. A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes. London: Bantam. Hobson Quinn, Arthur and Rosenheim, Shawn. Edgar Allan Poe: a critical biography. Hopkins, John H. Humboldt, Alexander von. Cosmos: a sketch of a physical description of the universe, Volume 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Google eBook. Biography and Works: Accessed February 3, Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado S.
Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, S. Madrid: Aguilar.
Madrid: Alianza Editorial S. La realidad invisible , London: Tamesis Books Limited. Preliminary study and selection Aurora de Albornoz. Diario de un poeta reciencasado Michael P. Kant, Immanuel. Lartigue G, Juan. Machado, Antonio. Los complementarios.
- Philosophy and The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy;
- Jasons Helmet?
- Novel Technologies in Food Science: Their Impact on Products, Consumer Trends and the Environment: 7 (Integrating Food Science and Engineering Knowledge Into the Food Chain).
Otros poemas. Geoffrey Ribbans.
Campos de Castilla. Accessed June 2, Moreno, Carlos. Flores Moreno, Cristina. Nelson, Roland W. Nietzsche, Friedrich. El Anticristo. Biography and Works. Poe, Edgar Allan. Accessed September 22, The Letters of Edgar Allan Poe. Edited by John Ward Ostrom. Cambridge, Mass. Essays and Reviews. Edited by G. New York: Library of America, Complete Poems. Edited by Thomas Ollive Mabbott. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Schopenhauer, Arthur. Accessed December 11, Stott, G. Electronic journal of theory of literature and comparative literature, , 1, Accessed February 2, Stovall, Floyd.
College English , Vol. National Council of Teachers of English. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, p. Buenos Aires. Accessed April 26, Madrid, Espasa-Calpe. Young, Howard T. Accessed February 8, Eureka : A Prose Poem. New York: Geo. Acceso 3 de febrero, Acceso 31 de enero, To the few who love me and whom I love — to those who feel rather than to those who think — to the dreamers and those who put faith in dreams as in the only realities — I offer this Book of Truths, not in its character of Truth-Teller, but for the Beauty that abounds in its Truth; constituting it true.
To these I present the composition as an Art-Product alone: — let us say as a Romance; or, if I be not urging too lofty a claim, as a Poem. London: Bantam, A second problem likely originates from presenting philosophical, metaphysical and astronomical concepts without Poe's possession of an academic degree to support them, including a methodology not always rigorous, and sometimes intuitive. These factors contributed to the refusal of the scientific community, fully opposed to the concept of an evolutive Universe, during his time and later. Acceso 2 de febrero, The Hudson Review , Vol.
Acceso 18 de abril, Acceso 13 de febrero 13, Acceso 9 de abril, Acceso 26 de abril, Acceso 4 de noviembre, Acceso 8 de febrero, Irish dramatic works have a history of becoming successful exports. A significant number of plays emanating from Ireland have been incorporated to the Galician theatrical system since the early 20 th century. To a great extent, the origin of this interest can be attributed to the poeticised connection between Ireland and Galicia established in the Rexurdimento and its later utilisation by the nationalist movement. Even though this continues to affect the reception of Irish cultural products, other factors must be considered when scrutinising more recent incorporations.
Arguably, few national identities are as internationally recognisable as the Irish, due to an array of cultural references that populate the collective imaginary, both within and beyond its geographical borders. Long before the Celtic Tiger catapulted the country to the international foreground in a way that transcended the purely economic, Ireland could count cultural products as some of its most visible exports, amongst them, numerous Irish dramatic works. In Spain, we find a considerable number of plays by Irish authors entering the system from the early 20th century onwards, not only being translated into Spanish but also into Catalan, Basque and Galician.
The focal point of my research is how the representation of Irish identity on the Galician stage has been—and currently is—affected by the multiplicity of factors at play in the theatre adaptation process. I will utilise both textual and extratextual sources in order to carry out an analysis of the incorporation process in line with Descriptive Translation Studies. However, while this approach is adequate when identifying and describing the operational norms which determine the final product, it does not do full justice to the multilayered nature of dramatic phenomena nor to the different dialogical levels present in theatre translation.
In particular, the range of agents and mediators involved in the process of transposing a play for the stage, and who influence the decision-making process, demands close attention to their positioning in the political and sociocultural context. Although Descriptive Translation Studies scholars and approaches are not insensitive to the cultural aspects of translation, these do not constitute its main preoccupation. Accordingly, my analysis is enriched by drawing on culturalist and comparative approaches, such as those proposed by Bassnett and Venuti. In that time, the London-born playwright had gained recognition, not only through his dramatic works but also as a script writer, with the award-winning films Six Shooter and In Bruges All productions in Galician language are automatically nominated and there is nothing preventing members from voting for shows that they have not attended nor indeed for the only show they have seen in a given category.
More relevant to the matter, translations and adaptations will almost invariably be judged without knowledge of the original text. Therefore, as with most awards, their significance as a measure of quality or impact is relative, to say the least. As a minorised language, Galician does not enjoy the same status as Spanish in the area of cultural manifestations, despite apparently favourable legal and institutional structures.
The relatively high number of Irish plays—and particularly Irish-themed plays—produced in the Galician theatre system can be linked to an ongoing interest in Irish culture initiated during the Rexurdimento, the 19 th century literary movement which had the rehabilitation of Galician language and cultural identity at its core.
This mythical common origin went on to be utilised by the nationalist movement during the 20th century, in an attempt to legitimise claims for recognition and increased autonomy from the central government in Madrid by drawing a parallel with the Irish political situation. The translation was accompanied by poems and pseudo-anthropological articles on Ireland, as well as several references to Terence McSwiney, the late Lord Mayor of Cork, who had recently died on hunger strike.
It is a text that ultimately exemplifies the extent of this mystified identification with Irish culture in the Galician system; an identification that, I will show, continues to affect the incorporation of cultural products from Ireland. In his work Theatre and Globalizaton. Irish Drama in the Celtic Tiger Era, PatrickLonergan discusses in detail how the reception of Irish theatre is affected by globalisation, a concept that has in recent times become increasingly relevant when examining the creation and reception of cultural products, especially those destined to travel beyond their source context.
Dramatic works are thereby presented as products and, indeed, Lonergan takes into consideration some of the commercial aspects of the productions he examines. If we consider a brand as constituted by a collection of recognisable features, the term is not only applicable but particularly relevant in cases where the export of a dramatic work requires a process of adaptation. At a time when cultural manifestations cross borders more often than ever due to the increased accessibility brought about by the multiple media at our disposal, such distinctions would nevertheless indicate a source system in which the issue of national identity is a recurrent subject of discussion.
Indeed, in the Irish cultural context, attempts to define the essential features of Irishness are commonplace. This is not a description for outsiders but an account destined to encourage reflection and internal discussion on the aspects that have affected the makeup of Irish society in recent times. A modern day Synge or an English chancer? The Irishness of the people is part of the joke.
You can see in a writer like Beckett, who was Irish, that when he depicts the depleted human condition, he does it without reference to ethnicity. The inhabitants of the stage Leenane that he recreates are loaded with markers of Irishness, albeit rather conventional ones.
McKinty Indeed, as far as the Galician context is concerned, the Irish origin of the plays has not only been decisive for their incorporation but has also been repeatedly utilised in the marketing of the productions. Perhaps for that very reason, debate over whether Martin McDonagh deserves a place in the Irish canon does not attract much attention; neither does his use of ethnicity in ways that for many of his detractors treads a fine line between the grotesque and the downright racist. Although the problematic delimitation of the term is well-documented MacCarthy , the majority of the audience are likely to remain unaware of its colonial overtones and accept the simplified image of Irish identity that is laid before them.
The main image chosen to represent the play on promotional cards and posters is a skull made up of shamrocks in two contrasting shades of green. The original title in English appears on posters and programmes in virtually the same size as the title in Galician, drawing attention to the fact that audiences will be confronted with a translated play. This shift in the title anticipates the underlying mystery present throughout the play—did Mick Dowd kill his wife with a blow to the head?
According to Patrick Lonergan, this is crucial in making the plays exportable:. Lonergan , xvi. While McDonagh certainly shows an inclination towards reliance on audience interpretation for completeness, this is by no means unique to his works. Perhaps, the aspect that truly sets him apart is the way in which he manipulates our expectations, whether of the characters or of the plot itself, to the point that spectators often find themselves questioning their earlier assumptions.
In any case, he eludes demanding from the audience absolute condemnation or forgiveness for the people of Leenane, however questionable their actions may be. In the broad field of translation studies, it is now generally accepted that the translation of dramatic works for performance entails specific difficulties, not least because of the layers of readings that overlap in the journey from source text to target text.
The translation scholar Susan Bassnett has demonstrated over the decades a distinct preoccupation with theatre translation, an area which she considers has been by and large neglected both in prescriptive and descriptive approaches. For a translation to have an impact upon the target system, there has to be a gap in the system which reflects a particular need, and the skills of the translator have to be such that the end product is more than merely acceptable.
Bassnett and Lefevere , Although Bassnett is referring to poetry on this occasion, her words can be fittingly applied to the translation of dramatic works. For a production to be viable, it needs to appeal to audiences or, to put it in economic terms, there needs to be a market for it.
Likewise, viability relies to a great extent on the knowledge the translator has of the specific requirements of translation for the stage and her awareness of performability. Therefore, the impact of a dramatic translation in the target system can be also measured against these two axes—the gap and the craft.
While this can provide a starting point, we must not forget that the translator is not the only contributor to the performance text and the input of director, actors or even audiences can be equally relevant. Therefore, the awareness of a gap is ultimately produced by an encounter, or even a series of encounters, involving all the participants in the process. Yeats and his contemporaries. This perception permeated the translation, performance and production choices and, in turn, the reception of the play.
In costumbrista plays, the rural setting is often a backdrop—nearly another prop—for events dealing with universals of the human condition, a sort of locus amoenus that does not deeply affect nor is it affected by the characters. In contrast, McDonagh dissociates himself from the costumbrista agenda through realistic conventions with a touch of the dark humour to which TV and film-educated audiences nowadays seem to respond so well, and also by tying the people of Leenane indissolubly to their surroundings, starting with the geographical references in the titles, ranging from the most specific The Beauty Queen of Leenane , to the most general The Lonesome West , passing through Connemara.
This begs the question whether theatre companies or audiences would show the same degree of recognition, or even tolerance, towards similar portrayals of rural life that had originated in Galicia. The acceptability of realism in the Galician system is increased by the fact that the plays in question are translations from a more established source culture that is in many ways deemed more prestigious.
Therefore, this example of realism can enjoy a higher level of acceptability as a form incorporated from a prestigious source culture than it would had it emanated from the Galician target system itself. The status occupied by these translated texts in the target system is symptomatic of the status occupied by translation in the Galician dramatic canon. The place occupied by the sui generis realism cultivated by McDonagh in the Galician context and the acceptability enjoyed by Un cranio furado reflect the central role played by translation in this particular target system.
At present, translation is considered in the Galician context as a very legitimate source of creative material for theatre practitioners. However, this was not always the case and the debate around the issue of translation was still very intense in the s. This controversy derived from the sociolinguistic situation, namely the minorised status of the Galician language and the divergent approaches to broadening its contexts of use. For the critics of translation, only original creations in Galician could contribute to the establishment of a Galician dramatic canon.
However, this may be down to the specific characteristics of A Skull in Connemara , ratherthan a general reflection of attitudes towards translation in the Galician system. However, as they developed their various arguments, it became increasingly clear that it is not an aspect that can be overlooked. The way in which the Leenane Trilogy has been marketed as Irish drama in the Galician context is particularly noticeable in the case of A Skull in Connemara. The visual language is unequivocally evocative of the Irish brand. By producing the illusion of transparency, a fluent translation masquerades as true semantic equivalence when it in fact inscribes the foreign text with a partial interpretation, partial to English language values, reducing if not simply excluding the very difference that translation is called on to convey.
Yet, the concepts of domesticating and foreignizing translation can only be applied to cultural manifestations in minorised languages such as Galician with some nuances. However, the aim is not to conceal the translation process as such, since the translational aspect plays a crucial role in the acceptability of the sub-genre of this piece as explained above. As opposed to creating the illusion that a play belongs to the target culture by erasing any trace of otherness, the preservation of foreign cultural references challenges the audience to confront aspects of a different cultural reality that they are probably not familiar with.
Conversely, theatre-goers are also presented with additional references to the source culture easily recognisable to them. These are not necessarily characteristic of an Irish country kitchen but they fulfil their purpose because, in the eyes of the target audience, they are clearly evocative of Ireland. When queried about his stance in relation to realistic representation and characterisation, director Quico Cadaval shows a very pragmatic attitude towards recreation at the service of a vision:. The problem in theatre is a problem of convention: the sooner you get the audience to accept, the sooner we get started.
He is immediately identifiable as police, on account of his uniform and his gun. As well as raising questions with regards to the issue of authorship and fidelity, London illustrates the long-lasting effects of the transformation of cultural references on the reception of translated dramatic works. London , In the translation of drama for the stage, the concept of performability replaces the idea of readability and this imposes a series of specific demands to be met by the translator. As per present day conventions, the translator of the performance text should remain invisible.
In realistic theatrical modes, the invisibility of the actors is also desirable, since they must give way to the characters, while ensuring a convincing delivery of their lines. This combination of fluidity and fluency required of the performance text hinders any attempt at the foreignizing strategies advocated by Lawrence Venuti. His ideas resonate with Hans J. In fact, lexical alternatives are often favoured on the basis of feedback from performers obtained during the rehearsal process.
If there is interest, he then proceeds to work on a performance text which is by no means a definitive version but rather a malleable material for the director and the performers. There is no doubt that his experience as an actor informs his approach to translating a dramatic text, as does the fact that he is not a translator by trade. When he reads a play, he does so from the perspective of a performer, with its advantages and limitations. Whilst he has the benefit of an awareness of what works on stage and benefits from the opportunity to closely collaborate with the performers, his methodology relies to a great extent on an intuitive identification of phraseology and context-specific elements.
While the use of Irish symbols in the adaptation of A Skull in Connemara can be linked to the above-mentioned mythical connection with the Irish nation within the Galician context, these stereotypes are also commonplace at a global level as markers of the Irish brand. Although different in many ways from the early 20 th century identification utilised by the incipient nationalist movement in Galicia, there is a common strategic aim in the utilisation of visual elements, as well as in the manner in which the play is framed.
The implication is that the source text contained an irreverent essence that the target culture lacks and desires, a trait that can only be taken by force. Whereas the Irish may see a caricatured representation of Ireland through a compendium of stereotypical features, non-Irish audiences will just identify Ireland and Galician audiences may also recognise themselves. I interpret the distillation of Irish identity present in Un cranio furado not so much as an attempt to open the eyes of the Galician public to a different culture but as an introspective view into how Galicians perceive their own ethnicity, their own national identity.
Benoit, Elie. Berman, Antoine. Lawrence Venuti, London and New York: Routledge. Cadaval, Quico. Un cranio furado , hand programme. On the incorporation of Un cranio furado 3 September. Oleiros: Netbiblo. Freyne, Patrick. The Irish ideologies. London, John. Lonergan, Patrick. The Theatre and Films of martin McDonagh. London: Methuen Drama. MacCarthy, Anne. Identities in Irish Literature. McDonald, Henry. McKinty, Adrian. Munday, Jeremy. Introducing Translation Studies. Theories and Applications. O'Neill, Elizabeth.
The Lieutenant of Inishmore. Unha prospectiva xeral. No aniversario da estrea de A fonte do xuramento , de Manuel, coord. Vieites, Vigo: Editorial Galaxia. Company web site. Toury, Gideon. Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator's Invisibility. A History of Translation. London: Routledge. Although an interesting area, it will not focus on the many examples of interlingual translation that take place throughout the text, but instead the less obvious and subtler cases in which the protagonist of the novel, Jacques Deza, provides readers with cases of intralingual translation.
This suggests that, if both the source text and its translation appear obscure and subjective, the certainty of the message that results from this process is rendered questionable. As the following article seeks to show, this ambiguity is present in the communication process, whether the linguistic exchange takes place between two languages or within the confines of one. Thus, the relentless personal interpretation of messages in the novel brings into question the veracity of the story told by the narrator, turning the narrative plot into a domain where ambiguity and haziness emerge as all-pervasive.
The term intralingual translation was coined by Roman Jakobson in , distinguishing between interlingual between languages , intralingual within a language and intersemiotic translation in which written text is translated into different artistic forms, such as music or cinema. The notion of intralingual translation refers to the process of interpreting information within the confines of a single language, exploring the nature and value of paraphrasing and rewording Venuti , George Steiner argues that translation is a process that takes place every time a person receives a message from another human being, even when only one language is involved in the process , In this sense, translation is understood as an interpretation of information.
The main focus of the article is to assess the ways in which messages are interpreted or by the narrator, as well as how this interpretation constitutes an important tool in the creation of an all-pervasive uncertainty within the plot. The same subjectivity with which the author believes reality is experienced by human beings is transferred to the main character of Rostro , Jacques Deza, who also experiences both his own reality and conversations subjectively, making use of intersemiotic and intralingual translations respectively.
Firstly, the intersemiotic translation that Deza embodies entails a subjectivity that could be placed alongside the visual and plastic arts, which have long acknowledged that the representation of reality is utterly dependent on the eye of the artist: reality acts as a message that is filtered by the artist subjectively in a not too dissimilar way to that whereby reality is interpreted by a speaker. The movement of impressionism constitutes one of the many examples of subjective representation. It is almost as if there were a narrator whose impression of reality is being presented as the only one.
It is the individual perception of reality by human beings, but also and more specifically that of artists. This explains why, in the words of David K. Amongst other types of first-person narrators, Franz K. Therefore, although he is the main character and the person who experiences most actions, he also appears as though he were stepping back from the action to watch over it. The outcome is a first-person narrator who, although a witness of events, is nevertheless the main centre of the action and therefore is often found witnessing his own life.
Whether it is the reality around the narrators or the conversations they hear, both source texts are inherently unstable. The reflections and opinions about the nature and effects of storytelling in the text will be analysed in the light of intralingual translation. The interpretations about suspects advanced by Deza as well as his reflections upon them are amongst the most remarkable traits of the novel.
These are based on his partial experiencing of reality and on the subjective nature of language respectively. This suggests there is inaccuracy and ambiguity in the intersemiotic translation of reality into language. And how does intralingual translation function and affect the plot? Indeed, Deza states that what he hears affects him as much as what he lives BS , In his second stay in England, he starts to work for a mysterious organization, which he believes to be linked to the British Secret Services.
Initially, his work consists of translating Spanish discourses of suspects into English. However, it is not long before these discourses stop coming from Spanish speakers and start taking place in English, shifting the focus from an interlingual to an intralingual interpretation. In fact, Deza is not merely interpreting verbal messages from suspects but also translating verbally what he perceives from their linguistic and non-linguistic behaviour: their tone of voice, inflections or nuances as well as other signals such as gesture and clothing.
Therefore, he is interpreting intralingually, but he is also translating reality into language. In both cases, uncertainty and subjectivity prevail, but intralingual translation poses a second layer of complexity since the verbal messages interpreted are a translation of some previous aspect of reality, a process which could stretch ad infinitum. In his own words about his job:. Interpretaba—en tres palabas—historias, personas, vidas. Historias por suceder, frecuentemente FL , There are a number of uncertainties surrounding the process of interpreting people.
His judgements and interpretations are based on what often is an absence of information FL , Secondly, his own interpretations, often based upon uncertainties, are subjective by nature because they belong to his perception. The nature of his job constitutes, thus, an impossible task. He has to interpret the future based on a number of uncertainties, and although he seems to agree with the premise of its impossibility, he nevertheless takes the risk and experiences the bitter consequences of his interpretations, ignoring his own warning about how no one should ever tell anything to anyone, and realising that, although unknown to him in most cases, his verbal interpretations do have consequences.
If the true meaning of facts only depends on their interpretation, such meaning will always be inevitably subjective. Thirdly, and not without controversy, these interpretations are essential in assigning meaning to facts that would otherwise not have any. Hence, his interpretation of the suspects mirrors the interpretation of reality as a simulacrum through language; much as the suspects, reality is only ever experienced partially and is expressed subjectively through the inadequate means of a linguistic system.
Finally, there is great ambiguity surrounding the purpose or destination of these messages. The narrator admits he does not have any information about the purpose his interpretations serve, even questioning whether they have any at all FL, , ; BS , Just as expressions of life are connected in the most intimate manner with the living being without having any significance for the latter, a translation proceeds from the original.
Herzberger posits the importance of this issue, alluding to the lack of control that he has over his words:. Who listens to them? And how do they interpret them? The novelist, she states, is not responsible for the ideas or temptations that his fictions provoke BS , 54 , just as they are not responsible for the actions that their interpretations trigger.
In the words of Herzberger:. One of the most interesting paradoxes of the novel is that, however unreliable and dangerous language interpretations are, they happen constantly and have the ability to shape the course of events. This sheds light on the questioning of reality, a fragile domain susceptible to the subjectivity and uncertainty of language interpretation. The danger of this practice is patent in the plot; Dearlove is not the only one who controls his story.
During the course of this process, Deza is also affected by his own interpretations since the decision to leave his job and return to Madridis based on the consequences of his own words about Dearlove. Arguably, this transformative power rests upon the idea of intralingual translation.
In other words, the power of stories rests on the premise that each receiver will interpret and use the story depending on their own circumstances, desires or whims. This process, due to its never-ending nature, takes place whenever there is a verbal discourse and constitutes a fundamental trait of language. The fascination with the consequences of speaking and interpreting is patent in the Miranda warning, upon which the protagonist reflects in the novel as another example of the dangerous effects of this never-ending process.
The Miranda warning is a legal warning given by the police in the United States aimed at criminal suspects in police custody to prevent them from incriminating themselves. They are given the right to remain silent because anything that they say may be used against them. This use of language prompts the idea of J. Deza remembers a time when he was told the Miranda warning inaccurately, and therefore invalidly FL , The dangers of speaking and the advisability of remaining silent are further illustrated in the campaign against careless talk.
Deza finds out the extent of its historical relevance through Sir Peter Wheeler. The campaign was launched in Britain during the Second World War to urge people not to talk to anyone about anything that could compromise national security. This fear of spies resulted in the inevitable perception of language as a dangerous tool that could be used against speakers at any point. Sir Peter Wheeler describes the nature of this process:.
The idea of careless talk, which represents the dangers of speaking and being heard, is inextricably linked to our third example, the act of eavesdropping, for the latter represents one of the dangers about which the campaign was trying to warn its target audience. On both occasions, the characters he spies on would have either used a different tone as is the case with De La Garza or omitted information in the case of Luisa had they known that Deza was listening.
Therefore, the danger of language is intimately linked to the idea of intralingual translation precisely because this danger stems from the interpretation of the message by its receiver. It is the appropriation of messages which, as previous examples show, leads to fatal consequences.
In other words, one message has multiple intralingual translations, turning the act of communication into a subjective and uncertain process. These interpretations are both the only way for the message to exist and the reason why they can never be trustworthy.
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