Because of this it was brought to an end in , when its capital, Santa Igia , was stormed and destroyed by an alliance of Sardinian and Pisan forces. The Judicate of Logudoro also called Torres was also allied to the Republic of Genoa and came to an end in after the death of the judikessa queen Adelasia. The territory was divided up between the Doria and Malaspina families of Genoa and the Bas-Serra family of Arborea , while the city of Sassari became a small republic, along the lines of the Italian city-states comuni , confederated firstly with Pisa and then with Genoa.
The Judicate of Gallura ended in the year , when the last giudice, Nino Visconti a friend of Dante Alighieri , was driven out by the Pisans, who occupied the territory. The Judicate of Arborea , having Oristano as its capital, had the longest life compared to the other kingdoms. This had broken out in between the Capetian House of Anjou and Catalans over the possession of Sicily.
Despite the existence of the indigenous states, the Pope offered this newly created crown to James II of Aragon , promising him support should he wish to conquer Pisan Sardinia in exchange for Sicily. In , in alliance with the Kingdom of Arborea  and following a military campaign that lasted a year or so, the Aragon Crown Prince Alfonso led a Catalan army that occupied the Pisan territories of Cagliari and Gallura along with the allied city of Sassari, naming them " The Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica ".
During this period, the Judicate of Arborea promulgated the legal code of the kingdom in the Carta de Logu 'Charter of the Land'. The legal code was written in Sardinian and established a whole range of citizens' rights. Among the revolutionary concepts in this Carta de Logu was the right of women to refuse marriage and to own property. In terms of civil liberties, the code made provincial 14th century Sardinia one of the most developed societies in all of Europe.
In , Peter IV of Aragon , following Aragonese customs, granted a parliament to the kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, which was followed by some degree of self-government under a viceroy and judicial independence. This parliament, however, had limited powers. It consisted of high-ranking military commanders, the clergy and the nobility. The kingdom of Aragon also introduced the feudal system into the areas of Sardinia that it ruled.
The Sardinian Judicates never adopted feudalism, and Arborea maintained its parliament, called the Corona de Logu "Crown of the Realm". In this parliament, apart from the nobles and military commanders, also sat the representatives of each township and village. The Corona de Logu exercised some control over the king: under the rule of the bannus consensus the king could be deposed or even executed if he did not follow the rules of the kingdom.
The battle was fought by about 20, Sardinian, Genoese and French knights, enrolled from their kingdom at a time when the population of Sardinia had been greatly depleted by the plague. Despite the Sardinian army outnumbering the Aragonese army, they were defeated. The Judicate of Arborea disappeared in , when its rights were sold by the last king for , gold florins ,  and after some of its most notable men switched sides in exchange for privileges.
For example, Leonardo Cubello, with some claim to the crown being from a family related to the Kings of Arborea, was granted the title of Marquis of Oristano and feudal rights on a territory that partly overlapped with the original extension of the Kingdom of Arborea in exchange for his subjection to the Aragonese monarchs.
The conquest of Sardinia by the Kingdom of Aragon meant the introduction of the feudal system throughout Sardinia. Thus Sardinia is probably the only European country where feudalism was introduced in the transition period from the Middle Ages to the early modern period , at a time when feudalism had already been abandoned by many other European countries. The successors of Charles I of Spain , in order to defend their Mediterranean territories from raids of the Barbary pirates , fortified the Sardinian shores with a system of coastal lookout towers, allowing the gradual resettlement of some coastal areas.
The Kingdom of Sardinia remained Aragonese-Spanish for about years, from to , assimilating a number of Spanish traditions, customs and linguistic expressions, nowadays vividly portrayed in the folklore parades of Saint Efisio in Cagliari 1 May , the Cavalcade on Sassari last but one Sunday in May , and the Redeemer in Nuoro 28 August.
To this day Catalan is still spoken in the north-western city of Alghero l'Alguer. Many famines have been reported in Sardinia.
Titoli di Viaggio
According to Stephen L. Dyson and Robert J. Rowland, "The Jesuits of Cagliari recorded years during the late 16th century "of such hunger and so sterile that the majority of the people could sustain life only with wild ferns and other weeds" During the terrible famine of , some 80, people, out of a total population of ,, are said to have died, and entire villages were devastated In , as a consequence of the Spanish War of Succession , the rule of the Kingdom of Sardinia passed from King Philip V of Spain into the hands of the Austrians , who occupied the island.
In , with the Treaty of London, Sardinia was eventually handed over to the House of Savoy , that would impose the Italian language on the island in On 23 February , Domenico Millelire , commanding the Sardinian fleet, defeated the fleets of the French Republic near the Maddalena archipelago , of which then-lieutenant Napoleon Bonaparte was a leader. Because of these successes, the representatives of the nobility and clergy Stamenti formulated five requests addressed to the King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia , but they were all met with rejection.
Because of this discontent, on 28 April , during an uprising in Cagliari , two Savoyard officials were killed; that was the spark that ignited a revolt called the "Sardinian Vespers" throughout the island, which started on 28 April commemorated today as sa die de sa Sardigna with the expulsion and execution of the Piedmontese officers for a few days from the Capital Cagliari.
On 28 December Sassari insurgents demonstrating against feudalism, mainly from the region of Logudoro , occupied the city. On 13 February , in order to prevent the spread of the revolt, the viceroy Filippo Vivalda gave the Sardinian magistrate Giovanni Maria Angioy the role of Alternos, which meant a substitute of the viceroy himself. Angioy moved from Cagliari to Sassari, and during his journey almost all the villages joined the uprising, demanding an end to feudalism and aiming to declare the island to be an independent republic,   but once he was outnumbered by loyalist forces he fled to Paris and sought support for a French annexation of the island.
In , the islet near Sardinia was attacked by the Tunisians and over inhabitants were taken away as slaves. In , as a consequence of the Napoleonic Wars in Italy, the Savoy royal family left Turin and took refuge in Cagliari for some fifteen years. In , the Savoyards imposed the "Enclosures Act" Editto delle Chiudende on the island, aimed at turning the land's traditional collective ownership, a cultural and economic cornerstone of Sardinia since the Nuragic times,  to private property.
This gave rise to many abuses, as the reform favoured the landholders while excluding the poor Sardinian farmers and shepherds, who witnessed the abolition of the communal rights and the sale of the land. Many local rebellions like the Nuorese Su Connottu "The Already Known" in Sardinian riot in ,   all repressed by the King's army, resulted in an attempt to return to the past and reaffirm the right to use the once common land.
However the common lands called ademprivios were never completely abolished, and they are still present in large number to this day , hectares of common lands were counted in , of which , constituted by woods. In , the confederation of states powered by the Savoyard kings of Sardinia became a unitarian and constitutional state and moved to the Italian Wars of Independence for the Unification of Italy , that were led for thirteen years. In , being Italy united by a debated war campaign, the parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia decided by law to change its name and the title of its king to Kingdom of Italy and King of Italy.
Most Sardinian forests were cut down at this time, in order to provide the Piedmontese with raw materials, like wood, used to make railway sleepers on the mainland. It was the first and only regional military unit in Italy, since the people enrolled were only Sardinians. The brigade suffered heavy losses and earned four Gold Medals of Military Valor. Sardinia lost more young people than any other Italian region on the front, with casualties per soldiers compared to the Italian average of casualties. During the Fascist period, with the implementation of the policy of autarky , several swamps around the island were reclaimed and agrarian communities founded.
The main communities were the village of Mussolinia now called Arborea , populated by farmers from Veneto and Friuli , in the area of Oristano and Fertilia , populated at first by settlers from the Ferrara area, followed, after World War II , by a notable number of Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians hailing from territories lost to Yugoslavia , in the area adjacent the city of Alghero , within the region of Nurra. Also established during that time was the city of Carbonia , which became the main centre of coal mining activity, that attracted thousand of workers from the rest of the Island and the Italian mainland.
During the Second World War , Sardinia was an important air and naval base and was heavily bombed by the Allies , especially the city of Cagliari. German troops left the island on 8 September , a few days after the Armistice of Cassibile , and retired to Corsica without fighting and bloodshed, after a bilateral agreement between the general Antonio Basso Commander of the Armed Forces of Sardinia and the German Karl Hans Lungerhausen, general of the 90th Panzergrenadier Division.
In , by popular referendum, Italy became a republic, with Sardinia being administered since by a special statute of autonomy. In the early s, an industrialisation effort was commenced, the so-called Piani di Rinascita rebirth plans , with the initiation of major infrastructure projects on the island. These included the construction of new dams and roads, reforestation, agricultural zones on reclaimed marshland, and large industrial complexes primarily oil refineries and related petrochemical operations.
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With the creation of petrochemical industries , thousands of ex-farmers became industrial workers. The oil crisis caused the termination of employment for thousands of workers employed in the petrochemical industries, which aggravated the emigration already present in the s and s. Sardinia faced the creation of military bases on the island,   like Decimomannu Air Base and Salto di Quirra the biggest scientific military base in Europe in the same decades.
Sardinian nationalism and local protest movements became stronger in the s, and a number of bandits anonima sarda started a long series of kidnappings , which ended only in the s. In a prominent activist of a separatist party, the Sardinian Action Party Partidu Sardu — Partito Sardo d'Azione , was elected president of the regional parliament, and in the s several other movements calling for independence from Italy were born; in the s some of them became political parties, even if in a rather disjointed manner. It was not until that the island's languages Sardinian , Sassarese , Gallurese , Algherese and Tabarchino were recognised, even if just formally, together with Italian.
The 35th G8 summit was planned by Prodi II Cabinet to be held in Sardinia, on the island of La Maddalena , in July ; however, in April , the Italian Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi , decided, without convoking the Italian parliament or consulting the Sardinian governor of his own party , to move the summit, even though the works were almost completed, to L'Aquila , provoking heavy protests. Today Sardinia is phasing in as an EU region, with a diversified economy focused on tourism and the tertiary sector.
The economic efforts of the last twenty years have reduced the handicap of insularity, especially in the fields of low-cost air travel and advanced information technology. CRS4 allowed several telecommunication companies and internet service providers based on the island to flourish, such as Videonline in , Tiscali in and Andala Umts in Diodorus Siculus writes that after Heracles had performed his Labours , gods told him that before he passed into the company of the gods, he should create a colony at Sardinia and make his sons, who had with the daughters of Thespius , the leaders of the settlement.
When his sons became adults, he sent them together with Iolaus to the island. Total literacy rate including people over 65 is Sardinia has two public universities: the University of Sassari and the University of Cagliari , founded in the 16th and 17th century. Taken as a whole, Sardinia's economic conditions are such that the island is in the best position among Italian regions located south of Rome. The greatest economic development had taken place inland, in the provinces of Cagliari and Sassari , characterized by a certain amount of enterprise.
The per capita income in Sardinia is the highest of the southern half of Italy. The Sardinian economy is, however, constrained due to the high costs of the transportation of goods and electricity, which is twice that of the continental Italian regions, and triple that of the EU average. Sardinia is the only Italian region that produces a surplus of electricity, and exports electricity to Corsica and the Italian mainland : in , the new submarine power cable Sapei entered into operation.
Small scale LNG terminals and a km gas pipeline are under construction, and will be operative in They will decrease the current high cost of the electric power in the island. Three main banks are headquartered in Sardinia. However, the Banco di Sardegna and the Banca di Sassari , both originally from Sassari , are controlled by the mainland-based Banca Popolare dell'Emilia-Romagna ; likewise the Banca di Credito Sardo , originally based in Cagliari , has been absorbed by the parent company Intesa Sanpaolo in There are chances for Sardinia to become a tax haven , the whole island territory being free by custom duties , vat and excise taxes on fuel; since February , the town of Portoscuso has become the first free trade zone.
The unemployment rate for the fourth quarter of was 8. The Unemployment rate drop to This table shows the sectors of the Sardinian economy in . Sardinia has been for thousands of years specializing in sheep breeding, and, to a lesser extent, goats and cattle that is less productive of agriculture in relation to land use. It is probably in breeding and cattle ownership the economic base of the early proto-historic and monumental Sardinian civilization from Neolithic to the Iron Age.
Even agriculture has played a very important role in the economic history of the island, especially in the great plain of Campidano , particularly suitable for wheat farming. The Sardinian soils, even those plains are slightly permeable, with aquifers of lacking and sometimes brackish water and very small natural reserves. Water scarcity was the first problem that was faced for the modernization of the sector, with the construction of a great barrier system of dams, which today contains nearly 2 billion cubic meters of water.
The reclamations have helped to extend the crops and to introduce other ones such as vegetables and fruit, next to the historical ones, olive and grapes that are present in the hilly areas. The Campidano plain, the largest lowland Sardinian produces oats , barley and durum , of which is one of the most important Italian producers. Among the vegetables, as well as artichokes, has a certain weight the production of oranges , and, before the reform of the sugar sector from the European Union, the cultivation of sugar beet. The cork district, in the northern part of the Gallura region, around Calangianus and Tempio Pausania , is composed of companies.
In fresh food, as well as artichokes, the production of tomatoes including Camoni tomato and citrus fruit are of a certain weight. Sardinia is the 5th Italian region for rice production, the main paddy fields are located in the Arborea Plain. In addition to meat, Sardinia produces a wide variety of cheese, considering that half of the sheep milk produced in Italy is produced in Sardinia, and is largely worked by the cooperatives of the shepherds and small industries.
Sardinia boasts a centuries-old tradition of horse breeding since the Aragonese domination, whose cavalry drew from equine heritage of the island to strengthen their own army or to make a gift to the other sovereigns of Europe. There is little fishing and no real maritime tradition , Portoscuso tunas are exported worldwide, but primarily to Japan. The once prosperous mining industry is still active though restricted to coal Nuraxi Figus , hamlet of Gonnesa ,  antimony Villasalto , gold Furtei , bauxite Olmedo and lead and zinc Iglesiente , Nurra.
The granite extraction represents one of the most flourishing industries in the northern part of the island. The principal industries are chemicals Porto Torres , Cagliari , Villacidro , Ottana , petrochemicals Porto Torres , Sarroch , metalworking Portoscuso, Portovesme, Villacidro , cement Cagliari , pharmaceutical Sassari , shipbuilding Arbatax , Olbia , Porto Torres , oil rig construction Arbatax , rail industry Villacidro ,   arms industries at Domusnovas   and food sugar refineries at Villasor and Oristano, dairy at Arborea , Macomer and Thiesi , fish factory at Olbia.
In Sardinia is located the DASS Distretto Aerospaziale della Sardegna , a consortium of companies, research centers and universities focused on aerospace industry and research. Plans related to industrial conversion are in progress in the main industrial sites, like in Porto Torres, where seven research centres are developing the transformation from traditional fossil fuel related industry to an integrated production chain from vegetable oil using oleaginous seeds to bio-plastics.
Sardinia is involved in the industrial production of the AIRPod , an innovative car powered by compressed air, with the first factory being built in Bolotana.
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The Sardinian economy is today focused on the overdeveloped tertiary sector In there were 2,, arrivals up 1. In the same year, the airports of the island registered 11,, passengers up 1. Due to its isolated and insular location, Sardinia focused part of its economy on the development of digital technologies since the dawn of internet era: the first Italian website, one of the first webmail system and one of the first and largest internet providers Video On Line were realised by the CRS4 ,   the first European online newspaper was developed by L'Unione Sarda   and also the first Italian UMTS company was founded on the island.
On the island are headquartered some telecommunication companies and internet service providers, such as Tiscali and the Mediterranean Skylogic Teleport, a ground station controlled by satellite provider Eutelsat. Sardinia has become Europe's first region to fully adopt the new Digital Terrestrial Television broadcasting standard.
From 1 November TV channels are broadcast only in digital. Internal air connections between Sardinian airports are limited to a daily Cagliari-Olbia flight. Sardinian citizens benefit from special sales on plane tickets, and several low-cost air companies operate on the island. The development of Alisarda followed the development of Costa Smeralda in the north east part of the island, a well known vacation spot among billionaires and film actors worldwide.
A regional ferry company, the Saremar , links the main island to the islands of La Maddalena and San Pietro , and from , also the port of Olbia with Civitavecchia and Porto Torres with Savona. The principal road is the SS " Carlo Felice ", linking the south with the north of the island, crossing the most historic regions of Porto Torres and Cagliari ; it is part of European route E The SS d. A work in progress is converting the main routes to highway standards, with the elimination of all intersections. The secondary inland and mountain roads are generally narrow with many hairpin turns , so the speed limits are very low.
Public transport buses reach every town and village at least once a day; however, due to the low density of population, the smallest territories are reachable only by car. Networks of city buses serve the main towns. In Sardinia 1,, vehicles circulate, equal to per 1, inhabitants. The Sardinian railway system was developed starting from the 19th century by the Welsh engineer Benjamin Piercy. Vintage railcars and steam locomotives run through the wildest parts of the island.
They allow the traveller to have scenic views impossible to see from the main roads. In the recent past the population distribution was anomalous compared to that of other Italian regions lying on the sea. In fact, contrary to the general trend, most urban settlement, with the exception of the fortified cities of Cagliari , Alghero , Castelsardo and few others, has not taken place primarily along the coast but in the subcoastal areas and towards the centre of the island.
Historical reasons for this include the repeated Saracen raids during the Middle Ages and then Barbary raids until the early 19th century making the coast unsafe , widespread pastoral activities inland, and the swampy nature of the coastal plains reclaimed definitively only in the 20th century. The situation has been reversed with the expansion of seaside tourism; today all Sardinia's major urban centres are located near the coasts, while the island's interior is very sparsely populated.
It is the region with the lowest total fertility rate  1. Romania , Africa and Asia. Average life expectancy is slightly over 82 years 85 for women and Sardinia's most populated cities are Cagliari and Sassari. Eurostat has identified in Sardinia two Functional Urban Areas :  Cagliari, with , inhabitants, and Sassari, with , inhabitants. Its particular statute, which in itself is a constitutional law , gives the region a limited degree of autonomy, entailing the right to carry out the administrative functions of the local body and to create its own laws in a strictly defined number of domains.
Since , Sardinia is divided into four provinces  Nuoro , Oristano , Sassari , South Sardinia and the metropolitan city of Cagliari. Among the most notable military bases on the island are the Interagency Polygons in Quirra, Capo Teulada and Capo Frasca, used by Italian and NATO forces to test-fire ballistic missiles and weapons and by Italian and European Space Agency to test space vehicles and for orbital launches. Until , the US navy also had a nuclear submarine base in the Maddalena Archipelago. Depleted uranium and thorium dust from missile tests has been linked to an increase in cancers according to activists and local politicians.
Italian military officials were instructed in a memo to blame inbreeding among the Sardinians. Sardinia is the only autonomous region in Italy where its special Statute uses the term popolo distinct people to refer to its inhabitants. While this formula is also used by Veneto , which unlike Sardinia is an ordinary region , the Sardinian Statute is adopted with a constitutional law.
In both cases, such term is not meant to imply any legal difference between Sardinians and any other citizen of the country. Of the prehistoric architecture in Sardinia there are numerous testimonies such as the domus de janas hypogeic tombs , the Giants' grave , the megalithic circles, the menhirs , the dolmens and the well temples ;  however, the element that more than any other characterizes the Sardinian prehistoric landscape are the nuraghe ;  the remains of thousands of these Bronze Age buildings of various types simple and complex are still visible today.
There are also numerous traces left by the Phoenicians and Punics who introduced new urban forms on the coasts. The Romans gave a new administrative structure to the whole island through the restructuring of several cities, the creation of new centers and the construction of many infrastructures of which the ruins remain, such as the palace of Re Barbaro in Porto Torres or the Roman Amphitheatre of Cagliari.
Even from the early Christian and Byzantine epoch there are several testimonies throughout the territory both on the coasts and inside, especially linked to buildings of worship. A particular development had Romanesque architecture during the Judicates period. Starting from the Sardinian Judges judikes , through substantial donations, had favored the arrival to the island of monks of different orders from various regions of Italy and France. These circumstances favored in turn the arrival to the island of workers from Pisa , Lombardy , Provence and Muslim Spain , giving rise to unprecedented artistic manifestations, marked by the fusion of these experiences.
More than a mere background for the lyric-self transformation, Venice is the necessary means to make it possible. Furthermore, in my opinion, his repeated trips to Venice represented for Brodsky many failed attempts to a return to his home city, to which Venice — as we have seen — is always associated.
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The sunset, metaphor for the ageing poet, is situated at the very beginning of the lyric:. The idea of Venice as a great theatre performance, is supported by the known fragility of its building foundations, the facades of which can be likened to a masquerade. He foresees his coming end and describes it with two contraposed stylistic registers, as is typical of his writing.
Venice becomes thus the symbol of the ambiguity of existence, expressed in the poem through the two contrasting — but complementary — images of life and death. Brodsky died of a heart attack in New York on 28 January After a first internment in New York, it was decided he would be buried in Venice, according to the wishes of his Italian wife Maria Sozzani. In a humorous epistle to Andrei Sergeev dated , Brodsky had expressed a wish to be buried in Venice, like the great Russian composer Stravinsky:.
The discrediting process Brodsky underwent in the Soviet Union — culminating with his exile — and the international acknowledgment that followed, contributed to create the biography of a myth, as the poet Anna Akhmatova had foreseen, at the time of his trial in The burial in Venice further reinforces this myth, linking Brodsky and Venice inseparably, making this a new topos , also in the Russian creative mind. With his last homage to Venice, Brodsky provoked a cultural response in his fellow citizens.
Venice — which he loved in a touching, unconditioned way — was the muse that inspired some of his most beautiful works, amongst which, beyond doubt, Watermark stands:. Let me reiterate: water equals time and provides beauty with its double. Part water, we serve beauty in the same fashion. La letteratura di viaggio in area slavofona www. Cited in C. Kjellberg, New York , p. Turoma, Brodsky Abroad.
Empire, Tourism, Nostalgia , Madison , p. They had a daughter in Turoma, Brodsky, op. Russo, Josif , op. It was originally published in A. Sergeev, Omnibus , Moskva It should continue through Fondamenta degli Incurabili — its original name has replaced the previous Fondamenta Zattere. Locanda Montin , a small guesthouse with a restaurant, was one of his favorite restaurants. Brodsky also liked to dine at Trattoria Rivetta , a meeting place for the gondoliers, where they still remember him. The fish market was also a place he loved.
Stravinsky rests in peace in San Michele . In the evening I called Adina 2 hours in a row but the phone was always busy. Evening alarm. Mama writes me from home that she would like to come to me. Today, Monday, I was at Bertoldo in the late morning and toward the evening. At midday with Mosca in the Galleria to buy a book. In the afternoon, Adina came to see me. I made her talk. Even spent this evening chattering with Natalina etc. Now I go to bed. I will pray to God. Then yesterday I spent the whole day with Adina — I want to sate myself.
Wednesday Christmas. Today I sent the ticket to Genoa. These days usually get up at Certainly will begin badly: January 8. The day when school begins after vacation. May 7, Tortoreto. January 8 I got other postponements with Vernetti. Thursday [April] 24 , presented myself with Vernetti after a painful week in which I made the panel for Rapallo. Got two more days — Sunday, April 27 went to S.
Saturday the 26th had Adina for the last time—Dear girl. I worked for Bertoldo up until the last issue [for him], published in the week of April Then [Carlo] Manzoni continues by imitating my drawing. Also made a cartoon for an issue of Settebello. Recently, 2 cartoons for Tempo. Continuation [on the back of the same page]. Made a painting for Radaelli and 3 already published drawings framed with colored glass. Panel for Sacerdot[t]i. Thanks to Lattis. Beautiful drawing with bottles and flowers for piece of bar furniture Chiesa Fontana Arte.
I go with Vernetti to S.
Vittore by taxi. Until 9 in the evening in a security room with 36 others — I sleep on the ground floor with three others in the cell. Three: one [there] because of a fine — two thieves to be interned in the islands. The first a Soviet Russian — inside for 56 days. The other a Hungarian for 50 days. Both under suspicion waiting for [their] repatriation or liberation. Playing cards with tobacco papers, bread crumbs and soup, white paper on top, all drawn with a copying pencil.
The red [ink] made with blood. String to hold up the trousers. Lots of tobacco. I learn to play Scopa [Italian card game]. Scoppino cleaner of chamber pots. Wednesday, April 30 , 11 am, am advised that departure will be tomorrow. Great fear of Ferramonte. Thursday, May 1, downstairs at 9.
In a taxi with two policemen. Telephone Adina. Station, Buzzi with the suitcases. Adina sees me suddenly, does a little jump. Donizetti in mourning: death of his mother. Saw her just a few days ago, at their house. Sleep in the station until in the morning. Arrive Tortoreto Tortoreto [ in a box on the left margin ] I see the sea, beautiful — Friday again , May 2 , I begin at Tortoreto.
Saturday, May 3 I write to Buzzi, to the committee, [send a ] telegr[am to the] committee. Tuesday May 6 - Receive a letter from Adina. I answer a bit uneasily. Dear Adina. Tom Sawyer takes off his hat as if taking the lid off a box of sleepy butterflies. I clean the oily brushes, with turpentine. I begin to smoke Popolari. Wednesday, May 7 Unpredictable weather.
I do everything with great calm, in no hurry. So do all the people in town.
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Friday, [May] 9 It rains, I work on the little painting. Still life on a table in the foreground, in the background, rooms, families, the usual things. The self-portrait on the table, not bad — all a little messy and confusing in color — Adina —. Anghel Dumitru from Galati. Adina, always thinking of her — At nights, I put my head under the covers, start to think. I greet her, Hi, Adina — Adina sends me a 50 lire money order perhaps from her own money. Poor dear Adina, I love her very much. I painted a horizontal picture with lots of things. Saturday [May] 24 Adina writes me the same day.
She regretted having written me badly a few hours before. Received [a letter] from Buzzi. Says that a telegram arrived at Il Grillo from Lisbon. Received [a letter] yesterday from home, from mama. I had bad forebodings — I received a package with paper and cardboards. Wednesday, May 28 Receive letter number 1 from Adina. Yesterday I sent 2 temperas to Buzzi. I dream that I return home —No news about the departure.
Thursday, May Passed quickly. Tomorrow, Friday the 30th, I will receive bad news for sure. Friday, [May] 30 Instead, Delasem sends a telegram that the Portuguese visa was received. Very happy. All of a sudden, I change the way I do things. Too much. Fear that I will have many disappointments and will have to eat my words of joy — Nothing from Adina. Ate cherries. Sent postcard to Adina with a view of the market date underlined -- 10 minutes to 12 6 PM — nothing has happened so far - At noon Delasem Rome writes that [the time] until the 20th is very limited. They have to have the plane ticket and I messed things up.
Ciudad Trujillo Thursday, July I arrived here Sunday July 13—Dear Adina. Inscriptions, top to bottom: ]. Monday, June pm — 20 Friday 3pm. Lisbona Hotel Tivoli [in circle:] no Mario Tedeschini Lalli is a journalist and scholar of contemporary history. His scholarly publications include essays on the history of the Middle East, Italy, and the media. Cristiana Facchini, Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History. Focus Modernity and the Cities of the Jews. The City, the Ghetto and Two Books.
Venice and Jewish Early Modernity. The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century. Moving Histories. The Jews and Modernity in Alexandria Ambivalent Modernity: the Jewish Population in Vienna. Lunching under the Goya. Stephen S. Miscellanea Holocaust Research and Archives in the Digital Age.
Holocaust Intersections in 21st-Century Europe. The Great War. Portrait of Italian Jewish Life ss. A Historical Appraisal. Contested Narratives of a Shared Past. The Making of Antisemitism as a Political Movement. Political History as Cultural History Jews in Europe after the Shoah.
Studies and Research Perspectives. Saturday [the 14 th ] with Adina, and Sunday too. Tortoreto [ in a box on the left margin ] I see the sea, beautiful — Friday again , May 2 , I begin at Tortoreto Saturday, May 3 I write to Buzzi, to the committee, [send a ] telegr[am to the] committee. I am grateful for assistance received from many quarters. Cristiana Facchini and Michele Sarfatti helped me fine tune this edition by offering additional information and asking probing questions.
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- Abridged History of Rome - PART III - XI - The Agony of the Papal State.
- Verona Porta Nuova railway station.
Thanks also to Mario Toscano for bibliographical and archival suggestions. Andi Casson ably translated the original essay into English. The present version—expanded, updated, and largely rewritten—could not have been realized without the enthusiasm and substantive editorial input of Sheila Schwartz. I am also indebted to Iain Topliss and Deirdre Bair for their suggestions and corrections. Aldo Buzzi, Milan: Adelphi, , The English translations of letters cited from this volume are by John Shepley through and James Marcus All hyperlinks cited in this essay were active in May Abrams, , I was envious.
I asked Buzzi who generously prepared a shorter version [of the Steinberg transcript]. Again I read it with pleasure. But I immediately realized that I had no desire to read it again. A true test.
Watermark or a Death Place Behind the Mirror as an Exile
In conclusion: and I have the duty to explain my teaser act the tragic part of my life treated with allegria! The original transcript, now at The New York Public Library, was made from five tapes and runs to pages long; it offers interesting biographical details, although many were later published elsewhere. The transcript is undated, but can be dated by internal evidence to the summer of , with a possible follow up in October of that year. But if you look lower in the sketch of Italy, Tortoreto is noted as well, the only area on the map south of Modena. For another example of autobiographical clues in a drawing, see below, note Originally published as Riflessi e ombre , Milan: Adelphi, Michael Berenbaum, Fred Skolnik, 2nd ed.
Dee, The poor things are making the transformation from Easterners to Westerners…. In an unpublished transcript of his tape-recorded memoirs of the s, SSF, Steinberg speaks of his train journey from Bucharest to Milan in The West began with Carso [the border plateau between Slovenia and northeast Italy], a rather lugubrious landscape. Next the train passed the castle of Miramare [Trieste], complete with reflections in the sea, which was already a fantasy of Western kitsch. Then came Venice, the more convincing thing. It was an ugly year of loneliness and poverty for me.
Andrea Rizzoli, the son of Angelo, managed to assemble at Bertoldo a team of talented young writers and artists, with Giovannino Guareschi as managing editor. As its managing editor, he was the real power behind Bertoldo. After the war, he would try to resuscitate the Bertoldo experience by creating Candido. He wrote many books and gained international fame for his Don Camillo series. Giovanni Mosca , journalist, humorist writer and cartoonist. He was co-editor of Bertoldo and later worked with Guareschi at Candido.
He edited and wrote for different newspapers; through the s he kept drawing and publishing his distinctive editorial cartoons. Until issue n. Arcibertoldo was a yearly supplement. Teachers, of course, among them Piero Portaluppi, Tommaso Buzzi, Gio Ponti, formed part of his milieu, as did his classmates such as Aldo Buzzi, Luigi Comencini, and Alberto Lattuada; the latter two would become famous film directors. Before long he was introduced to Cesare Zavattini, who became a leading figure in postwar Italian literature and cinema, humorist Achille Campanile and designer Bruno Munari Zavattini and Campanile co-edited Settebello , to which Munari contributed.
Turin, , John and Anne C. In June , Alberto Mondadori joined the Settebello editorial committee. A year later, by order of Dino Alfieri, the Minister of Popular Culture propaganda , the newspaper changed its name to Ecco sometimes known as Ecco-Settebello. Zavattini still edited it, but only until September , when he moved to Rome to work mainly in the film industry. At the end of , Rizzoli bought the paper. The humor press can and must fight racial hybridism, by showing colored races as physically and morally inferior. For the general political restraints under which such newspapers operated, see Oreste del Buono, introduction to Bertoldo , Milan: Rizzoli , n.
Three cartoons appeared in , and five more in You were beginning to publish drawings in Italian magazines. You would argue that in a democratic or pseudo-democratic regime, everyone has access to politics.
Related Le tre stazioni (Omnibus) (Italian Edition)
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