Thus, the constitutive laws of tension are of particular importance. In accordance to Eurocode 2, 1 a linear stress—strain relation was used for concrete. To describe the behavior after cracking, tensile stress—crack opening laws are commonly utilized. Eckfeld 28 shows by a literature review that tensile stresses of regular and structural lightweight concrete are transferred by crack openings of up to 0. The energy released at fracture may be calculated with Equation 4. The considered failure criterion of concrete is based on experiments by Kupfer 30 Figure 14 a and used for all types of concrete.
It is described by Equation 5 with consideration of the constraint given in Equation 6. They had already been used for layered concrete elements 31 , 32 due to their relatively high interface shear resistance and ease of manufacturing. Table 5 summarizes the input values used in all calculations. The chosen value of 0. Separate calculations for both material combinations with a friction coefficient of 0.
The following three failure modes were identified with the FE model: Core failure: The lower part of the core layer fractures first. The cracks run from the support toward the load introduction plate as observed during the experiments Figures 6 b and 15 a. However, the FE model may be calibrated so that an interface failure appears for the experimentally determined failure load.
As a result, the computation provides minimum values for the adhesive tensile strength and cohesion. The failure criterion is met in field A, Figure 14 b. Figure 15 b shows the deformed model just before failure. The experimentally determined adhesive bond strength is either used as an input value for the model defined as forward calculation , or it is calculated with the experimental failure load backward calculation. Failure occurs if the adhesive shear strength f it is reached.
This is mainly dependent on the cohesion c , as the influence of normal compressive stresses due to bending is minor. The maximum compressive stress on the top edge of the specimens is only about 1.
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The failure is characterized by a vertical slide off of the center layer, Figure 15 c. Tables 6 and 7 summarize the controlling variables for each computation. Input values that are defined or are of lower importance are marked with green. Determined results are highlighted in blue italics. Experimentally obtained values are not formatted. The tables show that the normal and tangential interface stiffness K in and K it with either the ultimate load F max forward calculation, nos. K in and K it with either the maximum load F max,calc , the adhesive tensile strength F in or cohesion c , for three different groups with three unknown parameters each.
To obtain an explicit result, the two curves of the extensometers nos. Figure 16 compares both the experimentally as well as the computationally determined force—deflection and force—strain correlations for the two investigated material combinations. The calculations have shown that, in general, the experimentally obtained, almost linear force—deflection relations can be accurately reproduced, independent of the material combination Figure 16 a,c.
Considering the scattering of concrete's tensile strength, the latter result is very satisfactory. The calculations 3 and 4 with interface failure provide a minimum adhesive tensile strength f in of 0. The force—deflection and force—strain relations between experiment and model fit well, with stiffness values K in and K it of 1. If the experimentally obtained concrete and adhesive tensile strengths, both 0. The model shows a core failure, which was not observed during the tests. A better result is obtained with calculation 2. The model determines the exact experimental failure load if an adhesive bond strength f it of 0.
Calculations 2 and 3 demonstrate that the interface failure of shear specimens can be calculated accurately by using the experimentally determined adhesive tensile strength as an input parameter. Even smooth contact zones may transfer comparatively high shear stresses. While foam and porous concretes are fabricated industrially at a low cost, ILC is currently very costly and requires special knowledge to produce. Stress and strain distributions, failure loads, and modes of the shear specimens may be predicted accurately using the FE method. If an appropriate calculation model is found, layered concrete elements may be designed, so that interface failure is reliably prevented, thereby avoiding a brittle fracture.
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Michael Frenzel Corresponding Author E-mail address: michael. Discussion on this paper must be submitted within two months of the print publication. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access.
Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Ceiling and floor slabs made of horizontal layers of regular and lightweight concrete could lead to an efficient use of materials. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Aggregate a a Without inherent moisture. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
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Figure 8 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 9 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 10 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. The mean tensile strength of ILC by 26 bond tests with core failure is 0. Figure 11 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 12 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 13 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Figure 14 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Implemented failure functions for concrete and interface elements Figure 15 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 16 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Comparison between experimental and numerical determined force—deflection and force—strain relations. Beuth: Berlin; Google Scholar. Figures References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID.
Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Gauguin further provides a hint for Marc that the key to entering this new paradise is through adopting a sensibility that removes the rigid separation between reality and dream, between thinking and feeling. Marc, therefore, unlike Gauguin, soon moved on. In them was enshrined the memory of that paradisal, original state that humans yearn to regain.
Seeing the world through the eyes of animals, for Marc, means to exact a new understanding of the world from human beings. Marc chose alienation in order to return something essential to his own alienated condition. Besides the intrinsic value it had for him personally, Marc urged viewers to look at the world through the eyes of animals as a way of more generally practicing Weltdurchschauung over and against Weltanschauung. In Liegender Hund Russi represents the instinctive originality of animal sentiency and its loss of comprehension to us.
He is transformed into both himself — an animal subject inhabiting and creating his environment a novel act in painting — and an idealistic pictorial allegory. In Marc painted the monumental Tierschicksale Figure Here, instead of a calm scene of a meditating dog, painted diagonals turn into sharp, crystalline splinters raining as a cosmic storm onto a forest of frightened animals.
Our eyes seek and find little of the order from Liegender Hund in the chaos of falling trees and howling deer, boars, and foxes — as German doomsday vision, following, as Frederick Levine makes a case for, Ragnarok from the Eddas. Franz Marc, Tierschicksale Kunstmuseum Basel. Oil on canvas, by cm.
The animals become the medium of a struggle that is still spiritual but is at last bloody and fatal, a last-ditch effort to drag Europeans to a higher level of humanity, if not pantheistische unity. In , after being drafted and sent to the front in France, Marc continued to evoke the language of sleep and dreams in his letters to friends and family, particularly after the death of August Macke in September , a vanishing point of consciousness agonizing in its level of denial.
By Marc lapsed into a hallucinative state, an escape as well as a refusal of the scientific positivism which infused German political and military rhetoric. Klee found that Marc had taken the animal world as a critical mirror which reflected poorly on the world of humans. The anti-narrative reference to dreams with social content was ultimately relevant only to the animals, encapsulated in the forms of these sleeping-awake creatures.
Thyssen-Bornesmisza Museum, Madrid, Spain. Kunstmuseum Basel, Switzerland. In: Magdalena M. Moeller ed. Berlin London , p. Halle In: Annegret Hoberg and Helmut Friedel eds. Die Retrospektive. Paris London Oil Paintings Volume I. The Complete Works. Volume III. Sketchbooks and Prints. Halle , p. Kunst als Heilsgeschichte. The Retrospective.
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Documentary edition. In: Georg W. Das verlorene Paradies. In: Rosel Gollek ed. Bern In: Revue du Louvre 53 , p. New York In: Bernd Apke and Ingrid Ehrhardt eds. Von Munch bis Mondrian Ostfildern Art and Artists in Turn-of-the-Century Munich. In: PAN 2. In: Klaus Lankheit ed. Dokumentarische Neuausgabe.
Modernism and Its Enemies in Imperial Germany. In: Carl Vinnen ed. Jena In: Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 5. Berlin , p. In: Wort und Wahrheit 6 , p. In: Jessica Ulrich et al. In: Die bedeutenden Kunstausstellungen des Jahrhunderts in Deutschland. In: Richard Faber and Christine Holste eds. Zur Soziologie moderner Intellektuellenassoziationen. Utopia and Despair. Ein Beitrag zur Stilpsychologie.
Leiden Skip to main content. In: Textpraxis 12 1. Jean Marie. Weltdurchschauung over Weltanschauung Besides the intrinsic value it had for him personally, Marc urged viewers to look at the world through the eyes of animals as a way of more generally practicing Weltdurchschauung over and against Weltanschauung. List of Illustrations Figure 1. In: Art in America 70 , p. Dresden Stuttgart Chicago Katalog der Werke.
Sein Leben und seine Kunst. Manchester Hamburg Leipzig Dordrecht Marc provides a thorough and detailed account of the making of this portrait in a letter to August Macke dated 14 February , even going so far as to include a small sketch of the composition and a very detailed description of the mixing and blending of the pigments. Franz Marc and August Macke: Briefwechsel. Provenance inferred from the data compiled by Hoberg and Jansen: Franz Marc ref.
Carl Vinnen ed. For a full account of the various personalities and issues at stake in the Vinnen affair, see Shearer West: The Visual Arts in Germany. Manchester , p. For a comprehensive explanation of the market and social forces that faced the historical avant-gardes, two pioneering works by Peter Paret remain peerless: The Berlin Secession. Leiden , p. See Macke and Franz Marc: Briefwechsel ref.
Bern , p. In: Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 5 , p. Columbia University, New York Jena , p. However, along with Adolf Behne, Kandinsky and George called for collaboration and unification of the arts through opera, theater, music, poetry, and architecture, embracing the relatively recent movement toward Gesamtkunstwerk. In: Franz Marc: Schriften. Klaus Lankheit ed. Marc acknowledges his suicidal ideations and discusses depression openly as well in letters to his brother, Paul Marc, and to August Macke and Maria Marc. Leipzig , p.
August Macke was also drawn away from Bonn to Tegernsee, a small town near Sindelsdorf in Oberbayern, where he too worked in the comfortable seclusion of his own studio. Chicago , p. These monographs are: Alois J. Schardt: Franz Marc. Berlin ; Klaus Lankheit: Franz Marc.
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Berlin ; and Klaus Lankheit: Franz Marc. These are commendable works of scholarship; the authors simply did not have the resources of information about the provenance of missing or hidden works that has emerged in the decades since World War II. Alois J. Schardt, who was also the director of the Moritzburg Museum at Halle from to , came perilously close to calling the painting Der Gelbe Hund , according to notes from his biography on Marc, despite receiving some cooperation from Maria Marc in its compilation.
See Alois J. Dresden , p. However, the available data indicates Marc was committed to the idea of identifying Russi by name, and that he devoted much practice to making copies of the dog in the physical and psychological state of daydreaming, or somnambulance.
Macke and Marc: Briefwechsel ref. Dordrecht , p. Paris , p. Marc, who was bilingual in French and German, kept a diary of his trip to Paris in in French, and notes almost daily excursions to the Louvre. On pet portraits from the tradition of academic art to more discursive practices, particularly within a political framework but also more generally see Francis D.
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