Minors, Helen Julia ed. Pesce, Anita and Marialuisa Stazio La canzone napoletana. Volume IV. Music and Identity , Simon Frith ed. First published in , London and New York, Routledge. Harrison, Charles W. Main field of interest: translation criticism with special focus on intersemiotic translation cinema and literature, painting and literature and poetry translation. Other fields of interest: English and Italian literatures.
Traduzioni, "refundiciones", parodie e plagi Roma , o del XXIV convegno, svoltosi a Padova nel maggio del , Metalinguaggi e metatesti. Samanta Trivellini earned a PhD in at the University of Parma, with a dissertation on the reception of a story told by Ovid in his Metamorphoses from Chaucer to the early twenty-first century. Her research interests currently focus on W. The case-study proves the importance of the spread of knowledge and construction of a unified translation history in order to ensure objectivity of research and fair judgement.
The development of a unified translation reflection history can become an important contribution to the field of translation studies and create a common ground for the joint effort of researchers in the development of the discipline. Recent scholarship in Translation Studies has challenged the traditional Eurocentric focus of the field with wider research into alternative translation traditions in Asia and Africa, whereas the countries of Eastern Europe, which have much to offer in this respect, have remained largely ignored in the scholarly literature see Baer ; Baer and Olshanskaya a: iii , with numerous key texts in translation studies from that region remaining untranslated into Western European languages.
This is the more surprising given the repeated calls by James Holmes, one of the founders of Translation Studies in the West, that scholarship on translation from Eastern Europe should be made more widely available to an international readership. Italian scholar Lorenzo Costantino made a similar point:. We are finally seeing some recognition of the extensive research in the field of translation theories in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe from the first half of the 20th century,which were more than those in the West well into the s.
Nitra , some collective monographs Ceccherelli, Costantino and Diddi ; Schippel and Zwischenberger , thematic issues in journals of TIS e. Eastern European traditions in translation scholarship and research are not well-known because they have not been translated into the dominant language s of international scholarship. Meanwhile the scholars of Eastern and Central Europe have produced extensive archival work.
The list is far from being complete. One of the first bibliographies of translation studies compiled by E. Khaitina and B. Khaves was printed in the first volume of an influential Soviet series dedicated to the theory and practice of translation Masterstvo perevoda [ The Craft of Translation ] as early as The bibliography contained both writings on translation from the Soviet republics and those from abroad. Kyiv-based bibliographer Mykola Nazarevskyi Nazarevskiy supplemented that list and added references to current publications to the second volume.
Since then, he has updated the bibliography annually, which is now up to its eighth edition. In other words, the main facts about the nature of translation have long been recognized by many of our predecessors; our task is to rediscover them in the light of our own understanding of things and our present-day challenges and commitments. In this way, translation studies history is able to cast a new light onto the field and safeguard it from exaggerated claims of novelty, originality, breakthrough, and revolution in our re discoveries and, thus, lead to a less polemic discourse, a moderation in translation theory.
Santoyo argues vigorously that self-translation is a much more widespread phenomenon than one might think; it has a very long history and is today one of the most frequent and significant cultural, linguistic and literary phenomena in our global village and as such deserves much greater attention. Lotman, E.
Balcerzan, E. Etkind, F. Miko, A. Ljudskanov, S. Sabouk, J. Holmes, J. The theory and practice of translation are conditioned by the tasks to be resolved, i. When we come across the theories from the past we are bound to ask ourselves which particular problems these theories were intended to solve. As a consequence, the theoretical principles of translation methods and criticism were the topic of the day. Moreover, the new era brought about a revision of the Ukrainian literary heritage and the rewriting of the history of literature. Of vital significance for the emergence of the theory of translation were the works on literature history that viewed translation as an important and formative part of the literary system.
By the end of the eighteenth century the Ukrainian lands had been transformed into Russian provinces. Under these circumstances, Ukrainian national identity came to mean devotedness to the land and its people, which led Ukrainian letterati to place a special emphasis on linguistic, cultural, and ethnographic characteristics.
The local written standard, the so-called knyzhna mova book language consistently grew farther away from the spoken vernacular. It also suffered a decline due to the Russification of the Ukrainian nobility and higher clergy; this decline was enhanced by the Russufication of education and tsarist bans on printing books in the Ukrainian literary language.
According to Mykola Zerov , this situation, on the one hand, left ample room for the Russian language to establish itself, and, on the other, prompted the desire to use a phonetically purified and stylistically improved vernacular. Therefore, the history of the modern standard Ukrainian language and modern vernacular Ukrainian literature began with a travesty: a high styled heroic epic written in the rural language of the peasant.
Like most of his contemporaries in the Ukrainian literary scene, he also wrote in Russian. His Ukrainian language works were mostly burlesque-realistic and satirical in nature, however, he also wrote serious prose, such as the sentimental novella Marusia , which he did, in his own words, to prove to a disbeliever that something sentimental and moving could be written in Ukrainian. This was a well-considered, responsible and, in a way, daring decision, as Kvitka-Osnovyanenko became a Ukrainian writer precisely at a time when anything Ukrainian was either the object of mockery or, at best, a condescending ethnographic vogue.
Kvitka-Osnovyanenko himself translated eight of his Ukrainian novellas into Russian. He explains that. However, the second set of considerations does still apply, so reconceptualization does occur, but in a slightly different way: becoming reconsideration, so to speak, not for oneself, but for the others. In self-translation, this requirement is fully met:.
In a regular translation, this can be considered a drawback, because it risks turning the translation into more of an adaptation or imitation. Fedorov 9. Finkel b: He finds that the motivation of a regular translator is different from that of a self-translator. In another letter to Pletnyov, Kvitka writes:. However, it was not personal motivation that made Kvitka turn to self-translating. For, there was a wide-spread opinion among the Russian literati of the early XIX century that Ukrainian literature was something unheard of and that the Ukrainian language was simply not suitable for refined belles-lettres.
Similarly, Nikolai Polevoy, a controversial Russian editor, writer, translator, and historian, wrote:. Not many disagreed with this position, and only a few writers recognized the right of Ukrainian literature to independent existence Dahl, Shevyrev. It was against the background of these prejudices that Kvitka-Osnovyanenko began translating his own works, particularly, Marusia , for reasons outlined very clearly in his letter to Pyotr Pletnyov 15 March :.
Firstly, he wanted to prove the authority and viability of the Ukrainian language, and show that is was fully suitable for belles-lettres. Secondly, Kvitka wanted to create the best possible translations of his works to prove that even the most exact and meticulous translation could not replace the original.
He also meant to present his works in the most favourable light not only as his personal writings but also as achievements of Ukrainian literature. Far from being aware of all the controversial problems of translation, Kvitka groped for the solutions relying on his experience as a writer. Besides, his chosen translation method pushed him towards inaccuracies in his self-translations. The self-translations by Kvitka are notable for their ethnographic colouring. Being aware of the similarity of the Ukrainian and Russian languages, Kvitka, at times, preferred transcription to Russian equivalents.
However common these words might have seemed in the originals, they looked strikingly foreign in the Russian translations and required a lot of effort to understand. Transcriptions were widely employed in a range of contexts. Firstly, they were used in rendering words and expressions denoting realia of Ukrainian culture which did not have equivalents in the Russian language, and, therefore, had to be introduced in the translations in their original forms.
This preservation of local Ukrainian colour was a natural strategy for Kvitka who repeatedly criticized his Russian translators for their ignorance of Ukrainian culture. His self-translations emphasize the originality of Ukrainian culture by preserving the names of Ukrainian holidays, types of activities, and garments. Secondly — and most unexpectedly — Kvitka transcribe many words and expressions other than cultural realia, which had equivalents in the Russian language.
Whatever the case, Kvitka seeks to introduce ethnographic elements to render the particular national style of his works that he found unjustly ignored by the Russian translators. Kvitka is adamant in observing this principle, even though the use of transcriptions does not always achieve the intended effect and is, at times, misleading for the reader.
Firstly, he notes, idioms reveal a particular semantics of their own, as the meaning of an idiomatic expression is not equal to the sum of the meanings of its constituents. Secondly, idioms present a lexical problem, as their wording can differ from a non-idiomatic use. Thirdly, the composition of an idiom has to be paid a particular attention to as idioms can have a distinct syntactic structure or phonetic features difficult to render in translation.
Kvitka applies several techniques in rendering idioms in his self-translations, and, as in the case of rendering local colour he is able to relate the reader to the Ukrainian language and culture, but fails to achieve consistency in his translation methodology. He uses literal translations and idiomatic loan translations to render the same idiom in different contexts, at times introducing Ukrainian words. In a way, experimenting with idioms was a method to demonstrate the originality of Ukrainian phraseology Finkel b: The Ukrainian grammatical elements brought into the Russian translations repeatedly produce a different and unpredictable effect which is quite different to the original, since, in the two languages, these elements can belong to different functional styles, social dialects, or historical periods.
Despite his claims of having made a word-for-word translation of his works, Kvitka, in fact, rewrites long passages of the texts introducing substantial changes and additions. And this is quite natural, since Kvitka-Osnovyanenko could afford any deviation from the original without any fear of criticism, while even the smallest variation by Dahl provoked criticism mainly by Kvitka-Osnovyanenko himself.
Aware of the social situation in Russia and the specifics of the Russian readership, Kvitka resorts to omissions and reductions, insertions and additions, alterations and rehashes. Kvitka was well aware that preservation of some features of the original could distort the perception of the translation by the Russian readers, which might result in their misjudging Ukrainian literature and culture, in general Finkel b: However undesirable the discrepancies with the original might be, argues Finkel, reconceptualisation in translation is unavoidable, as the translator of the literary piece is also the author who addresses his work to a new readership.
Specifically, by means of his Dictionary for the Analysis of Literary Translation , containing the entry on auto-translation, he introduced the concept in English-speaking countries. Unfortunately, these pioneer works on the study of self-translation as well as a wealth of other works published in Eastern Europe are largely unknown in the West. Moreover, they are not included in the Bibliography on self-translation edited recently by Eva Gentes Gentes As self-translation has become an increasingly common practice in our globalized world, more research is carried out in this area.
Nevertheless, there are two areas adjacent to the issue of self-translation, which are still not clearly understood. Another area is represented by translations made by the author in collaboration with the translator. The History of Science, as Volodymyr Vernadsky maintained, is bound to be critically rewritten according to the imperatives of the present by each generation of investigators, and not only because our store of knowledge of the past has changed, or some new documents have been found, or some new methods of reinterpreting the past have been worked out.
In this light, the internationalization of the discipline seeks to rediscover new types of primary sources, new regions as well as additional languages and cultural traditions, which require the writing of new histories Fernandez Sanchez, Mainstream Translation Studies which often means English language Translation Studies are currently facing a situation which calls for a new balance and moderation in the claims of novelty and originality.
The knowledge of other translation traditions, practices, and contexts is able to shed a new light onto the discipline and make researchers in the field aware of the achievements of their predecessors in different countries across the world. The development of unified translation studies history can become an important contribution to the field of Translation Studies and create a common ground for a joint effort development of the discipline.
Costa Smeralda Magazine - Estate 2006
Antologia, Warsaw, Jagiellonian University Press. John Benjamins Publishing Company: Finkel — zabutyi teoretyk ukrayinskoho perekladoznavstva: zbirka vybranych prats, L. Chernovatyi, V. Karaban, V. Podminohin, O. Kalnychenko, V. Radchuk eds , Vinnytsya, Nova knyha: Radchuk eds , Vinnytsya, Nova knyha: — Radchuk eds , Vinnytsya, Nova knyha: 49 — Finkel, Oleksandr H.
Finkel, Oleksandr. Kvitka-Osnovyanenko yak perekladach vlasnykh tvoriv : CSc thesis, Kharkiv, Gentes, Eva ed. Holmes, James S. Pro mystetstvo perekladu : Statti ta retsenzii — rokiv [ Volodymyr Mykolayovych Derzhavyn. On the art of translation: Essays and reviews of — years ], Vinnytsia, Nova Knyha. Khaitina E. Kochur, Hryhoriy Literatura i Pereklad: Doslidzhennia, retsenzii, literaturni portrety, intervyu [Literature and Translation: Researches, Reviews, Literary portraits, and Interviews]: in 2 volumes, Kyiv, Smoloskyp.
Kolomiiets, Lada Ukraiinskyi khudozhniy pereklad ta perekladachi rokiv [Ukrainian Literary Translations and Translators in the ss]. Kyiv: Kyiv University Publishers. Patrick Corness; ed. Ivana Franka, NTSh. Entre les cultures et les textes. Poliakova, Yuliana ed Ukraiinske perekladoznavstvo. Problemy Khudozhnioho perekladu: Bibliohrafichnyi pokaznyk, Kharkiv, V. Karazin National University of Kharkiv. Berstein and I. Chernyavskaya, Moscow, Vyssshaya shkola. Aspetti metodologici. La comunicazione traduttiva , trans B. Osimo and D. Laudana, Milano, Hoepli.
Bastin and Paul F. Bandia eds , Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press: Petersburg, Russia. She lectures in Translation Studies and Linguistics and teaches practical courses of interpreting, English, and German. She is also a practicing conference interpreter. He was the second key figure after the Shah, whose decisions influenced the publishing of translations in Iran. Known for being a despotic ruler, Naser al-Din Shah would not allow the translation and publication of any material at the Dar al-Tarjome Naseri without his approval.
This situation led to a translation movement outside the court and even outside Iran which pursued objectives that were different from and even opposed to those of the state translation institution. To this end, the authors have examined the related sources including the books translated in and outside this institution and the translators' prefaces as well as Etemad al-Saltane's personal diary. My subjects and the people of this country should know nothing but that which concerns Iran and their own preoccupations and that, for example, if they hear the word Paris or Brussels, they should not know whether these are something to eat or to wear.
Naser al-Din Shah, quoted in Amin al-Dowleh The reign of Naser al-Din Shah, the forth King of Qajar is seen as a transition from the traditional reign to the modern state Amanat, 7. Through the 16 th to the 19 th centuries, philosophers such as Machiavelli, Hume, Montesquieu and Hegel distinguished two principal kinds of government: the Eastern and the Western, the main difference being that the former enjoyed no limitation in exerting authority Abrahamian, The concept was also discussed in France stressing the similarities between Louis XIV —  and the oriental despots such as the Ottoman Sultans Minutir, Abrahamian maintains that Iranian monarchs at the time of Achaemenians, Sassanids and Safavids had a large bureaucracy.
Linguistic and religious diversity would also add to the distance between people. As a result, people of the same habit or rank would not find the opportunity to get together and shape a social class which could at last challenge the central state Abrahamian, 31; See also Amanat, It was in his era that, for the first time, Iranians visited Europe and Western books were translated. Also, Naser al-Din Shah is generally considered the most literate Iranian king. His legacy, therefore, is a mixed one; while he established Dar al-Tarjome Naseri [Naseri House of Translation] henceforth DTN , the first large state translation institution for translating Western books and magazines, he stunted its development as a fully-fledged translation institution which could cater to the intellectual needs of a rising nation.
We hope to show that the DTN played a role both as a manifestation of a despotic government and at the same time one of the main factors fostering translation outside itself, which later contributed to the Constitutional Revolution of Although the authors have made every effort to access all available primary sources, this study suffers from the general lack of historical archives in Iran which makes all research on Iranian history very difficult cf. Abrahamian, The only sources available were the diaries of Naser al Din Shah and some other courtiers. This diary is significant because it is written by a person who, from the time he was 25 years old, met the Shah almost every day of his life.
Iraj Afshar,  asserts that this diary is one of the most important historical documents of the Naseri Era Etemad al-Saltane, , Introduction, p. He may at times be prejudiced in his judgments but the information he provides about the Naseri era is first-hand and invaluable. As far as possible, we have cross-checked the information in the diary with other sources to avoid over-reliance on a single source. Besides, the state yearbooks, also prepared by Etemad al-Saltane by order of Naser al-Din Shah for the first time in Iran, were of great value to us since they provided a record of DTN members.
Since this institution had not been studied in any detail before, the information available from other secondary sources was rather limited and in some cases clearly false. Readers should be aware, therefore, that this study provides a rather partial reconstruction; but also that this is the only one possible with the sources currently available. This paper will first provide an overview of the socio-cultural context of Iran at the time of Naser al-Din Shah. Before the Islamic Revolution, the ruling system in Iran was that of a kingship. Thirty five dynasties ruled Iran from its ancient origins up to the contemporary era.
The Qajar dynasty, the focus of this study, was the penultimate, the 34th. This dynasty ruled Iran for years , coming to power a few years after the French Revolution in the late 18th century. It was also contemporaneous with the industrial revolution in the 19th century as well as the World War I in the first two decades of the 20th century and the Russian Bolshevik Revolution in Azarang There were Seven Qajar kings, and of these Naser al-Din Shah reigned the longest, 48 years The Qajar dynasty was established by Aqa Muhammad Khan Qajar in , who brought unity and peace to Iran after five decades of upheaval.
From the beginning of the dynasty up to the so-called Constitutional Revolution in , Iran underwent a series of transformations as it gradually adapted to the changes taking place both within its borders and in the outside world. Naser-al-Din Shah played a key role in this process because of his intellectual character and the socio-historical conditions of his long reign. Although the policy was a failure overall because of the severe financial crisis that the country was trapped in at the time, it did enjoy some success, such as the establishment of modern schools the most important of which was Dar al-Fonun [House of Skills], the first modern college in Iran.
The college was founded to train the sons of the nobility and it would give scholarships to the best students so that they could continue their education in Europe, mainly in France and Belgium, but not in Russia and Britain. In the late 19 th century, four other secondary schools and five other colleges affiliated to Dar al-Fonun plus two military schools, and two agriculture and foreign language schools were also established Abrhamian Naser al-Din Shah, whose reign spanned almost the whole of the second half of the 19th century, ascended the throne at the age of 17 in What makes his reign different from those of other Qajar Kings, apart from its being the longest, is his unique personality.
His childhood had a great impact on his personality as a future king. According to Amanat, Naser al-Din Shah had a bitter and lonely childhood, mainly due to the quarrelsome relationship between his mother, Mahd-e Olya, and his father, Mohammad Shah They both had very different personalities, the mother being an extrovert and the father an introvert. However, the source of the conflict were the rumors that his mother was not faithful to her husband.
The rumors were so intense that Naser al-Din was thought to be an illegitimate child. This caused Naser al-Din to grow up in solitude and fear with no support and love from his father Amanat Naser al-Din Shah had a great enthusiasm for reading books and learning new languages; he was especially fond of the French language as well as history and geography. Thus under the pro-literacy policies that Abbas Mirza had initiated, Naser al-Din Shah became a highly literate man, devoting most of his time to reading and writing.
He had a library in his court which had translated books in it by the time of his death Etemad al-Saltane Even during lunch he ordered foreign newspapers to be read to him. They were strictly monitored to ensure that they did not publish anything he disapproved of. Naser al-Din Shah was the first Iranian king to visit Europe; he made three trips there during his rule. He was a great writer both in terms of quality and quantity. Iraj Afshar , a Qajar historian, maintains that he would write at least lines a day and that all the writings of all the kings of Iran put together would be like a drop in the ocean compared to what Naser al-Din Shah had written.
Naser al-Din Shah was also interested in drawing portraits and landscapes and had a liking for topography. He was also interested in music and photography, keeping an eye on the development of these two art forms at Dar al-Fonun. Collecting old coins was one of his hobbies. He had a small museum built in his court containing old works of art and coins Afshar It should therefore come as no surprise that he established a centre for translation.
All the translators already working at the Foreign Ministry, plus those interpreters in his service since he took the throne, were told to join this centre. The centre will be discussed at greater length below. This resulted in his strict monitoring every single book translated at the DTN and even being sensitive about the translation method adopted by the translators, his desired method being word for word translation.
The DTN is the only state translation institution created in Iran, along with the Jondi Shahpoor centre of knowledge which was founded during the Sassanid era AD. The active period of the DTN may be divided into three phases. The initial phase, which lasted 12 years, started with the appointment by the Shah in of Etemad al-Saltane as manager of the DTN Ahmadi The appointment was announced on 22 October in the official government newspaper, Iran.
The announcement stated that the office would start by employing Iranians who had been educated abroad and foreigners who resided in Iran. In another development, on 14 November, , four bureaus were included in the newly founded Ministry of the Press and Publishing with Etemad al-Saltane as the minister Etemad al-Saltane The translators were either selected by Etemad al-Saltane based on the quality of their work or recommended by the Shah.
Zaka-al-Molk was a highly literate man and an excellent editor and translator from French and Arabic. With the victory of the Constitutional Revolution, the Ministry of Publication and Translation was disbanded Mahboubi Ardakani In this study we only focus on the first and second phases, in both of which the Shah and Etemad al-Saltaneh were the main translation agents. As a comprehensive state institution, the DTN employed translators, editors, and Monshis , people well-versed in Persian whose job was to control the final draft of the translation in terms of language fluency and accuracy before it was presented to the Shah.
These people received wages and had two days off a week Etemad al-Saltne , ; See also Iran newspaper No. All in all, based on the Year Books provided by Etemad al-Saltane Qasemi, as well as his diary, plus the prefaces of translators to the books translated, there were 41 translators working at the DTN translating from different languages French, Russian, Germany, English, Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Indian.
There were also other translators in the court, such as princes, who translated either because of their interest in the job, or because they wanted to show their loyalty to the Shah; and there were translators outside the court, including the students and graduates of Dar al-Fonun, who normally translated textbooks, and the reformist intellectuals most of whom were against the monarchy and lived in exile. This study is limited to the salaried translators working in and around the court. During these 25 years, according to the sources consulted,  overall books and booklets were translated, along with newspapers.
Of the books, 61 were on history including biographies , 65 were travelogues including both the trips to Iran and to other parts of the world , 11 were on geography, 20 were novels and short stories, and 43 were on different subjects such as science, politics, law and medicine see table 1. The few number of books translated on politics 4 and law 1 mainly belonged to the second phase of DTN activity. Table 1: The number of books and newspapers translated at the DTN from to It should be mentioned that these books were presented to the Shah, who was the first to read the book as illuminated manuscripts  , handwritten in an elegant calligraphy.
The announcements for the publication of the books were published in the Iran newspaper cf. Moreover, some books, such as Robinson Crusoe no. The books for translation were selected by three different authorities. First, the Shah himself. An examination of the books translated at the DTN shows that at least 25 books were translated by the direct order of the Shah as stated in the prefaces. The third group were translators themselves; they would start translating a book if they found it to be worthy of translation.
However, translators rarely chose books for translation, because each and every book had to be approved by the Shah or it would be banned even if the translation had already been printed and distributed to bookshops. The book was banned by the Shah, even though copies of the book had been sent to bookshops Etemad al-Saltane As stated in the previous section, no book or booklet could be translated at the DTN unless approved by Naser al-Din Shah.
Etemad-al-Saltaneh, as often mentioned in his diary, would first present the books to be translated to the Shah and after his approval send them for translation Etemad-al-Saltane, , , While the Shah could exert strict control over anything published at the DTN, he had no control over translations or articles published outside the court or even outside Iran.
On one occasion, a book of satire, criticizing Naser al-din Shah, written by an Iranian in India, Sheikh Hashem Shirazi, was published and sent to Iran. When he read the book the shah was furious and he ordered that all available copies be destroyed. This incident led Etemad al-Saltane to suggest that a censorship bureau should be established. When the new censorship bureau was presented as a bill in the parliament, it faced objections from other ministers but, with the support from the Shah, it was finally approved in , two years after the expansion of the DTN. Qasemi 6 argues that the justification for this statement was that, if Etemad al-Saltaneh had not proposed the censorship bureau, the Shah would have put a ban on the whole publishing industry.
This fear intensified with the political unrest during his rule Amanat, xvi. His suspiscion of people who acquired knowledge increased to the extent that he once confessed to Etemad al-Saltane that he preferred people to stay ignorant Etemad al-Saltane, Mohammad Ali Foroughi, one of the translators at the DTN, whose father worked the longest at the DTN as translator, editor and manager, asserts that Naser al-din Shah became hostile towards educated people towards the end of his rule; he banned people from going abroad, for he believed this could open their eyes to the importance of law.
An example of his attitude is the note he left at the beginning of volume one of The history of Bismarck in the war of and  , translated into Persian by Baron de Norman in It is neither a history nor a story nor even a newspaper account. The person who wrote this book must have been drunk. It is all nonsense. Consequently, the number of translations completed in the second phase dropped from a peak of publications translated books and newspapers in the years , to just 29 in the years In fact the number of books and newspapers translated at the DTN decreased remarkably after the establishment of the censorship bureau.
Being unable to control the materials printed outside Iran or outside the court, Naser al-Din Shah decided to check every single international parcel before it was delivered in Iran or sent abroad, fearing that they might contain something harmful to his throne. This was five years after the establishment of the bureau of censor in Etemad al-Saltane, , This encounter happened when the first group of Iranian students, mostly sons of the nobility and the royal families, were sent to Europe to complete their education Abrahamian ; see also Adamiat This group of young intellectuals was formed against the old conservative establishment who abided by the traditions and fought jealously to keep the status quo.
Amanat ; Adamiat, Thus the compliant group did not directly oppose the Shah and did not express their reforming ideas explicitly. Instead, they tried to indirectly make the Shah aware of the consequences of the policies he adopted. The Journal of Religion, 93 2 : Twofold nature of soul let it to be mediation between the intellect and the matter.
This role of the soul is explained differently in the Plotinus and Mulla-Sadra's philosophy. In Plotinus's philosophy, the soul has two parts: higher and lower. The higher part is connected to the intellect realm and the lower one associated with the body. The soul is absolutely unaffected even in the lower part. Nature, which is the manifestation of the universal soul, is the mediator between the body and the immaterial soul. But soul in Mulla-Sadra's point of view is not completely immaterial.
The soul can become immaterial through the substantial movement. As a result, the soul involves the immaterial and corporeal worlds. Entfaltung des Selbst desjenigen gemeint ist, der bereit ist, eine Vereinigung mit dem Einen und dem Anfang aller Dinge zu erfahren. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the plausibility of a link between Plotinus's notion of beauty, and the twentieth century artistic conception of beauty. Plotinus's notion of beauty as the representation of the idea through physical matter will be discussed and applied to specific modern works of art.
- Translating Echoes.
- Acquasorgiva (Italian Edition).
- Novel Technologies in Food Science: Their Impact on Products, Consumer Trends and the Environment: 7 (Integrating Food Science and Engineering Knowledge Into the Food Chain);
It is concluded that Plotinus's notion of beauty as an idea in the artist's mind, and void of symmetry, corresponds to the works of a large number of twentieth century artists. This paper examines the tradition of Greek aesthetics in relation to religious iconography. Some Platonic and Plotinian concepts will be discussed in relation to particular early Christian theologians who as iconophiles, has been influenced by Plotinus and Neoplatonism. The position that the iconophiles appealed to aesthetics and concepts that were rooted in the classical Greek tradition will be defended.
This paper attempts to: a Set forth the aesthetic terms and principles involved in the Pythagorean theory of the construction of the universe. The two central Pythagorean concepts of harmony, symmetry, and their relationship to beauty will be discussed. On the basis of this analysis, it will be argued that the concept of beauty played a fundamental role in both the Pythagorean and Plotinian models of the structure of the universe.
Not only general concepts as the concept of the beautiful, the goodness of God, the impact of love for attracting the soul in higher realms or the importance of the free decision of the will, but even the infinite character of the ascent of the soul towards God can be named. Beside of these similarities even important differences must be stated, namely the role of Christ and the sacramental life of the church.
The most important point, however, seems to be the different concept of mystical ascent: while for Plotinus there can be a true union during the ekstasis, Gregory denies exactly that stressing the infinite character of each ascent. What this article proposes, by tracing the genealogy of each of these analogies back to Ficino, Plotinus, Eckhart and Pseudo-Dionysius, is that the "Task of the Translator" represents the most Neoplatonic essay in Benjamin's work. Swansea, Classical Pr. Concerning neoplatonic views of the personal daimon protecting spirit and evil daimones, specifically in the writings of Plotinus and Porphyry.
What is the scope of Plotinus' geometrical analogy in this passage? Cleary, Aldershot Hampshire , Brookfield Vt. In Kindi's doctrine of knowledge the Aristotelian background is significantly influenced also by the Neoplatonic epistemology. An analysis of four passages that belong to the Metaphysics of the great philosophical encyclopaedia Al-Sifa. Baltes, "Il Plotino di Matthias Baltes. D'Ancona Costa, Einaudi, , p. De Smet, M. Sebti et G. Sassi, Pisa, Ed. In appendix: translation of Plotinus' argument against those who contend that the Soul is not one and that no Soul exists beyond the soul of the universe.
Analysis of the book by Imre Toth, Aristotele e i fondamenti assiomatici della geometria Review of R. Arnou, Il desiderio di Dio nella filosofia di Plotino , trad. Trotta et al.. The Platonic ladder of Eros and the Plotinian ascent to the One are helpful models to understand Kazantzakis's poetic hierarchies in his Salvatores Dei and other works. The difference lies in Kazantzakis's adherence to the modern framework of poetic creativity. Still, he remains closer to the Neoplatonic vision of ontic hypostases but without the Christian religious deontology.
This modified Neoplatonic model found in pseudo-Dionysius reached its apex in the deontic hierarchies of Ioannis of Klimakos in the sixth century. Kazantzakis replaces the conception of the religious ladder with a hierarchical order of duties aiming ultimately at the salvation of God. Recent publications on Marsilio Ficino have thrown new light on the role Plotinus' philosophy and Neoplatonism played in the Renaissance movement for the development of the arts and the revival of classical philosophy in Italy.
While not "a mere antiquarian revival," Ficino's work extended the implications of the philosophical ideas of Plato and Plotinus beyond the special interests of the Alexandrian Neoplatonists Proclus, Themistius and Simplicius. The purpose of my paper is to assess the impact that Plotinus' philosophy and its Platonic antecedents had on the Italian Renaissance as original movement and as reaction to the dominant Aristotelianism of late Scholasticism.
Moutsopoulos and M. Protopapas-Marneli eds , Athens, Academy of Athens, , p. L'apophatisme du lieu ", Philosophical Inquiry 26, 4 , , p. The Plotinian scholar, John Bussanich, has noted that the issue of classifying mystical union with the One consists in deciding between either theistic union or monistic identity. For advocates of theistic union, during mystical union the soul retains its identity and can be distinguished from the One; for advocates of monistic identity, during the union the soul loses its identity and becomes absorbed into the One.
uomini di pace (lettera B)
Both camps, however, believe that noetic activity is transcended in the union. In contradistinction to the theistic union and monistic identity views, I argue for what I call a mediated union position in Plotinus's doctrines whereby the noetic part of the soul - understood as a multi-faceted cognitive capacity - is not transcended in union with the One. This article analyzes the status of passive potentiality of prime matter and sensible objects in Plotinus' Enneads. It aims at offering a new interpretation of treatise 25 and at proposing a reconstruction of Plotinus' notion of change in the sensible realm that illustrates both his critique of Aristotle's notion of substantial change and his acceptance of Aristotle's view of qualitative change.
This article analyzes the status of passive potentiality of prime matter and sensible objects in Plotinus's Enneads. It aims at offering a new interpretation of treatise 25 and at proposing a reconstruction of Plotinus's notion of change in the sensible realm that illustrates both his critique of Aristotle's notion of substantial change and his acceptance of Aristotle's view of qualitative change. This article investigates the logical connections between Plotin's metaphysics and his aesthetical thinking in the larger context of the Greek philosophy paradigm.
The text of the article proves that Plotin submits a change of perspective in the aesthetic Greek thinking by using at least three themes of reflection: the analysis of the conditions in which the experience of beauty takes place, the conception of the beauty as brightness, and the conceptual determination of an inspired thinking, that is able to create new forms. Theurgy was no longer the exclusive prerogative of a hereditary caste, but became the heritage of the whole of mankind.
Plotinus's formulation of the problem of the individual should not be reduced to the question of whether or not one can accept forms of individuals. First, if Plotinus does indeed posit an intelligible foundation of individuality, there are no grounds to identify this foundation with a Form: it must rather be considered a logos.
Second, we must, in addition to this intelligible "principle of distinction", allow for a sensible "principle of individuation": the living body. This latter's compatibility with the other two seems problematic, so that the real difficulty may lie in this tension, in Plotinus' thought, between an ontological and an ethical concept of the individual. Aubry et F. Ildefonse, Paris, Vrin, , p. Ildefonse, Paris, Vrin, , Casteigt dir. Notamment chez Aristote et chez Plotin. On the basis of the study of Petric's philosophy it is clear that his key theses follow the entire neo-Platonic tradition and Plotinus' philosophy.
Plotinus' philosophy, in view of the way it defines the relation to the ultimate principle--the One, has usually been described as a kind of mysticism in the history of philosophy. Since the links between Plotinus' and Petric's philosophy of the One are incontestable, the issue regarding the presence of some elements of mysticism in Petric's philosophy seems to be legitimate.
Se intenta comprobar si el Zeus de Fidias ejemplifica realmente una teckne de este tipo, analizando la consistencia del ejemplo y su coherencia con las consideraciones de Plotino sobre la belleza y las artes. L'idea di una matrice orfico-pitagorica di Empedocle sembra frutto di un'interpretazione neoplatonica, ed emerge particolarmente nella lettura plotiniana e porfiriana del suo pensiero. Di Pasquale Barbanti e C.
The author describes Sadhana as follow: "For Plotinus Philosophy is a way of life, what in India is called sadhana, a way leading the philosopher to a vision of, and union with, what he calls The One. Reality is one, the good Plotinus. Brahman, the one is existence, consciousness, conscious -force and bliss Aurobindo and, unlike Plotinus's one has self-knowledge and will. For Plotinus the spontaneous emanation from the one is first intelligence followed by soul.
World and individual, from which comes the world. Matter is without form and the source of evil. Aurobindo says the world is purposeful willed self manifestation of Brahman. For Plotinus the individual can be united with the one and matter is abandoned. Sri Aurobindo speaks of individual union with the Brahman and the evolution of a spiritual society. Matter, potentially conscious, will fully become so, be aware of and remember God. A mediados del siglo 20, J.
Tsimbidaros dir. Despre materie si rau The Polemics of Plotinus against the Gnostics. Proclus's complex arguments developed in the context of his theory of evil often seem to reflect various earlier discussions of this topic. Above all, his predecessor Iamblichus seems to be a major source for his concept of evil. This becomes plausible when we attempt to outline Iamblichus's own philosophy of evil as revealed in such works as De mysteriis or De communi mathematica scientia.
Particularly the latter work has not been sufficiently exploited in this respect, although the similarities with Proclus are significant. This essay discusses the mode of the existence of evil, the causation of evil and its relation to being according to Iamblichus. Moreover, comparison of Iamblichus's doctrines with those of his predecessors Plotinus and Porphyry reveals the design of his concept of evil as apparently directed at Plotinus. Falcioni] ", in Hegel e il neoplatonismo. Atti del Convegno internazionale di Cagliari Aprile A cura di G. Pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di filosofia e teoria delle scienze umane, 3, Cagliari, Edizioni AV, , Schelling's Thought ", transl.
Selecting the manifold aspects which could be reflected on in this field, I want to make plausible as a transcendental analogy to Plotinus' concept of self-knowledge Schelling's requirement for a raising-up and transformation of the finite 'I' into the form of the Absolute, whose central features converge with the goal of the Plotinian self-transformation of thought into a timeless self-thinking and its ground. Von P. BENZ, H. Mojsisch Hrsg. This essay explores the aesthetics of Plotinus and Foucault. A single focus and four problematics define this paper.
The human subject is the focus. The problematics are the specter of the isolated soul and subject, the relation between art and truth, the notion that ontological and axiological positions are constructed recourse to an aesthetics of the subject, which means art and aesthetics play a central role in the overcoming of the fallenness of the soul and the isolation of the self. Plotinus and Foucault make extensive use of the aesthetic symbols and techniques which affirm a philosophical ethos that valorizes the human subject as a work of art. It is the purpose of this paper to offer a partial explanation of how Plotinus expanded upon Plato's theory of beauty.
The author shows that Plotinus offers a unique interpretation of the Platonic notion of "mimesis". He also gives an original interpretation of some important faculties, like imagination phantasia and judgment. Berchman and J. Finamore eds. Finamore and R. Berchman eds. Sankt Augustin, Academia, , p. The centrality of Brentano's and Husserl's theory concerning the intentionality of mental acts is well established in contemporary philosophy. However, questions regarding Brentano's views of the intentionality of intellect and sense perception in Aristotle, and subsequent justifications of a phenomenological or Husserlian reading of intentionality in Plotinus require further examination.
It shall be proposed that there are significant differences between Aristotle and Plotinus, and Brentano and Husserl, concerning sense perception, intellect, and intentionality. It shall also be suggested that in contrast to Brentano and Husserl, Aristotle and Plotinus accepted the intentionality of mental or noetic objects but not that of physical or aesthetic ones.
Where Aristotle argues for a theory of intentional identity; Plotinus proposes a theory of intentional complexity. The reason why we encounter different notions of intentionality rest upon their different assessments of the intentional activity of Nous: When Aristotle's intellect intentionally touches and sees its objects there is an identity between thinker and object.
When Plotinus's intellect sees and touches its objects there is complexity, a distinction between thinker and object. Why this is so is clear. Aristotle has no principle prior to Nous while Plotinus does, the one. Consequently, for Plotinus intellect contains a plurality of forms. Hence, there is no absolute unity in Nous. Aristotle's Nous is identical with noesis and this pure activity of thinking is the highest being, an absolute unity.
Here Plotinus working from the principle of the prior simplicity of one to intellect cannot accede to an identity notion of intentionality. He can only acknowledge a complexity theory of intentionality. Aristotle, on the other hand lacking a principle of prior simplicity, which means there is no one prior to Nous, identifies the best ousia with the highest form of cognition, noesis via energeia.
The incident recounted in Porphyry's Life of Plotinus 10 does not show Plotinus' lack of interest in the gods, but rather illustrates his attitude that we must allow the divine to come to us rather than seek it out. Cultic worship is not necessary for this to happen. Plotinus, Enn. Trabattoni eds , Leiden, Brill, , p. This paper studies Sentence 16 of Porphyry's Pathways to the Intelligible. It is argued that it should be understood against the background of Plotinus' discussions of the similes of the waxen block and the aviary from Plato's Theaetetus. The first part of the paper concentrates on Plotinus' reception of these similes.
In the second part of the paper Plotinus' discussions of the two similes are used to shed light on Sentence 16, in particular on the term procheirisis. Furthermore it is argued that Porphyry does not reject Plotinus' claim that, pace Aristotle, intellection does not require imaging. Aristotle recognized the power of materialist attempts to identify simple material principles underlying natural phenomena and to pursue material explanations, but he nonetheless insisted on the need for teleological explanations in addition.
Caught between the implausibility of the materialist attempt to account for the emergence of functional forms and their regular reproduction, and the idea that gaps in a causal account needed to be filled in with explanatorily basic teleological components, some ancient thinkers turned to mechanics for inspiration.
Mechanical devices offered a way that material processes could produce goal-directed results : natural philosophers could draw analogies to working artifacts, and thus avoid the imputation that special powers or natures were needed to produce goal-directed results. The science of mechanics offered one way of invoking teleology without resorting to irreducible powers or unanalyzable natures as efficient causes.
Bettetini e F. This article examines Pierre Hadot's rejection of the "purely spiritual" and "transcendent" philosophy of Plotinus as a viable philosophy of life. Despite an initial attraction to the Enneads, Hadot eventually concluded that the mystical quest of Plotinus was unrealistic and unacceptable because it required one to forsake the experience of the spiritual and ineffable in the concrete and the practical.
I argue that Hadot's critical assessment does not adequately appreciate the "descent vector" that is integral to Plotinus's conception of the One. His mysticism requires reference not only to the efficacy of 'intellect' and the One but also to embodiment and creative participation in the everyday affairs of worldly existence.
Plotinus cannot abandon the implications of the bi-directional dynamic of the One as it generates the richly diverse, beautiful cosmos. The profile of proper living extends across the ontological spectrum, observing the demarcations and dynamic affiliations, from the One to concrete materiality. Boudouris and D. Kalimitzis eds , Ionia Publications, Athens, , In Sein und Zeit Heidegger's understanding of time and temporality remains in direct connection with the tradition inaugurated by Plotinus, Leibniz and Kant.
East theosophy and West philosophy have some fundamental topics in common. One of these topics is the unity of existence which is one of the main subjects in Upanishads and appears frequently in Greek philosophy, especially the views of thinkers like Anaxagoras, Plato and Plotinus. Hindu thinkers and Greek philosophers have much in common in the subject of art and beauty. The prevailing idea of mimesis as the essence and nature of art in views of philosophers like Plato, Aristocrats and in particular, Plotinus appears in Hindu theosophy as the Sadrsya.
Likewise, the Sadrsya means resemblance and mimic but the one which concerns heavenly images and upon which rely asceticism, worshipping and particularly, yoga. This particular approach is largely connected with Plotinus's ideas in the Enneads. He regards art as the mimic of the sensible images and represents moral and spiritual methods for realizing it.
This paper is a comparative study of the views of Ananda Koomara Swamy in explaining and interpreting the theory of Sadrsya and that of the Plotinus regarding art and the spiritual divine nature of it. L'esame delle discussioni e delle polemiche seguite alla diffusione degli scritti di Plotino contribuisce ad arricchire la conoscenza della filosofia del III sec. Alcune osservazioni intorno alla percezione e alla conoscenza", in Studi sull'anima in Plotino , a cura di Riccardo Chiaradonna, Bibliopolis, Napoli, , While he rejects some aspects of Platonic psychology, such as the fluidity of its hierarchies, his departures from pure Aristotelianism enable him to use emanationist language far more freely than does Thomas Aquinas, his former student.
This becomes clear upon examination of the disagreements between Albert and Thomas on differential psychology and on the soul as subject of the faculties. Dans le cours de ce travail, l'A. An examination of the fall of the soul in the philosophy of Plotinus. A distinction is made between the soul in its descended state and the soul in its fallen state. The soul falls as a result of choosing false unity in its descended state.
The fact that the soul is confused when it chooses a false unity raises interesting questions regarding moral culpability and human freedom in Plotinus. The human freedom required for moral culpability exists only at a metaphysical midpoint between emanative form and emanated matter. An extended treatment of unity in the three primary hypostases of Plotinus metaphysical system, namely the One, Nous and Soul.
An examination of Aristotle's understanding of and response to the relationship of being and unity in Plato. Both Aristotle and Plotinus see Platonism as engendering a metaphysical hierarchy where unity is prior to being and being is prior to particulars. Aristotle makes being and unity non-hierarchical predicates of particulars, whereas Plotinus re-establishes the Platonic metaphysical hierarchy.
Aristotle's approach to substance causes problems for the relationship of being and unity in the Unmoved Mover, and Plotinus criticises Aristotle's first principle on these grounds. The movement towards a principle of unity that is beyond being, implicit in Plato's Republic, can be seen as emerging through the Middle Platonic tradition and culminating in Plotinus' theory of the One. Freedom in the context of emanation is also examined. Dixsaut eds , Burlington, Ashgate, One of the most important features of Plotinus' ethical system is his doctrine of the union between soul and intellect: this union is the goal of purification procedures, the summit of dialectic practice and the basis of mystical experience.
But, being inferior to intellect, how is it possible for the soul to achieve this union? This paper is an attempt at searching for the Plotinian explanation for this problem. According to Plotinus, it is possible for the soul of the philosopher to follow a way of ascension towards the superior realities. This way is composed of two parts.
The first one goes from the sensible world to the intellect and the second, from the intellect to the One. Consciousness for Plotin represents the side of insignificant thinking. The consciousness and the self-consciousness are part of the nous intelligence. These recognize a whole, the self-thinking thinks the multiplicity. In Descartes the ego gains predominance. Thereby emerges a new interpretation of Plotin's One, now worked out by transcendental thinking. In fact, Descartes destroyed the One. The consciousness has a function of knowledge: with that function consciousness will drive back.
The history of the ego I and his consciousness does not yet exist. In this paper the author will attempt this work by pointing at the following differences: 1 The resting I, to be found in Plotin by perceptio and intentio. Leibniz had known the vagabonding I, too. The consciousness gets a vessel, in which the I is contained. The I emerges therein, getting phase of the inward consciousness, the subject of the consciousness as later in German idealism. Here is developing the term self-confidence, which is the way to Dilthey and Freud, exactly.
A phenomenological and hermeneutic reading of Eckhart is intended in order to show the legitimacy and relevancy of examining his thought in the light of the categories of memory and identity. This allows the author to determine the meaning and function of the Eckhartian Ich in an exploration that goes through three stages, i.
The "hermeneutic cross" as a theoretical model of analysis enables the author to trace out the role of memory and identity in Eckhart's Ich as the location of a twofold intercrossed ecstasies Plotinus, Dyonisus and the encounter of freedom and grace. Zu Beginn des 3. Von E. Dill und Ch. Grabar APh 17, p. Turner, ed. Psychological problems in Christian and Platonist theories of the grades of virtue", in Proceedings of the Boston area colloquium in ancient philosophy , vol. Cleary and G. Gurtler, S. Voir C. Steel, "Commentary on Brittain, ibid. Based largely on statements of the Neo-Platonist philosophers Plotinus and Iamblichus, it is maintained that Egyptian hieroglyphic writing was seen as inaudible divine speech, the inscription of which constituted a demiurgic act of energeia manifesting the truth of invisible mysteries by means of visible symbols.
Adapted from the source document. Pages pertain to Plotinus. Un chapitre sur Plotin. Was empfindet die Seele? Landweer und U. Renz Hg. Gutschmidt, A. Lang-Balestra, G. Segalerba eds. In focussing on the soul's activity in the sensible world, Blumenthal has claimed that the functions of a Plotinian soul are basically those of Aristotle.
Against this I argue that the soul's activity in the sensible world is merely its external and nonessential activity. This activity follows from its internal and essential activity -- from the soul's own life in the intelligible realm. I discuss the two essential functions of what the soul's own life is constituted and explain how Plotinus gives the soul a place in the intelligible realm, thereby carefully distinguishing the life of the intellect from that of the soul.
Miscarea ca principiu de individuatie An Ascendent Analysis of the Contemplation and Vision in the text of the "Enneades". Markovits et G. The author settles down a point of union between the philosophy of Plotino and the poetry that in honour to San Juan de la Cruz she published in the work Aunque haya niebla. In this poem's book she tries herself to see God without falling in the pantheism. Towards the end of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, as almost all of the tragic strokes of the story have fallen, the narrator-makere turns away from his material to address a kind of envoy to his 'litel bok'.
In two stanzas he sends his poem on its way, cautioning and exhorting it in the same breath. This article is a re-examination of the ending, with special emphasis on these two stanzas, in the light of Plotinus's Neoplatonic scheme of exitus and reditus, or emanation and return-to-source, that appears to influence the imagery and language of the poem at this stage.
Although Plotinus's Enneads were not read in their own right in the Middle Ages, they were transmitted through various influential channels, including Augustine and the pseudo-Dionysius. Through these thinkers, the idea of exitus and reditus came to influence Aquinas, and the theology of the later medieval period.
In a discussion that draws upon Dante, the letter to Can Grande della Scala, and the Cursor Mundi, the author of this article traces the implications for the value of the poem, and its flawed, worldly subject, that the invocation of the Neoplatonic scheme of emanation entails.
In Timaeus 49 d-e Plato refers to the construction of the physical world and the appropriate ways to name the phainomena. Concerning these lines -- considered "A much misread passage in Plato's Timaeus" by H. Cherniss -- is notable the interpretative disagreement between scholars. In this paper I will review the main exegetical lines adopted by specialists since the last century and, on this basis, try to determine which could have been the reading assumed by Plotinus on this subject when in some passages of his Enneads seems to remit to this section of the Timaeus.
Using the example of Plotinus, argues that God is necessary for reason, but reason cannot go further than the door of God's mystical dwelling. This is why the evidence of religious mysticism is always exposed to the skepticism of reason. This book presents Plotinus's Neoplatonism as the culmination of Greek philosophy.
Études sur Plotin
A thorough analysis of the Enneads that Plotinus, departuring from Middle Platonism and Neopythagoreanism, achieved a profound understanding of the existing Platonic, Aristotelian and Stoic texts this way he was able to go beyond the classic ontology by means of his henology, his metaphysic of the one, that is above all being, life and thought, as the begin and end, and so the goal of the 'Odysee' of the soul, when man, transformed during this itinerary as musician, lover and philosopher, happily returns to the fatherly home. A critical exploration of the history and nature of a hermeneutic assumption that frequently guided interpretations of Plotinus from the 18th century onward, namely that Plotinus advanced a system of philosophy.
The concept is absent from Ficino's commentary from the 15th century, and it remained absent in interpretations produced between the 15th and 18th centuries. Eduard Zeller is typically regarded as the first to give a satisfying account of Plotinus' philosophy as a whole, but he is better seen as having finalized a tradition initiated in the 18th century. Alcuni considerazioni critiche", Verifiche 25 , , Introduzione Rassegna bibliografica. Allusioni indirette al cristianesimo e progetti di rivitalizzazione dei culti ellenici: Pierre de Labriolle Convergenze e divergenze con il cristianesimo ortodosso: Arthur Hilary Armstrong Plotino e il platonismo anticristiano: Anthony Meredith e Christos Evangeliou Riepilogo Osservazioni critiche.
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