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A Note on the Anti-Stratfordians, Especially Baconians and Oxfordians

In fact, your total investment for the complete home study. You can also use a trashcan lid, saucer-type snow sled, shallow pan, or old frying pan to make your own bird bath. Decide what you want to put on the cup, and maybe practice drawing it on a piece of paper before drawing on the mug. Put on a song that you love or find a cozy space. They measure the bed position directly so you need not be concerned with.

Struck with this promising appearance he immediately presented his knuckle to the key, and let the reader judge of the exquisite pleasure he must have felt at that moment the discovery was complete. But your assuming those of us that dont believe in hijab…are the ones led astray. How to draw the human figure - figure drawing. Specific sectors were provided for other social groups: for instance, boys with their tutors, soldiers on leave, foreign dignitaries, scribes, heralds, priests and so on.

I was really involved in the beginning. Batman beyonddtv that would have revealed an aged catwoman to be responsible of terry mcginnis' origins. In the movie, when bella escapes from alice and jasper to meet up with james, she ditches them in the hotel lobby. In general, i hope you were inspired to create your first android app prototype using the simplest tools available to you for free.

Pathfinder, click on minus front option, again draw a line with. You will then need to round this figure to the exact number it is closest to. Figure 6: timeline of component-wise power draw in capture pokemon. For a more in-depth tutorial on the art of the paper rose, head here. The masses seem to concur. And so we have a value range in the shadows. See crossbow safety tips on this page. Now you are ready to lay your patent gold leaf. How do you get to the sand sanctuary in the legend of zelda spirit tracks.

There are hints of coins. A program of conversion of bits map to vector graphics. In this article, we'll explore the relationship between supply and demand using simple graphs and tables, to help you make better pricing and supply decisions. For example, kids will see half of the drawing and they are to finish the other half.

Sophomore in high school, which was approximately seven years ago. Draw everything and anything you see. Vice was a little confused at that moment. Movie but i still feel they should be much better for the year the film was made. To get started, you need empty glass bottles, crackle medium, two contrasting colors of paint, and some foam paint brushes. In this article, i will expand on what was previously covered and introduce some new features. This information made him impregnable to the problem of why he suffered as he had.

So if the jaywalker is not a foolish, cartoon-like character, what other interpretation could there be. This is the easiest way for confused students to see how a whole triangle is determined by three numbers. There wasn't much money to buy things. Learning how to draw an elephant - cute and simple, like the one you see above. Like many divisive cultural debates, arguments over the christian bona fides of seasonal starbucks cups appear to have intensified during the presidential campaign as political and social tensions heightened in many areas of american life.

With the timeline restored, the prince found himself back in the war camp of his father's army at the gates of india, with the dagger of time in his hand. Jehovah thy god bringeth thee into a good land, a land of rivers, of waters, of fountains, and of depths going forth in valley and in mountain. Mix your black and white paint together, until you are left with a medium-tone gray. Numerous samples from multiple angles are shared, including views from the back, side and three-quarter figure. Corey haim's "thriller" parody: his "thrilling touch" heals, revives, and provides protection to enemies while damaging you, but takes a turn to charge up.

It only appears in the movie.

Charming Views – Vincent Brown

A gray fox during the night. How to apply for benefits. Continue around the rim of the cup, so that the base of the sock is glued to the outside of the cup. Gargoyles: zafiro of the mayan clan has the lower body of a serpent, he also has feathery wings instead of the normally bat like ones. Outside the tank use [sae j30r9]. If necessary, the driver will be restrained by as many officers as it takes so that a lab technician can draw his or her blood. What is the best indication that you have accidentally punctuated an artery.

For your model railroad - getting started. Your shoulders can be pushed slightly back. Each keyframe represents states along a timeline, then our browsers render the animations between them. What does a hydrogen bohr model look like. I will first show the proportions of the average human, and then explain how the skeletal muscles work so that you may draw realistic figures. Look at the photo here of the classic ford model t which is going to be the subject of this 'how to draw a car' tutorial.

Tibouchina grows well in full sun, but glory bush and princess flower appreciate partial afternoon shade if they grow in an area with hot summers. Using fresh pieces of tracing paper allows you to make changes to some areas without affecting other areas or elements in your plan; fewer dimensional mistakes will occur by using your original accurate grid diagram throughout the process. Draw intersecting lines between each corner point of the outline.

Finish drawing batman's head which should be very structured, then draw in some of the shoulder. Pull your lines towards their goal: this uses more adept muscle groups. Regarding the operating system, galaxy tab a runs on the android 5. Introducing hats, caps and bonnets in grades Proko teaches an academic approach to drawing and the major subject here is human figure and portraits. Obtaining the new power steering pump. I hope you enjoy this comic art tutorial and that you get a ton of value out of it. The pencil skirt is snug at the waist and hip and tapers from the thigh to the bottom edge — it usually has a slit at the back or front for easy stride and the peek it gives of your calf is very sexy.

Lcd montior tablets are rare, there really is only one reliable brand for them others are hard to find. You can also purchase colored pencils and charcoal for other drawing projects. Ambitious men who care only to acquire. You could make a life out of getting paid to draw, and of course you could get paid to draw graffiti. Remember that any time you get stuck about what to draw next: ask your dice of decision. Me they don't have any kinds of restrictions as to where you put in in your yard. They must use a ruler to ink if they used a ruler to make a line in pencil. You will need only to colors to draw a daisy — green and yellow.

Draw a green shamrock on your gold painted ring finger. You can use faber castell pitt pastel pencil for this. Upload photos, share stories, check out other people's posts and photos. I know i can and i need to and i will. Human anatomy for artists and how it helps.

Drawing with stick figures is an effective way to draw if you are new to drawing human figure in motion or action. There's a radioactive washing machine somewhere in japan right now. I can't figure out what "butty" means in this context. That way when you go to insert it into a drawing it, but we will cover more of the titleblock setup soon. Since you have to learn the technical aspects of art, your work. Use this when you combine widgets with ". Missing, invalid or incomplete information will delay the registration process.

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Children’s book comes alive!

Notice how the head is bigger. And after that name the thoracodorsal nerve. There is absolutely no concrete evidence at all of any such creature, and there is exhaustive scientific and medical facts as to why they do not exist, and could never exist:. A little bumper showed up at the bottom of the screen during a commercial break, it said that a special episode of the amazing world of gumball was about to come on. Edward feared his strength when first meeting bella, and explained that there was barely a difference between caressing her head and knocking it off.

Analog drawings - visual images representing your emotions. Next, add a circle to form the tail of your character. Following the same logic, we can write. This download looks more complex than paintbrush, but less confusing than more professional programs like coreldraw. The brain processes what it's looking at in the visual cortex. Before making a choice, it is important to do some research and understand the advantages and limitations of each approach.

Alternative parking can also be found at the multistorey carpark on bedok link or carpark b on bedok north road. Butterfly needles, techs that have experience drawing blood, and back of the hand all work for me -- but that is just the occasional draw. Drawing the outline of a palm tree is one of easiest pictures to create. To get here, you can take a bus to the jecheon intercity bus terminal. This is a great photo that allows us to see the triangular style that is created on the scalp.

Bonus get [the designer starter kit] to gain in precision. Three instructors encompass the classical tradition on drawing the human figure; robert beverly hale, stephen rogers peck, and jack hamm. Dismount element to hold ground, the carrier element will have to. To draw this is a realistic circles that follows. Create a new layer below your texture layer.

Before she can figure out where she is, she gets attacked by swamp thing as the 2 of them battle, before they stop and use their powers to save the forest from trigon's hellfire. Now its time to add the transitions. Step 8: finish the claws and add the eyes to complete this drawing of the lobster. Knew that the resulting fight would give babidi enough energy to revive majin buu, but was so obsessed with topping goku that he.

Tundra is now used in a general sense to describe any cold-climate landscape having vegetation without trees, which includes both mountainous areas alpine tundra and areas in the arctic, subarctic, and antarctic. Viewing the map showing the u. Tip: some say a clock ticking helps them get to sleep, because it sounds like a heart beat, although others don't like it though - why don't you try it. They're fortunately easy to detect due to them loudly snapping their mouths all the time. Lesson plan title: how big is a whale. Teachers familiarize the students about how to use crackers and fireworks, how to do puja, legends of diwali and many more things.

You can also draw two large shapes colored in white to add some reflection on the cartoon knife. Test for the right pressure; the scales should come loose easily and fly off. I would love to see a shin godzilla sequel but i would love this to happen more than that. Became vital at the time of the.

Seven card draw is the big brother of the popular five card draw, the games are basically the same except from in seven card draw players receive a total of seven cards instead of five. Draw a wide 4-inch horizontal oval onto the paper. Figure drawing step by step lessons how to draw people and the human body in easy steps to draw comics cartoons illustrations or photo realistic artwork.

It is important to create an extensive library of profiles that can be brought into your project for future use. Draw a polygon shaped like a block letter h. Maybe it is a wonderful idea to confess your love to the girl with the flowers like a love letter. How to draw people , author jeff mellem teaches beginning artists how to draw the human figure, from stick figure to anatomically accurate person, in clear, easy-to-follow lessons. How do you calculate what amp fuse to use. Learning figure drawing tips and the human form has never been that easy with this online figure drawing secrets of the masters.

There is, of course, throughout the story an opposition between the musical i. The deserted stage, with its sticks of furnishings, Cather suggests, is an image of the life in the West to which the aunt must return. Biographers point out that Cather indeed had an aunt, by marriage, who had musical interests, who had been educated at Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, and who married and went off to Nebraska with her husband, and who did make a brief return to the East.

Biographers further point out that Cather wrote the story while she was living in Pittsburgh, and some of them suggest that the story expresses her fear that she too may some day be forced to return to the bleak frontier life that awaits the aunt. But the story is not really, at bottom, about two parts of the country, or even about two ways of life. And even less is it about the extinction of sensibility that overtakes those who live on the frontier. Quite the opposite. Not that even without music we are such bad creatures.

Some readers emphasize the change in the narrator. Thus, Susan J. In fact, by the end of the story, although presumably readers are glad that the aunt has been deeply moved, they probably also are distressed on her behalf. But the point is worth raising in class. Books and articles on Cather have been appearing at a rapid rate, as her popularity grows. See, for example, Janis P. Stout, Willa Cather: The Writer and Her World , which highlights the topics of gender, ethnicity, pluralism, social class, and manifest destiny.

In the parent textbook we return to this poem at the beginning of the next chap- ter page Jamaica Kincaid, like her fictional heroine Annie John, lived in Antigua, a much- doted-on only child, until she was seventeen, when she came to the United States to continue her education. In this story we meet a girl in her early adolescence, under the constant tutelage of her mother for her coming role as a woman. A good way to teach the story is to have two students read it aloud in class. The students will hear the shift in voices, and will want to discuss the characters and the conflict.


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See also: Selwyn R. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. What is the conflict in this story? Is the girl naive? First, a word about the title. Although Mary is mentioned relatively few times in the New Testament, images of Mary have been an enormous presence in the history of art. She may be depicted by herself or with the infant Jesus sitting or standing on her lap, or she may be shown seated, with the dead Jesus across her legs, and she may be accompanied by saints or angels. She is often represented—espe- cially in medieval and Renaissance altarpieces, as Queen of Heaven, seated on a throne, usually identified as the Throne of Solomon.

The image described by Anatole France, where doves representations of seven gifts of the Holy Spirit fly above the Virgin and where lions flank the throne, is relatively rare, but a medievalist has called our attention to a reproduction of such a mural in the cathedral at Gurk, Austria in Otto Demus, Romanesque Mural Painting , page 19, and for a larger view of part of the image, page Next, a few words about the narrator.

The narrator—we are not talking about Anatole France but about his invented narrator—seems to be a pious fel- low, someone recounting without any trace of skepticism a medieval religious tale. That is, the language itself, as well as the substance, takes us out of our world of everyday speech, into the voice of a storyteller recounting an old tale.

The second thing we can say about the narrator is that he is a pious fellow the same could not be said about the author. Finally, if yet another example is wanted, we refer to the passage in paragraph 12 about peace being granted to men of good will, an echo of Luke 2. In short, we think that France does a good job of creating a narrator who is sympathetic to the pious medieval tale that he tells. Of course the gist of the story is that the highly educated and highly tal- ented monks do not comprehend the piety of the ignorant juggler, or, rather, cannot—until a miracle takes place—comprehend that the Virgin may value his offering as much as theirs, so we can say that the story implies some criticism of the clergy.

France does not, however, caricature the clergy, does not make them evil or even ridiculous. That is, the contrast through most of the story is not between faith and hypocrisy or faith and envious competition but, rather, it is between the unlettered juggler and the highly trained talented monks.

In this instance, Mary is moved to minister to another of her children, the sweating. Some students may be familiar with the sculpture by Michelangelo, in St. Finally, two bibliographic references: Timothy Verdon, Mary in Western Art is an oversize book with many handsome illustrations in color, accompanied by an excellent text.

Also of interest, though the pictures are rel- atively few and they are poorly reproduced, is Jaroslav Pelikan, Mary Through the Centuries Since the editors of Literature for Composition were not born digital, we are grate- ful for the translation: We assume that most of your students will find it superflu- ous. But despite the translation, we ask our students and you might ask yours : What does the in the title mean?

We ask our students to analyze the components of the txt pom that make it successful. By the way, some students may not notice that Bird employs rhyme [e. What images does the speaker use to describe the young man she fancies? And what class are they in? Suppose they were in an economics class, what images might the speaker use there? We also ask our students to compare the txt pom with the translation.

Which do they prefer? The poem of course is based on the Ten Commandments also called the deca- logue , which appear twice in the Hebrew Bible Exodus , and Deuteronomy 5. The commandments are numbered differently in Judaism and in Christianity, and indeed Christians do not agree on the number- ing thus the commandment against murder is the sixth for Jews and for some Anglicans but it is the fifth for Roman Catholics and for Lutherans. But, again, we would not push these slight connections.

The effect is, more or less, to suggest that the fancy or pretty talk stops. The explosion is too serious to be treated in a literary way. A word about the rhymes: Notice that although the poem does use rhyme, it does not use a couplet until the last two lines. Of course, when one reads the poem in a book, one sees where the poem ends—though a reader may be surprised to find the forceful rhyme—but an audience hearing the poem recited is surely taken off-guard. The explosion is unexpected especially in the context of the two previous lines about a sagging, heavy load and powerful.

There is an excellent two-volume biography of Hughes by Arnold Rampersad vol. The short stories have been edited by Akiba Sullivan Harper But most of the scholarly books focus on the poetry, rather than on the fiction. The best points of depar- ture for studying this writer are two collections: Langston Hughes: Critical Perspectives Past and Present , ed. One might keep the first line where it is, and then rearrange the other stanzas— for instance, putting lines 2—8 after 9— Sonnet 73 That time of year thou mayst in me behold p.

Sonnets 1— seem to be addressed to, or concerned with, a handsome, aristocratic young man who is urged to marry and thus to propagate his beauty and become immortal. Sonnets — are chiefly concerned with a promiscuous dark woman who seduces a friend, at least for a while. Certainly it sounds like autobiography, but this is only to say that Shakespeare is a writer who sounds convincing. The chief argument that the poems really may be autobiographical is that the insistence that the friend marry is so odd a theme.

Lewis says in English Literature in the Sixteenth Century , what man except a potential father-in-law cares if another man gets married? One other point: Do the poems addressed to the beautiful friend suggest a homosexual interest? It seems reasonable to say that what the speaker of the sonnets wants from the friend is not sex but love. All three quatrains, in varying degrees, glance at increasing coldness and darkness, and each successive quatrain is concerned. In the first, the human life is compared to a year; in the second, to a day; in the third, to a few hours.

Note, too, that it is reasonable to perceive, faintly, a resemblance between the shaking boughs and a trembling old person. The first quatrain, then, is rich in suggestions of ruined beauty and destroyed spirituality. The year will renew itself, and the day will renew itself, but the firewood is utterly destroyed. In College English 24 January : —, John Parrish summarized these discussions, rejecting the idea that in the first quatrain, especially in lines 2 and 4, God is compared to a tinker mending a damaged pewter vessel, and offering his own reading.

Our own winnowings from these essays follow. Explicator December , Item Abrams, Natural Supernaturalism ,. Theodore Redpath rev. Clements rev. Smith See also Robert H. Ray, A John Donne Companion What is the point? Why not? You can return to a version of this question after you have reached the end of the poem. How much does the poem benefit from this title?

Would the poem change, for bet- ter or worse, if it were printed not with this title, but as it sometimes is with the opening line as the title? Another good question for the class: Where is the speaker? Or is she—less likely, but still possible—inside, looking outward on a wintry scene from which she cannot break free?

The point is perhaps an obvious one, but we have found that it needs to be made explicitly and demonstrated to the students through examples. Still another question: What is it that has overtaken the speaker? It is more than a little hard to say. But what about the spell itself? What does it consist of, and from where has it come?

The spell seems terrible and terrifying, but not entirely. Perhaps, one suspects, the speaker will not go because she needs to discover what this spell is about. The Oxford English Dictionary weighs in with dreariness, sadness, gloom. But how then does this word fit in the poem?

Is the speaker saying: No matter how cheerless and gloomy the scene is around me, I will not, cannot, go from it—the spell is too powerful? It could be that the modern dictionaries we consulted are not the right ones for this word. The speaker tells us that something intense is happening to her, but she leaves unstated its exact source or cause. We can probe and speculate, but this speaker remains distant from us even as she tells us that paralysis has over- taken her.

Unless, that is, we are drawn to say that this speaker is not address- ing us at all but, rapt as she is, is speaking solely to herself. Derek Roper with Edward Chitham , is recommended. Singing is infectious; the speaker asks his mother to sing, and his grandmother joins her. The song apparently is joyful picnickers—though admittedly the picnic is dispelled by rain , but since it is about a lost world it is also sorrowful the women begin to cry.

Yet, even singing about sorrow provides the singer with joy, or, we might say, the making of a work of art here, singing a song is pleas- urable even when the content is sorrowful. One way of mastering sorrow, of course, is to turn it into art. We reprint here a good explication, by a student, Juan Alonso.

The halves make a sharp contrast. Given the title, the fur probably literally refers to the fur lining of the jackets that fliers wore in World War II, and it also suggests the animal-like existence he led while confined by this unfeeling foster parent, the State-airplane. His awakening or birth is to nightmarish reality and death. It is not surprising, but it is certainly horrifying, that in this world of an impersonal State that numbs and destroys life, his body is flushed out of the turret with a hose.

That this is the third horrible release: the first was from the mother into the State; the second was from the belly of the State into the belly of the airplane; and now in shreds from the belly of the air- plane into nothing. That this life-history is told flatly, with no note of protest, increases the horror. The simplicity of the last line more effectively brings out the horror of the experience than an anguished cry or an angry protest could do.

Jarrell is a splendid critic, whose likes and dislikes are illuminating: See Poetry and the Age and Kipling, Auden, and Co. The Complete Poems is available, but for students, The Selected Poems is a preferable point of entry. Jarrell reads and discusses the poem on Caedman cassette SWC Subsequent chapters will cite a fair number of recent titles relevant to this chap- ter, but for a start a reader might first turn to an old but readable, humane, and still useful introduction, David Daiches, A Study of Literature Some basic reference works should be mentioned.

Hugh Holman and William Harmon have written an introductory dictionary of movements, critical terms, literary periods, and genres: A Handbook to Literature , 7th ed. For fuller discussions of critical terms, see Wendell V. The Johns Hopkins Guide , though it includes substantial entries on individual critics as well as on critical schools, is occasionally disappointing in the readability of some of its essays and especially in its coverage, since it does not include critical terms other than names of schools of criticism.

Alex Preminger and T. Brogan Michael Payne For a collection of essays on the canon, see Canons , ed. Joseph Gibaldi, 2nd ed. The biblical story is, in a way, a sort of early detective story. There is a death, a conflict in the testimony of the two witnesses, and a solution by a shrewd outsider. There seems to be nothing that distin- guishes the two claimants. This exact repetition of a sentence is, of course, especially appropriate in a story about two seemingly indistinguishable women and about a proposal to divide an infant into two.

We have already mentioned that it is important for the two women to be, in effect, indistinguishable, but why did the author make them harlots? We can. One other point: the basic motif of two women fighting over an infant, and the true mother revealing her identity by rejecting a proposal that will kill the infant, is found in many cultures. For instance, in an Indian Jataka story a story of the lives of the Buddha before he reached his final incarnation as the Historical Buddha, Siddhartha , a mother brought her child to a river bank, where a she-demon claimed it as her own.

The two brought the case to the Buddha-to-be, who ordered the women to engage in a tug-of-war with the child in the center, but the mother yielded her claim rather than destroy the child. See E. Cowell and W. Rouse, Jataka Stories , 6 , p. Christina Buchmann and Celina Spiegel We quote a few extracts; you may want to try them out with your students.

Had he not called for the sword, the other woman might never have expressed her seemingly violent impulse. Maybe she would have picked up the sword and slain the child with her own hands, but we certainly do not know that. Women are expected to back down, negotiate, settle, and accept arbitrary assaults of men at home, on the street, and in the workplace.

They are expected to respond with the self-sacrifice of the first prostitute. And when they do not, when they defiantly transgress the laws of men, women must endure, Eve-like, the punishment meted out to them. When the sword is raised and the command given to divide the child, the women know that they have but. Their speech is uttered in a fearful rush, a female cry in the face of seemingly arbitrary male violence. By judging the women on the basis of a few frantic words, he erases the fullness and complexity of their lives. A bibliographic note about parables may be useful.

Joachim Jeremias, in The Parables of Jesus , rev. He summarizes his approach as follows: I want to reverse the traditional and common sense view that stories con- vey, illustrate, prove or emotionally support themes. Morals and themes, I argue, convey to audiences what story is to be made out of sentences. The story flows, so to speak, from theme, rather than the theme following from the story. If not, why not? To illustrate the danger of pressing too hard, you might mention medieval allegorizations of the story.

The gist of these is this: the older brother represents the Pharisees and teachers who resented the conversion of the Gentiles. Thus the fact that the older brother was in the fields when the prodigal returned was taken as standing for the remoteness of the Pharisees and the teachers from the grace of God.

The pods that the prodigal ate represent either the vices which cannot satisfy or pagan liter- ature again, unsatisfying. The father represents God the Father; his going forth to meet the prodigal stands for the Incarnation; his falling on the neck of the prodigal stands for the mild yoke that Christ places on the neck of his follow- ers Matthew — The music the older brother hears represents the praise of God, and the feast of the fatted calf represents the Eucharist.

A great deal more of this sort of thing can be found in Stephen L.

Perigord – Page 49

The point should already be clear. Odd as the interpretations now seem, they were the result of an admirable love of the word, and surely such an excess is preferable to indifference. Is the parable an allegory? No, and yes. Certainly it does not have the detailed system of correspondences that one associates with allegory. And yet, as Jeremias says p. Need a reader believe in God or in the divinity of Jesus in order to value this story? The point is surely worth discussing in class. Most students will agree that such belief is not necessary, and from here one can go on to discuss stories as ways of imaginatively entering alien worlds.

Class discussion may begin with an examination of the point at which it is apparent that this story is comic. The first two.

Bible Commentaries

Instructors may find it useful to introduce the concept of pathos and to lead the class in a discussion of the relation of the pathetic to the tragic and the comic. Brooks and Warren provide an interpretation of the story in various edi- tions of Understanding Fiction; Charles S. Carl Sundell examines the structure of the story e.

This essay is a vigorous defense of Mrs. Mitty, who is usually thought of as a nag. Mitty seems responsible and concerned. In a paragraph, characterize Mrs. In an essay of words, evaluate the view that Mrs. Mitty is exactly the sort of woman Walter Mitty needs. It happens, however, that what especially interests us about the poem is the issue we raise in our first question: Why do people enjoy songs about unhappy love? Because it gives us a chance to impose form onto suffering and thus implies a kind of mastery over suffering?

In any case, many students will be familiar with the motif and will be able to offer explanations accounting for the pleasure they take in the material. Aphra Behn was not only a poet but also a playwright and novelist, and when teaching her poetry, we often take note of her powerful narrative of slav- ery and colonization, Oroonoko c. Because many students will have read this story in high school, it can be used effectively as the first assignment. It may be good to begin a class discussion by asking the students to characterize the narrator.

And so the words at the end of the story, fifty years later, must have an ironic tone, for though in pace requiescat can apply to Fortunato, they cannot apply to the speaker, who is still talking on his deathbed, to a priest? The story is full of other little ironies, conscious on the part of Montresor, unconscious on the part of Fortunato:. But what to make of all this? She sees the journey through the tunnel to the crypt as an entry into the womb; the narrator is killing his father Fortunato and possessing his mother. My treasure, my fortune, down into the bowels of the earth, a charnel-house of bones.

It surely is worthwhile to call attention to the parable of the wise and foolish virgins, in Matthew —13, where the bridegroom does appear, but the foolish virgins miss him. The first jilting could in some meas- ure be overcome, but the second is unendurable. Exactly who is Hapsy? Presumably she had at last come to love her husband. On this point, it is relevant to mention, too, that one of her sons is named George—presumably for the man who jilted her—and the other son is not named John, for his father, but Jimmy.

But other readers interpret Hapsy dif- ferently. Among the answers usually given are: her father, a brother, the man she later married. These details probably do not affect the overall interpretation of the story. To return to a larger matter, what interpretation of the story makes the most sense? What happens if we consider the story chiefly in the light of the Parable of the Ten Virgins? This is the way we have long seen the story, and we still have a strong attachment to that view, but a rereading of the parable Matthew Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom.

Experimenting with Saltwash™

And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them. But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves.

And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. Watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the son of man cometh. Nor does the fact that she had a Catholic education tell us much about what she made of the parable.

It appears that to understand the story we can do nothing more than read the story, and perhaps read the parable. The bridegroom may come unexpectedly. Can one or should one interpret the story in the light of the evident meaning of the parable? If one interprets it thus, the point or theme might be roughly stated along these lines: Granny, despite all of her apparently com- mendable worldly activity—ministering to the sick, keeping the farm in good repair, etc.

The second bridegroom does not appear at the moment that she expects him, and she therefore despairs and abandons her belief: For the second time there was no sign. Again no bridegroom and the priest in the house. She could not remember any other sorrow because this grief wiped them all away. She stretched herself with a deep breath and blew out the light. Some support for this reading can be found in this passage: Granny felt easy about her soul. She had her secret comfortable under- standing with a few favored saints. However, another way of looking at the story is to emphasize the point that, although at the end she is deeply disappointed, she remains active; she blows out the light.

Against this, David C. Critical interpretation is provided by: Jane K. Brinkmeyer, Jr. If you have any Spanish-speaking students in your class, or even students whose acquaintance with Spanish does not go beyond a few years of high school study, you might ask them how they would translate the title. While one is reading the story, say through the first one-third, it may seem to be chiefly a character sketch of Romero and a sketch of the community in which he lives, but then come two sentences that mark a turning point: Romero kept the sidewalks clean and the barrio looked after him.

It was a contract that worked well for a long time. In the light of what happens next, some readers may think that the narra- tor or the author? This conflict is amusingly resolved when the well-meaning Seferino disappears into Harvard, thus sparing us a potentially embarrassing or painful scene in which the boy acknowledges his error. Indeed, instead of empha- sizing the conflict between Barelas and his son, we get a scene in which Barelas— whose son has caused Romero to misbehave—is pitted against the rest of the community, which now seeks to confine Romero.

These comments are obvious, and perhaps a bit too solemn, since the story has a good deal of delightful humor in it. One can ask the class what it finds amusing in the story. A favorite passage is the bit recounting how Romero, after breaking with Seferino, at first simply skipped the barber shop in his sweeping, but then refined his action and pushed all of the trash from elsewhere in front of the barber shop. The story is about Romero, but almost as interestingly it is about Seferino. We can fairly easily guess what will happen to Romero in the next few years.

What would you guess will happen to Seferino?

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Will his Harvard education lead to his increasing alienation from his community? Our own response is yes, in the short run, but—since he is a bright and sensitive youth and he has a wise father—we can hope that in the long run he will learn to appreciate and to cher- ish the ways of the barrio. The church—especially perhaps the Roman Catholic Church—has often adapted itself to the old ways and beliefs of new converts, sometimes by retaining the old holidays and holy places but adapting them and dedicating them to the new reli-.

Our sense is that the priest vaguely intuits an archetypal mystery, something older and more inclusive than the Roman Catholic ritual he engages in. During most of the story the narrator neither editorializes nor enters the minds of the characters; we are not told that the characters are reverential, and for the most part we are not allowed to hear their thoughts.

Rather, we see them perform ceremonies with dignity, and, because the point of view is chiefly objective, we draw our own conclusions. Possibly, too, by keeping outside of the minds of the characters the narrator helps to convey the traditional paleface idea that Native Americans are inscrutable people, people of few words.

Because the narrator, like the characters, is taciturn, some readers may think that Leon and his companions are callous. We do not know if the different colors of paint—white, blue, yellow, and green—have specific meanings, but perhaps blue suggests the sky and the water, yellow suggests corn meal, and green suggests vegetation. White is a fairly wide- spread sign of purity, but we have not been able to find out how Pueblo people regard it.

This is an interesting poem, but it is a tricky poem to teach well. As we always do with short poems, we first ask a student to read the poem aloud, and after he or she is done, there is usually an awkward silence. Students are not happy about such criticism. After all, here they are in a lit- erature course, where they are being taught to read analytically, examining tone, meter, metaphor, simile, and so on. Now they encounter an eminent poet—a former U. For us as teachers, the challenge is to encourage students to enjoy literature while, at the same time, developing their interpretive skills.

We know, as teach- ers, that learning to interpret literature carefully often leads us to enjoy poems that, at first, we did not enjoy: we did not enjoy these poems because we did not understand them, and once we do understand them, we can enjoy them— or at least can understand why other readers might.

The students should see us performing important intellectual work, but they should also see us as lovers of literature, whose pleasure in literature has not faded away from too many years of close, careful critical interpretation. Now, we return to the first part of the poem, in which Collins describes the approach—really, the approaches—that he invites students to take. The joy, the exhilaration, the possibility that one might fall— plus the wave of the hand toward the shore, which here Collins invokes in order to imply that it is the experience of the poem that matters, not the identity of the author that is over there , off in the distance.

Our exploration of the first part of the poem dramatizes for the students the contrast that Collins aims for in the final lines. There is a contrast between what comes before it and what comes next, and the starkness of the contrast makes it provocative. Yet, it also polarizes the issues that the poem engages, and that is our own critique of what Collins has done. Through his vivid images, Collins, to us, sets up a contrast that places enjoy- ment and analysis at odds with one another.

On one level, the poet-speaker calls for receptivity, for pleasure and appreciation.


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  4. This is indeed an irksome poem, and sometimes we wonder how much we really admire it. However, it is a poem that sticks with students: it unsettles them and leaves them with a good measure of doubt and concern—and with lingering questions. David Citino , where he speaks about the pleasures of reading and writing. Note: We mentioned above that when dealing with short poems in particu- lar, we like to begin by asking a student to read the poem aloud.

    This is a good idea, we think; among other things, it enables quiet students, who are fearful about offering interpretive comments, to find a safer for them way to enter into the discussion. But over the years we have come to realize that it is best to. Our questions in the text call attention to the fact that the two middle stanzas complicate the poem. Of course sometimes in our lives we do make clear-cut choices between stark alternatives, but for the most part the choices are small, and are between things that seem pretty similar.

    For instance, a student may have been accepted at two very similar colleges, and the choice of where to go may be based on something rather trivial, e. A few will say that a woman is the speaker, and we have found it interesting to ask them why. Those who say that a woman is the speaker usually suggest that she is unmarried and is speaking regretfully. Almost all students hear the voice of an older person, though they cannot always say why.

    Similarly, although a few students find the speaker aggressively offering unsolicited advice, most hear a friendly voice. Is the poem offensive to women? Some of our students have found it so. The editors of Literature for Composition belong to a generation that was taught, in grade school and in high school, that Teddy Roosevelt was a hero. Some of his words entered the classroom, just as half a century later some of the words of John Kennedy—notably the Inaugural Address—entered the classroom.

    In the fifth question in the text, we quote yet another in famous remark, expressing the opinion that all immigrants should be required to learn English within five years. Although the sculptures. The entries that we cite in this manual for Chapter 6 are relevant here too. Frank Lentricchia and Thomas McLaughlin, 2nd ed. You may next want to turn to a short, readable, but highly thoughtful book by Monroe Beardsley, The Possibility of Criticism Also of interest are E. Hirsch, Validity in Interpretation ; Paul B. Jac L. If there is a momentary longing for death in the poem, there is also the reassertion of the will to face the tasks of living.

    The rhyming words in the first stanza can be indicated by aaba ; the sec- ond stanza picks up the b rhyme: bbcb. Indicate the rhymes for the third stanza. For the fourth. Why is it appropriate that the rhyme scheme dif- fers in the fourth stanza? How is the time of day and year sig- nificant? The gist of this faction is that the neighbor wisely realizes—as the speaker does not—that individual identity depends on respect for boundaries.

    Such a view sees the. For a long, judicious discussion of the poem, see John C. Addendum: In the quest to connect literature with life, some instructors have called attention to two fences or walls that are very much in the news, the fence being built in the U. Our own instincts are not to refer to either of these. We do not think the poem offers a useful comment about immigration or about Israeli-Palestinian relations.

    On the other hand, several instructors assure us that students do deepen their understanding of the poem and of life by con- sidering these issues. We print the original version, from Poetry magazine, but in line 19 we give soot instead of spot an obvious typo in Poetry. When the poem later appeared in book form it differed only in punctuation e. The matter has been thoroughly and apparently definitively discussed by Jack Stillinger, in an appendix to his book called The Hoodwinking of Madeline The problem is this: when the poem was first published, in Annals of the Fine Arts , the lines were printed thus: Beauty is Truth,—Truth Beauty—That is all Ye know on Earth, and all ye need to know.

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