Lithium is a soft, silvery metal, with a very low density, which reacts vigorously with water, and quickly tarnishes in air. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word for stone, lithos. It is found in the Earth's crust at a concentration of 20 ppm, making it the 31st most abundant element. Lithium also presents some exceptions to the "typical" Group 1A behaviors.
The lithium ion has a very high charge density because of its small size; thus, many lithium salts have significant covalent-bonding character, instead of being purely ionic. These salts dissociate less easily in water than the salts of sodium and potassium, and are therefore less soluble in water. In addition, lithium can form bonds to carbon which have high covalent character the organolithium compounds.
Lithium was one of the three elements produced in the Big Bang, although it was produced only in trace amounts. Aluminum and magnesium alloys of lithium are strong and lightweight; aluminum-lithium alloys are used in aircraft construction, trains, and bicycles. Lithium-based batteries have very long lifetimes particular important in implantable devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators , and are very lightweight; they are frequently used in portable electronic devices and computers. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate, Li 2 CO 3 are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and some types of depression, and are also used to augment the actions of other antidepressants.
Lithium deuteride LiD, see entry on Hydrogen above is used in hydrogen bombs; neutrons produced by a fission-powered explosive are absorbed by the lithium atoms, transforming them into tritium; the fusion of tritium and deuterium to form helium releases tremendous amounts of energy. Lithium hydroxide LiOH is used in confined spaces to remove carbon dioxide from the air the carbon dioxide is captured in the form of lithium carbonate ; this is particularly important in submarines and spacecraft.
Sodium is a soft, silvery metal that reacts very vigorously with water, and tarnishes easily in air. It is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, which consists of 2. The name is derived from the English word soda, a term found in many compounds of sodium, such as washing soda sodium carbonate or soda ash , sodium bicarbonate baking soda , and sodium hydroxide caustic soda.
The symbol "Na" is derived from the Latin name for the element, natrium. It is found in the minerals halite [rock salt, or sodium chloride, NaCl] and trona [sodium carbonate bicarbonate, Na 3 CO 3 HCO 3 ], and can be extracted from seawater. Metallic sodium is usually stored in mineral oil or some other hydrocarbon, because it will react with the moisture in the air to form sodium hydroxide.
A common laboratory demonstration illustrates the reactivity of sodium. A small piece of sodium placed in a dish of water skates around on the surface of the water, hissing violently, and slowly disappears. The sodium reacts with water in a single-displacement reaction, producing sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas:. The sodium hydroxide is soluble in water, and dissolves. This demonstration can become very dangerous if too large a piece of sodium is used, however, since enough heat can be generated to ignite the hydrogen gas.
This reaction releases a great deal of heat energy, and is usually done in a beaker lined with sand to prevent the heat from cracking the glass. See here for a demonstration. Energetically excited sodium atoms glow with a yellow light the strongest emissions are the "sodium D-lines" at Sodium is also used in sodium-vapor street lamps.
In the body, sodium ions regulate osmotic pressure and blood pressure, and sodium and potassium ions together play a major role in the transmission of nerve impulses. One of the most important compounds of sodium is sodium chloride, NaCl, also known as table salt. Commercially prepared sodium chloride is either mined in the form of halite, from deposits formed by ancient, dried-out sea beds, or by the evaporation of water from sea water. Sodium chloride is subjected to electrolysis in an apparatus called a Downs cell, which produces sodium metal and chlorine gas; the construction of the cell is designed to keep the sodium and chlorine separate from each other as they are produced.
Sodium carbonate, Na 2 CO 3 , also known as soda or soda ash, has been used for centuries in washing clothes it helps to remove highly charged metal cations, such as calcium and magnesium, from hard water and in the manufacture of glass, paper, and detergents. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a strong base; it is used in drain cleaners, and in the manufacture of detergents sodium hydroxide breaks down triglycerides — fats and oils such as lard, shortening, olive oil, vegetable oils, etc.
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3 , also known as sodium hydrogen carbonate, is the main ingredient in baking soda, and is used as a leavening agent in the making of bread and other baked goods. Potassium is a soft, silvery metal that reacts extremely vigorously with water, and tarnishes rapidly in air. Its name is derived from the English word "potash," for potassium carbonate, a compound found in high concentrations in wood ashes. The symbol "K" is derived from the Latin name for the element, kalium. Potassium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust 2.
Potassium is essential for plant growth, and is heavily used in fertilizers. In the body, potassium plays a vital role in the contraction of muscle tissue; the movement of sodium and potassium ions in nerve cells plays a major role in the transmission of nerve impulses. When heated, potassium salts glow with a purple color, and are used in fireworks.
Like sodium, metallic potassium is usually stored under mineral oil or some other hydrocarbon; it can also react with oxygen in dry air to produce potassium superoxide, KO 2 see below. Potassium undergoes a a reaction with water similar to that of sodium; the products of the reaction are potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. This reaction releases a great deal of heat energy, often igniting the hydrogen gas that is produced. Potassium, which accounts for 0. It undergoes electron capture to produce argon; a comparison of the ratio of potassium to argon in rocks can be used to determine the age of the rock potassium-argon dating.
Trace amounts of potassium are found in all sources of potassium; in a typical human, about , atoms of potassium decay every second. The energy released by the decay of potassium is partially responsible for the interior heat of the Earth, along with the decays of thorium and uranium. There are a number of widely-used compounds of potassium. Download a pdf of this diagram here. In the Creative Cycle , clockwise on this diagram, each element nourishes, or creates, the next one in the cycle:.
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How can you use these elemental relationships to balance your life? Say you wish to dedicate your Intention to personal growth. First you would enhance your space with the appropriate element for this Intention — Wood learn more about using the Wood element here.
To reinforce this Intention, nourish the Wood with Water to instantly enhance, strengthen and fortify its power. Next, read about how to use the Controlling Cycle to bring an over-used element under control. Your personal clutter style aligns with one of Feng Shui's Five Elements. In this article…. I still feel like Jasmine and Brae belong together and was happy to see that their relationship seemed to develop in this book. I think I used to be a supporter of Roxy, but now I can't remember. All the stories of Jasmines Heritage was increasingly interesting and I would love to find out what she does with this information.
I hope she tells Roxy what she knows. Also I don't know how I feel about view spoiler [ Roxy only meeting up with them at the end of the book. However I think it turned out well as If she'd gone there any earlier- a lot could have gone wrong as Brae and the others were in another realm. In the first one I didn't have a clue.
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Also I love this author but why is the first book not on iBooks? Or else people wont fully appreciate and understand the story she has created.
Also I wasn't keen to finish the book because every time I looked for the next one on iBooks; I couldn't find it! And this time I did. I am starting to read it now. I don't think I will have time to continue reading books using this program but will definitely read them in my own time. One of the best I've read in a while. The cover looks amazing and we have a release date!! Oct 14, Elicia Cheah rated it it was amazing.
Heather James has once again broken and satisfied my heart. Every word she wrote, every page was so filled with delicacies that it makes you want to devour the book all at once without even stopping to chew through it. That's what Water is. It's like a favourite food you'll never get tired of eating.
The story has once again entranced and captivated me with its numerous twists and surprises to You can also find this review at Girl in the Woods Reviews Detailed Review: I am in love with this book. The story has once again entranced and captivated me with its numerous twists and surprises together with its characters.
It is written in Roxy and Jasmine's points of view. And besides that, it actually gives us a more brief look into two of the four realms. Jasmine, thought to have been a descendant from Helian and Brizan parents, decides to follow her best friend and the Arcan prince Brae to the Brizan realm so she can control the Brizan part of her powers and to find out more about her parentage. But what she finds will shock her. Roxy, on the other hand, is being controlled by Cinaer and her control-freak mother.
Cinaer is determined to use her to gain the throne. When given a chance to escape, she takes it and embarks to the Arcan realm. But something happens before she reaches it. She finds herself in the Sephan realm instead. Now, the Sephans, they're like us in the present. They have a democracy. But they do not have technology. They depend completely on nature. So in a way, they are like a bunch of intelligent cavemen pardon me, Heather, I couldn't find a better phrase to describe them. It is in these two different realms that the two girls, Roxy and Jasmine find themselves so close, no matter how far apart they seem, connected in a way they could never imagine.
The ending: makes me want to cry and stage a protest against the author for writing such heart-breaking endings.
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I was not prepared for that. Brief Review: I am once again impressed by Heather. Her characters are very powerful with their personalities, especially the girls. Jasmine and Roxy are both amazing heroines. And perhaps it is the idea of having two heroines, not just one that makes the book unique in it's own way. The story itself is already interesting enough, but the characters just makes it even more vibrant.
Jun 18, Sofia rated it it was amazing. Then his gaze met mine. And my lungs emptied of air. Everyone is trying to move forward after what happend. Jasmine with Brae's help, wants to discover her origins while Roxy doesn't even know what her future holds. They are all in for a big surprise.. Roxy sets to find Brae but ends up at the Sephan Realm.
Sephans were meant to be peacefull but apperently nothing is as it seems. The only thing she now wants is to get awa Then his gaze met mine. The only thing she now wants is to get away. But will they let her??? Jasmine will find what she desired but sometimes truth comes at a price I really really liked this book. The dual POV worked amazingly as the girls are no longer together and each had its own problems to deal with.
Moreover, the dual POV allows us to see what they both go through, it makes us understand better their actions, what they think and finally their emotions! Water changes everything! Secrets are revealed and the girls find out that they have more in common except from their love for Bea!!! One thing I hated in Water was the end! Unfortunately for us readers the book is a major cliffhanger. While reading Water I felt that the whole book was preparing us for just one moment and when it finally came it ends.
Imagine my surprise!!! I turned over a page and there was nothing and I'm like "Where's the rest??? This can't be the end!! No the author wouldn't do this to us All in all, I loved this book ok, I even somewhat liked the cliffhanger as well and I can't wait to read the third and last book in the series Air coming out in !!! Totally recommend it. Note: The book is part of a series. It can't be read as a stand alone, so before picking up a copy make sure you have read the first book in the series, Fire! Jul 14, Emma rated it really liked it Shelves: read-in Water keeps growing on me the more I think about it.
I finished yesterday afternoon but my mind keeps drifting back to it. I was edging towards three stars during the first half of the book, then moved to three and a half but then the ending sealed it as a firm four. I mean come on! What a cruel yet beautiful way to leave us hanging! As with Fire, the world-building in the book is a major strength, and the Brizan and the Sephan realms really came to life. Both Jasmine and Roxy have developed a lot since the beginning if Fire, and continue to do so, and I found both narrative voices to be a lot stronger in this sequel. When Roxy first meets it seems that he is going to be the hero we need — especially compared to the abhorrent behaviour of Erica — and indeed he seems to be great for some time, until we realise that we as readers have been deceived by his charm just as much as the Sephans from whom he garners votes.
He keeps us guessing until the end and just when we think we are starting to understand — kaplowee yes that is a word! I would have liked to see a bit more of Brae and his inner workings within this book. Whilst we see a little more than in Fire, I think that as the man both Jasmine and Roxy has fallen for, he needs to maybe be a little more rounded as a character. Whilst I like that this is a love triangle with a difference, we have two strong female protagonists and their love interest needs to be as strong and developed a character as each of them.
On the other hand, the fact that James keeps his inner thoughts tucked firmly out of sight means that we have no idea how he truly feels about either girl well, until …. Some of the Brizan scenes, particularly in the first half of the book, in which Jasmine is being trained to use her water powers, felt a bit repetitive — whilst I understand why we need to see her undertaking training I think there was just a bit too much of this type of scene. Stylistically, I felt that exclamation marks were overused in the dialogue, particularly in conversations between the Arcan friends. The middle books in trologies are often the least popular but I think that this series has just got better.
That being said, Air has been set up to be the most exciting of all, and I am hoping for an emotion-filled ride with that one! Aug 29, Carrie rated it really liked it Shelves: prizes-requested , ya , fantasy , read But read at your own risk. My review of Fire 1. First off, I loved this book. It had all the things I loved about the first one and new layers were added in to make this book a sequel to be remembered. The story continues the alternating p. Which, as anyone who read the first book knows, changed their lives forever.
The girls set off on their respective journeys, one a trip with her companions to a foreign capital, where danger, romance, and her past await her. The other strives for her freedom and the promise of love that she glimpsed in the previous book. In book one, I loved Jasmine. She was an enigma. So I loved getting to know her and watch as she discovered her abilities and the story of her long lost parents.
It turned out to be what I thought from book one, but that's okay. I wasn't disappointed at having guessed it. The whole situation rather fits her well. With the way the book ends, I am very curious as to how those ties will play out in the next one. As far as her romance in this book goes, I know she had feelings for the particular gentleman in book one, but I'm not too sure about it. I like him, and for their situation it's well written, so it's not that. But I preferred how things went for him in book one. This almost feels a little reboundish for him.
I must admit something, little firecracker Roxy really stole the show in this book. I liked her in book one, but somehow during book two, she put her foot down and became my favorite character. Or -more likely- she lit up the rest of the competition. Events of book one left her powerless. But rather than be a weakling and whine or cry about, she acts. While it does take an outside boost to help her on her journey, she does things. And that strength is what made me love her character. You can see her growth from book one.
She may be lost at the present, but she doesn't let that stop her. She fortifies her strengths and makes the most of the situation she finds herself stuck in.
While she does carry some of her superior-we-are-the-best-Realm attitudes, her reunion with Erica and encounter with Tristan prove that she is trying. Slowly she learns more about another realm and its people, all while trying to keep from being executed for who she was born as. Speaking of Tristan, I really, really loved his character. He was so fascinating, and so very much that type of character you would never want to cross.
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It was like: which side do we get to see today? I would be curious to see just who he is underneath all that fancy words and misleading tactics. So many things popped into my head, I am really curious as to what the author has plans for him. There is not much I can say about the plot with out spoiling things. But the story was well written and highly enjoyable.
I am really grateful I got a chance to read this eARC. Last book we focus on two of the four realms, this time we got to learn about the other two. With so much information being tossed at the reader it could very well have gotten out of hand. But the author does a great job creating this world, while keeping the story fun and fresh.
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