Lindsay Lohan has landed in a controversy after she accused Syrian refugee parents of human trafficking. The Mean Girls actress even made an attempt to take their children. The former child star filmed the bizarre incident and took to Instagram Live to share it on her account. Imaging being so ketted out your head you stalk a refugee family and accuse them of child trafficking. This women has ruined her career and will do anything to try to gain some relevance. A post shared by Just a girl who likes memes..
This frog once inhabited an area that has since been populated more prominently by invasive feral pigs, which destroy the tropical shrubbery and growth this frog uses to hide. They also believe that Australian lace-lids have been affected by the global spread of chytrid, even in their isolated mountain rainforests. Tree frogs are among the popular amphibian species kept as pets. How many times have you walked into a pet store and been surprised by the variety of amphibians available for purchase? Many of these species are exquisite, exciting, beautiful and definitely non-native to the U.
But as much as we may love frogs and want to keep them as pets, we have to consider whether taking in such a pet has conservation implications. If introduced to an environment, a non-native species can become an invasive species, outcompeting native species. For instance, it is quite likely that the Burmese pythons now prevalent in the Florida Everglades were initially kept as pets and became invasives upon their intended or accidental release, adapting quickly to environments similar to their own Amazon estuaries and southeast Asian swamps, respectively.
Adaptations like high reproductive rates, longevity and the ability to consume large prey, combined with their misplacement, can allow them to outcompete and often consume native species like American alligators, opossums and even great blue herons, according to an article published in the Wilson Journal of Ornithology. A few particularly popular amphibian species that might not have quite the same effects as their serpentine kin—but are just as exotic—include the tomato frog and the well-known families of Dendrobatidae poison dart frogs and Hylidae red-eyed tree frogs and spring peepers, to name two.
These particular amphibians are regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, or CITES, which establishes controls, protocol and limits for managing species that are endangered in the wild but for which there is high consumer demand. These frogs are listed among either the first or second appendices of CITES, meaning that they are restricted from being captured in the wild or are threatened in the wild, and their trade or sale may be regulated or restricted at any time.
However, captive-bred individuals of these species are acceptable for trade and sale. Pets that are illegal to own generally depend on state laws, and many states have clear laws discussing what animals are illegal to be kept as pets and which animals require a permit to keep. For instance, the state of New Jersey requires a permit to own African clawed frogs, red-eyed tree frogs and a variety of other common pet trade frogs. The amphibian pet trade is thought to be contributing to declining amphibian populations in the wild by overharvesting wild rare species and may play a role in spreading diseases.
If you are considering investing in an exotic species, please be sure of two things. Second, that the farm or source has raised or procured the frog sustainably and in accordance to the best husbandry practice. Simply because a species can be traded does not necessarily mean that it is okay to purchase one. Do some background research on the species that you plan to purchase, not only to determine what kind of care and conditions you will need to provide your amphibious friend, but also to determine if this is a species that you can own without adversely affecting wild populations.
There is something about the keeping of an aquarium or terrarium that leads conscientious caretakers to appreciate the details of an ecosystem—the essence of such an enterprise, or hobby, is caring. Are you harming amphibians at large with this purchase? Should you buy captive-bred or wild-caught amphibians for pets? The oriental fire-bellied toad has become a common fixture in pet stores across the world, but they are native to western areas of both China and Russia.
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It is not part of the Bufonidae or true toad family and displays more aquatic behavior than the terrestrial toad. This toad is listed as a species of least concern, possibly because it is resourceful on the whole. Oriental fire-bellied toads are known as an opportunistic species, commonly sharing close borders with human populations and are often found in agricultural areas or villages. Another reason these amphibians might be so successful is the wide variety in their diet. While they consume worms, mollusks, insects and a variety of aquatic invertebrates as adults, tadpoles and juveniles consume detritus, algae, fungi, plants and numerous small invertebrates.
Oriental fire-bellied toads also live in a diverse range of habitats, especially in broad-leafed coniferous forests. At around six weeks, the toadlets look like miniature half-inch versions of the adults. Courtesy of Cheyenne Mountain Zoo. A North American toad is fighting its own battle with chytrid, a battle just as devastating as the one frogs in Panama are facing. The Wyoming toad Anaxyrus baxteri is one of the most endangered anurans frog or toad in North America.
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Historically, they were found in the Laramie Basin of southern Wyoming. Up until the mid s, they were common throughout this region, but since then, the population drastically declined. Major threats are loss of habitat, pesticide usage and chytrid fungus. In , the last wild toads were rescued from extinction when they were collected and sent to a captive breeding facility.
One day, their tadpoles could be released back into the wild, thanks to Cheyenne Mountain Zoo CMZ , and other zoos and federal facilities now breeding Wyoming toads. The CMZ Amphibian Propagation and Research Center is a bio-secure area and closed to zoo guests to help keep chytrid fungus and other diseases out of the breeding population.
However, due to limited space for tadpoles, not all of the toads are bred each year. The Wyoming toad studbook keeper and population manager determine what the best matches are to maximize and maintain genetic diversity.
CMZ also monitors the overall health of each toad and decides whether they are fit for reproduction. As spring approaches, we confirm our recommended pairings and prepare for something somewhat disconcerting for an animal keeper—we have to chill our toads in the refrigerator! In order for them to breed successfully, the toads require a period of cool hibernation as would be experienced in the wild. This is a very delicate time for them because their immune systems are suppressed. A few days prior to hibernating, the toads are not given food.
As their metabolism slows, so does their digestive tract, and undigested food could make them sick. Their room is slightly cooled from 75 degrees to 65 degrees and the lights are turned off the day before entering the hibernaculum, which is basically a fancy refrigerator. Each tank of toads has its own tub filled with wet gravel, carbon, sand and moss. The toads are weighed, placed in the tubs and the temperature is set to 52 degrees. The toads will remain at this temperature for 35 days, misted with chilled water to maintain humidity and checked on about twice a week.
We have to limit the number of checks to reduce the amount of environmental disturbance. After 35 days, the toads are slowly warmed up in reverse order of the cool down.
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The toads are placed back in their normal husbandry tanks and offered a few insects. They should be ready for breeding the next day. Many species of amphibians are not able to be bred in a captive environment. For the Wyoming toad, it was discovered they require supplemental hormones in addition to hibernation in order to reproduce. The females are given their first hormone injection in the morning and placed in a breeding tank.
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Six hours later, the males are given a hormone injection and the females their second. The breeding tank has about one-and-a-half inches of water and some plastic floating plants. A recording of Wyoming toad breeding calls is played for 24 hours while the pairs are together. Hear a sample of the Wyoming toad call By the next morning, the female should have hopefully produced eggs fertilized by the male.
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On June 1, , six pairs of Wyoming toads were placed together at CMZ, and all of them produced eggs! Unfortunately, two of the egg masses were infertile, but in total, CMZ had about 2, tadpoles. Based on valuable genetics, CMZ held back 60 tadpoles for future breeding. Each year, staff from CMZ, other zoos and U. This is a non-public access refuge, and reintroductions were stopped at this site in due to chytrid.
The site allows us to see if the population could continue even though chytrid was present. Tadpoles are now released at a different location, which prevents us from confusing recently released animals with those naturally produced in the wild. Length, relative size, weight, habitat conditions, temperature and wind speed are just some of the data recorded during the survey.
Most importantly, though, is collecting a swabbed sample from each found toad to see if chytrid is present. The toads are also given a microchip under their skin for permanent identification, enabling us to know how many different toads are found. If a microchipped toad is caught again, a scanner will tell us. Cheyenne Mountain Zoo is very proud to be an important participant in the Wyoming toad recovery program!
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What is more romantic than the light of a full moon glinting off of fresh raindrops resting on the lush foliage of the rainforest? Well, if you are the San Carlos tree frog Dendropsophus phlebodes , soft moonlight is a complete turnoff. This gold frog, barely an inch long, with brown zigzagging lines, feels most amorous on cloudy nights after drenching rains. Males form large choruses in the foliage above temporary ponds of water in Central America during the rainy season to serenade females.
Males will synchronize their calls and add variations, known as click notes, to distinguish themselves from the crowd. The moon is a total atmosphere-killer for the frogs. When the conditions are right females will lay up to eggs in a pool of water in small groups after mating with a male. The eggs will float on the surface of the water and attach to plants sticking out of the water.
The tadpoles hatch between August and October, and they stay in the shallow areas of the ponds until they mature. Localized threats, however, include deforestation for agricultural development, logging, human settlement and pollution.
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