RAISE YOUR HAND AGAINST ABORTION, NOW!
Elle est le don messianique par excellence. Il vous conduira par le juste chemin cfr Ps 23, 3. Imitez le Christ! Leur vie spirituelle est le fondement de leur vie apostolique. Ces idoles sont des leurres. Funk, ; SC 10bis, p. XVI Les missionnaires Les diacres permanents DC , p. Acta Apostolicae Sedis — Commentarium Officiale Cfr n. Soyez patients, soyez forts et gardez courage! Ils peuvent servir ou desservir sur le plan moral, propager le vrai comme le faux, proposer le laid comme le beau.
La Nouvelle E Spe salvi 30 novembre , n. Ia-IIae, q. Cfr Paul VI, Exhort. XVI dans le respect de chaque individu et de tous les peuples; une paix qui [ Cfr Ibidem. Cfr Ez 33, Sal 50, Jn 12, In Joannis Ev. Cfr Jn 12, Pues bien, en este monumento se representa a Cristo Rey. Jn 2, 5. Cfr Lc 2, Discurso a la Curia Romana, 22 de diciembre de Porta fidei, 11 octubre , 6. El mal no puede tanto. Sal , 8. Sal , El Sucesor de Pedro participa de estos sentimientos y agradece su solicitud pastoral paciente y humilde. Cfr Lc 22, La Iglesia no puede separar la alabanza de Dios del servicio a los hombres.
Saludo cordialmente al Cardenal Jaime Ortega y Alamino, Arzobispo de La Habana, y le agradezco las corteses palabras que me ha dirigido en nombre de todos. E capaz de salvarnos con su poder. Al mismo tiempo, es cercano a su pueblo y, por su Hijo Jesucristo, ha deseado poner su morada entre nosotros. Muchos, sin embargo, prefieren los atajos e intentan eludir esta tarea. Algunos, como Poncio Pilato, ironizan con la posibilidad de poder conocer la verdad,3 proclamando la incapacidad del hombre para alcanzarla o negando que exista una verdad para todos.
Esta 2 3 Jn 8, Cfr Jn 18, Personas que se lavan las manos como el gobernador romano y dejan correr el agua de la historia sin comprometerse. Todo ser humano ha de indagar la verdad y optar por ella cuando la encuentra, aun a riesgo de afrontar sacrificios.
Queridos amigos, no vacilen en seguir a Jesucristo. Cfr Jn 8, Caminemos a la luz de Cristo, que es el que puede destruir la tiniebla del error. Cfr Rm 12, XVI seduto a mendicare un uomo cieco, di nome Bartimeo. Benedetto colui che viene nel nome del Signore! Benedetto il Regno che viene, del nostro padre Davide! Cfr v. Cfr Mc 11, In questo sguardo traspare lo sguardo stesso di Dio sugli uomini che Egli ama e sulla creazione, opera delle sue mani. Tu infatti ami tutte le cose che esistono e non provi disgusto per nessuna delle cose che hai creato; E gli stessi discepoli, come pure altri che lo avevano visto e ascoltato, rimarranno ammutoliti e smarriti.
Proprio qui sta il nodo della festa di oggi, anche per noi. E 7 8 Gen 12, Sap 11, Dobbiamo allora chiederci: quali sono le nostre vere attese? Cari giovani, che siete qui convenuti! Per questo vi saluto con grande affetto! Davanti a Cristo — dicevano i Padri — dobbiamo stendere la nostra vita, le nostre persone, in atteggiamento di gratitudine e di adorazione.
Acta Apostolicae Sedis — Commentarium Officiale linfa, anche il loro verde. Stendiamo noi stessi rivestiti della sua grazia, o meglio, di tutto lui stesso V In Missa Chrismali. Con questa domanda il Signore sta davanti a noi, e noi stiamo davanti a Lui. E che noi, che io non rivendichi la mia vita per me stesso, ma la metta a disposizione di un altro — di Cristo. Che non domandi: che cosa ne ricavo per me? Ma non semplifichiamo troppo il problema. Ma forse la figura di Cristo ci appare a volte troppo elevata e troppo grande, per poter osare di prendere le misure da Lui.
Il Signore lo sa. I Santi ci indicano come funziona il rinnovamento e come possiamo metterci al suo servizio. Gli elementi fondamentali della fede, che in passato ogni bambino conosceva, sono sempre meno noti. Ma per poter vivere ed amare la nostra fede, per poter amare Dio e quindi diventare capaci di ascoltarLo in modo giusto, dobbiamo sapere che cosa Dio ci ha detto; la 2 1 Cor 4, 1.
XVI nostra ragione ed il nostro cuore devono essere toccati dalla sua parola. Lo troviamo naturalmente in modo fondamentale e primario nella Sacra Scrittura, che non leggeremo e mediteremo mai abbastanza. Ma questo naturalmente non deve significare che io non sostenga questa dottrina con tutto me stesso e non stia saldamente ancorato ad essa. Non reclamizzo me stesso, ma dono me stesso. Ci preoccupiamo della salvezza degli uomini in corpo e anima. Le persone non devono mai avere la sensazione che noi compiamo coscienziosamente il nostro orario di lavoro, ma prima e dopo apparteniamo solo a noi stessi.
Un sacerdote non appartiene mai a se stesso. Egli entra nella notte. Durante questo cammino, Egli ha cantato con i suoi Apostoli i Salmi della liberazione e della redenzione di Israele, che rievocavano la prima Pasqua in Egitto, la notte della liberazione. Ambedue le cose si impressero profondamente nel loro animo ed essi le trasmisero ai cristiani per sempre.
Egli sta sempre in comunione con Dio. Attraverso Cristo conosciamo Dio veramente. Negli Atti degli Apostoli, egli parla della preghiera in ginocchio da parte dei santi: Stefano durante la sua lapidazione, Pietro nel contesto della risurrezione di un morto, Paolo sulla via verso il martirio. Nella minaccia da parte del potere del male, essi, in quanto inginocchiati, sono dritti di fronte al mondo, ma, in quanto figli, sono in ginocchio davanti al Padre.
Egli lotta con se stesso. E lotta per noi. Egli allunga lo sguardo nelle notti del male. Egli vede anche me e prega anche per me. Cfr 14, Mt 26, 39; cfr Mc 14, XVI Ulivi come un evento sacerdotale. E mentale che pervade la storia e la menzogna di fondo che snatura la nostra vita. Con quale animo e con quali speranze Lei si mette oggi sulle sue tracce?
Santo Padre: Cari amici, anzitutto vorrei dire: benvenuti e grazie per il vostro accompagnamento in questo viaggio, che speriamo sia benedetto dal Signore. XVI Cuba. Quindi, cerco di andare nelle sue tracce e continuare quanto lui ha cominciato. Speriamo che il Signore ci aiuti! E ora diamo la parola al dott. Si parla di Come affronta la Chiesa cattolica questa situazione? Facciamo infinito del quale abbiamo sete. A volte sembra che la Chiesa cattolica non sia sufficientemente incoraggiata ad impegnarsi in questo campo.
Santo Padre: Naturalmente la Chiesa deve sempre chiedere se si fa a sufficienza per la giustizia sociale in questo grande Continente. XVI morale della ragione. Vogliamo lavorare in questo senso. E ora una quarta domanda.
Sono passati 14 anni, ma sembra che queste parole siano ancora attuali. In tale senso contribuiamo, contribuiscono proprio anche semplici fedeli in questo cammino in avanti. Anche in America Latina vi sono le sfide della secolarizzazione, delle sette. Quindi un Cristianesimo essenzializzato, dove si trova realmente il nucleo fondamentale per vivere oggi con tutti i problemi del nostro tempo. II Iter apostolicum in Mexicum et Cubam.
XVI Vengo a Cuba como peregrino de la caridad, para confirmar a mis hermanos en la fe y alentarles en la esperanza, que nace de la presencia del amor de Dios en nuestras vidas. Muchas gracias. Christophori de Habana. Feria de Friburgo de Brisgovia, 24 septiembre Que Dios bendiga tus destinos. Cristo os necesita a su lado para extender y edificar su Reino de caridad. En esta aventura nadie sobra.
Hablad de su amor y bondad con sencillez, sin complejos ni temores. E mento di grazia, nel corso del quale il Signore ha benedetto i giovani presenti, venuti dal mondo intero. E cristiani, la gioia della fede. Nel difficile contesto attuale, tanti giovani intorno a voi hanno un immenso bisogno di 1 2 3 Cfr Mt 28, E questa ricerca percorre varie strade, alcune delle quali si rivelano sbagliate, o perlomeno pericolose. Ma come distinguere le gioie veramente durature dai piaceri immediati e ingannevoli?
Come trovare la vera gioia nella vita, quella che dura e non ci abbandona anche nei momenti difficili? XVI 2. Dio ci ha creati a sua immagine per amore e per riversare su noi questo suo amore, per colmarci della sua presenza e della sua grazia. In Lui si trova la gioia che cerchiamo. Nei Vangeli lo possiamo vedere in molti episodi. E Zaccheo, riferisce san Luca, 4 5 6 7 Lc 1, Lc 2, Mt 2, Fil 4, Rimanete nel mio amore Conservare nel cuore la gioia cristiana A questo punto ci domandiamo: come ricevere e conservare questo dono della gioia profonda, della gioia spirituale?
Gv 15, 9. Cari amici, imparate a vedere come Dio agisce nelle vostre vite, scopritelo nascosto nel cuore degli avvenimenti del vostro quotidiano. Rivolgete spesso il vostro sguardo verso di Lui. Fil 4, 5. Ger 15, Sal 95, 1. Dio ama chi dona con gioia. E lo stesso vale per il lavoro, gli studi e i servizi che svolgete. P 45, 21 gennaio , Op. Cfr Gal 5, At 20, Gaudete in Domino, 9 maggio Che tutta la vostra vita sia guidata dallo spirito di servizio, e non dalla ricerca del potere, del successo materiale e del denaro.
Cari giovani, non abbiate paura della chiamata di Cristo alla vita religiosa, monastica, missionaria o al sacerdozio. Siate certi che Egli colma di gioia coloro che, dedicandogli la vita in questa prospettiva, rispondono al suo invito a lasciare tutto per rimanere con Lui e dedicarsi con cuore indiviso al servizio degli altri.
La gioia della conversione Cari amici, per vivere la vera gioia occorre anche identificare le tentazioni che la allontanano. At 2, Acta Apostolicae Sedis — Commentarium Officiale zione, dalla tristezza e sentono un vuoto nella vita. Per questo ci ha dato delle indicazioni concrete per il nostro cammino: i Comandamenti. Cari giovani, ricorrete spesso al Sacramento della Penitenza e della Riconciliazione! Il beato Pier Giorgio Frassati ha sperimentato tante prove nella sua pur breve esistenza, tra cui una, riguardante la sua vita sentimentale, che lo aveva ferito in modo profondo.
Quando partecipiamo alle sue sofferenze, partecipiamo anche alla sua gloria. Testimoni della gioia Cari amici, per concludere vorrei esortarvi ad essere missionari della gioia. Non possiamo tenere per noi la 27 28 29 30 Lettera alla sorella Luciana, Torino, 14 febbraio Discorso ai giovani, Torino, 13 aprile Lettera a Chiara Lubich, Sassello, 20 dicembre Cfr Col 1, E se il modo di vivere dei cristiani sembra a volte stanco ed annoiato, testimoniate voi per primi il volto gioioso e felice della fede.
Siate dunque missionari entusiasti della nuova evangelizzazione! Dal Vaticano, 15 marzo XVI 31 32 33 1 Gv 1, Mt 25, Lc 1, La storia della conversione di Chiara ruota intorno alla festa liturgica della Domenica delle Palme. Acta Apostolicae Sedis — Commentarium Officiale converta la gioia mondana nel lutto della domenica di Passione. Giunto dunque il giorno di domenica, in mezzo alle altre dame, la giovane, splendente di luce festiva, entra con le altre in chiesa.
Ma molti cominciarono a riflettere. Anche la giovane Chiara, allora adolescente, fu toccata da quella testimonianza. Mentre infatti lavorava per il restauro della chiesa di San Damiano, dove il Crocifisso gli aveva parlato, aveva annunciato che quel luogo sarebbe stato abitato da donne che avrebbero glorificato Dio col loro santo tenore di vita.
Vita seconda, FF Se alcuni familiari non tardarono a comprenderla, e addirittura la madre Ortolana e due sorelle la seguirono nella sua scelta di vita, altri reagirono violentemente. A questa lotta Chiara si era preparata. In essa si incontrano un Pastore illuminato e due figli della Chiesa che si affidano al suo discernimento. Istituzione e carisma interagiscono stupendamente. Francesco aveva ben visto la ragione per suggerire a Chiara la fuga da casa agli inizi della Settimana Santa.
Tutta la vita cristiana, e dunque anche 6 FF Acta Apostolicae Sedis — Commentarium Officiale la vita di speciale consacrazione, sono un frutto del Mistero pasquale e una partecipazione alla morte e alla risurrezione di Cristo. Chiara, con la sua scelta, rivive questo mistero. Francesco e i suoi compagni sono ormai la sua famiglia. Presto arriveranno consorelle anche da lontano, ma i primi germogli, come nel caso di Francesco, spunteranno proprio in Assisi.
Il tempo che ci separa dalla vicenda di questi due Santi non ha sminuito il loro fascino. Mai un tempo ha fatto sognare tanto i giovani, con le mille attrattive di una vita in cui tutto sembra possibile e lecito. Con un particolare pensiero alle figlie di santa Chiara del Protomonastero, degli altri monasteri di Assisi e del mondo intero, imparto di cuore a tutti la mia Benedizione Apostolica. Special priority was given to the meetings with victims of abuse, who were assured of the particular closeness of the Holy Father.
Some of the Archdioceses held very moving penitential liturgies in the Cathedrals, attended by clergy and members of the faithful, with the participation of victims of abuse in each case. These four Visitations included meetings with the suffraganeous Bishops and yielded sufficient information to provide an adequate picture of the situation of the Church in Ireland, such as to obviate the need to extend the Visitation to the suffraganeous Sees.
All Hallows College in Dublin informed the Visitator that it no longer offered a programme of priestly formation and consequently it was not included in the Visitation. Before visiting each of the Institutes, the Visitator was able to study documentation on the Colleges concerned. The Visitator and his assistants held individual meetings with formators and seminarians, as well as others holding positions of authority in the seminaries, including those responsible for the protection of minors.
Priests ordained within the last three years were also invited to a personal conversation if they so wished. It should be pointed out that the Milltown Institute, which is more an academic centre than a seminary, was examined only with regard to the theological formation offered to future priests.
The Visitators then held various meetings with Bishops, Superiors and formators of the different communities and with any particular groups, including abuse victims, that requested a meeting, as well as representatives of the National Board for Safeguarding Children in the Catholic Church. Meetings were held with the members of the Conference of Religious of Ireland, both in the common assemblies and in regional assemblies throughout the country.
The Visitators had the opportunity to conduct extended visits to 31 Institutes. They estimate that, during the visit, they had the opportunity to dialogue with a significant portion of Religious in Ireland. With a view to promoting the work of renewal called for by the Holy Father, the Congregation for Bishops and the Congregation for Catholic Education have carefully studied the information collected by the respective Visitators. Keeping in mind the provisions of the document Towards Healing and Renewal issued by the Irish Episcopal Conference, they have communicated their conclusions to the four Metropolitan Archbishops and to the Ecclesiastical Authorities of the seminaries visited, indicating courses of action.
The Archbishops and the Ecclesiastical Authorities gave their responses. With a great sense of pain and shame, it must be acknowledged that within the Christian community innocent young people were abused by clerics and Religious to whose care they had been entrusted, while those who should Acta Benedicti Pp.
XVI have exercised vigilance often failed to do so effectively. The Visitation was also intended to determine whether the structures and procedures put in place by the Church in Ireland from that period onwards are adequate to ensure that the tragedy of the abuse of minors will not be repeated. In this regard, the Holy See has made the following observations: 1 Particular attention has been given to the assistance offered by the Church in Ireland to victims of past abuse.
All the Visitators acknowledge that, beginning with the Bishops and Religious Superiors, much attention and care has been shown to the victims, both in terms of spiritual and psychological assistance and also from a legal and financial standpoint. It has been recommended, therefore, that, following the example given by Pope Benedict XVI in his meetings with victims of abuse, the Irish diocesan authorities and those of the Religious Institutes continue to devote much time listening to and receiving victims, providing support for them and their families.
The Visitators and the Church in Ireland are thankful for this contribution and want to assure them that their well-being is of paramount concern for the Church. The Visitators welcome the process, already initiated by the National Board for Safeguarding Children in the Catholic Church, of regularly auditing the implementation of the Guidelines. It is recommended that this process of covering all Dioceses and Religious Institutes by regular audits will be implemented in a prompt manner. III: Documentos del Japon VIII: Au bord de la ruine John W. IX: Pour le salut des Hurons This is the command of Jesus to the universal Church.
Since the Apostolic times, many people imbued with the spirit of Jesus and a great zeal, committed themselves to the task of evangelization in different parts of the world. The manner in which this task is carried out has undergone drastic changes because of the changing situations in the world. The factors of communication, migration, industries, together with the interdependence among the different peoples and cul1 2 3. Being faced with this new situation of religious pluralism all over the world, we are challenged to find new ways of evangelization. Likewise, missionaries and those involved in the work of evangelization need to be equipped with a spirituality relevant to the new circumstances, for a conducive presence and approach to the people of other faiths.
One of the essential needs for effective evangelization today is the Spirituality of Dialogue. It is by involving themselves with the concrete life situations of the people and working for their liberation from unjust structures, political and social exploitation, oppression of the poor etc, that the missionaries are sanctified.
We have a dialogue of life when we enter into relationship with people of other faiths. We talk to them, share our concerns, visit them on the occasions of festivals, invite them for our programmes, thus creating a happy atmosphere. When we engage ourselves in different activities on behalf of human beings and the society together with people of other faiths and thus bring about a transformation in the lives of the people and in the society, we have dialogue of action.
The dialogue of religious discussion consists in people of different faiths coming together to share their faith with each other. It consists mostly of intellectual discussions among the scholars or those who have sufficient knowledge of their religion. And the dialogue of religious experience is where people of different faiths gather together to pray and experience the presence of the divine among themselves6.
Henceforth LG. Born on April 7, at Navarre, Spain, to one of the celebrated families of the time, his desire and ambition was to soar high in the world. But his encounter with Ignatius of Loyola brought about a total change in him and he dedicated his life to the Lord by joining Ignatius to found the Society of Jesus. He was sent to the East by chance as the member who was assigned, got sick. Francis Xavier willingly accepted the offer and came to the East.
His zealous missionary activity in the East especially in India, Malacca, and Japan has been a unique contribution to the evangelizing mission of the Church. He was a man who had experienced Jesus and wanted to share this experience with others. Being uprooted from his culture, he was inserted into a different culture and came into contact with religious beliefs and practices totally distinct from the West.
Accepting the challenge in this concrete situation, his spirituality matured. He was called to holiness by being in contact with people of other faiths and cultures. Amidst all the odds and difficulties that he experienced in his missionary work, he succeeded in interacting with thousands of people of other faiths and practicing dialogue of life, of action and in some way of religious discussion.
Many responded to his message. His deep spirituality was responsible to maintain contact with other cultures and religions and was the secret of his success. However, given his theology and the worldview, and perhaps because he did not have an opportunity to come in close contact with the religious experience which the religions of India and other places contained, Francis Xavier could not think of entering into a dialogue of religious experience. We must be aware that he was a man of his time, and so we cannot expect him to be a model of all aspects of what Lumen Gentium and other Church documents today call for with respect to interreligious dialogue.
Yet he remains a remarkable saint and an undoubted model for missionary life. We shall presently consider how in the sixteenth century Francis Xavier lived this Spirituality of Dialogue in his missionary activity. Did Francis Xavier possess these attitudes? When we read through his letters we find that he did manifest many of these attitudes necessary for his mission. In India, Malacca and Japan he encountered cultures very different from his own. Being a man of adventure, he took up this challenge of adjusting to the people, their social life, their languages, their customs with regard to dress, food habits, their psychology, their way of looking at things etc.
The detailed account that he gives in his letters about the different cultures and religious beliefs and practices, gives us an insight as to how much interest Francis Xavier had taken to study each of the groups of people he encountered. For instance he gives the description of the Paravas on the Fishery Coast which was famous for pearl fishing. They were fisher folk, poor, hard working and exploited by Hindu Brahmins, the kings and the Portuguese officials.
He was aware of their drinking habits7. He learnt many cultural traits of the people of Japan from the merchants, Paul Anjiro and others. He learnt much more after he landed and visited the Japanese8. In all the places he visited and worked, he took great interest in learning the languages of the people.
In India he tried to learn Tamil to communicate with the people of the Fishery Coast. He also translated the prayers from Latin into Malayalam and learnt them by heart. In Malacca he tried to pick up Malay9. When he arrived in Japan and saw that language was important and without it he could not communicate with the people, he immediately took to learning it.
He says, we are now learning the language like the little children, and may it please God that we may imitate them in their simplicity and purity of mind. We are forced to employ the means and to dispose ourselves to be like them, both in learning the language and in imitating the simplicity of small and innocent children Louis , Docs. Thus Francis Xavier took great interest in knowing and learning this new cultural world with a totally different set up from that of the west. It was a tedious process but he did it because he was committed to his mission.
For instance he mentions in his letters the worship of the idols by the people of other faiths in India and how they call on them when they are sick or in pain. He describes the Brahmins, the high caste priests who remain in the temples and conduct the idol worship and how the poor people pray and offer their offerings with great faith and fear He gives a detailed description of the religious beliefs and practices of the Japanese people and the bonzes, the priests or friars, the nuns etc He observes that the people of different faiths had great trust in their own religious traditions and had committed themselves to them in faith.
For instance, he had a high regard for the people of Japan who were not Christian. He appreciated their fine manners, their sense of honour and esteem, their temperance in eating and drinking, practice of monogamy, their sociable nature, eagerness to learn especially when it conformed to their reason etc Further he observes that, They have something which I do not think is to be found in any Christian lands, namely, that the nobles, no matter how poor they may be, and the commoners, no matter how much wealth they may possess, have as much esteem for a very poor noble as they would have for him if he were rich Francis Xavier was able to appreciate this practice of respect for a person independently whether he was rich or poor.
Many of the bonzes lived on poor income, a life of abstinence including from intercourse with women under the penalty of death. He was happy to observe the way the bonzes and the common people recited prayers with the help of rosaries that had more than one hundred and eighty beads, continuously repeating the name of the founder of their sect In the course of his discussion and dialogue with the Brahmins Francis Xavier discovered that they believed in one God, they prayed to him, they had commandments, they kept the Sunday; and that they practiced monogamy. He remained a committed and a faithful disciple of Jesus, but at the same time not closed but open-minded to other cultures and religions.
Like Jesus he tried to reach out to all. But his heart went out especially to the poor and the weak of the society. He spent his precious time in consoling them, healing them at all levels and liberating them from all forms of oppression. Wherever he went, the poor and the weak always received his attention.
He reached out to many through the work of the confraternity of Misericordia, which catered to the needy and the sick in the hospitals and other houses. Often he preferred to stay in the hospitals or close by to attend to the sick He would perform all the functions of a real nurse for the sick, washing them and their clothes, feeding them, giving them their medicines with his own hands, and emptying and cleaning the commodes los servicios which they used Francis Xavier had a special art to make even the poor and the sick feel at home by his visit, his words and above all by his service.
He made the love of Jesus very concrete and tangible to them. As this disease was seen as something serious, the lepers were ostracized and kept outside the city. Hardly anyone visited them. But Francis Xavier loved them and gave them spiritual nourishment, comfort and strength. To those who were baptized, he administered the sacrament of confession and Communion, and preached to all. They all loved him. Henceforth MX.
MX, i, 15; MX, ii, In he wrote to F. In the next letter to F. He was so moved by their plight that he wanted to visit the people the same night to assist them and arrange for some alms for those who were without food and water When finally the Badagas were gone but people were still suffering he asked F.
Mansilhas to hasten to them and to see to their material needs including water and other provisions He wanted these poor people to be relieved of their sufferings and to live in peace. In Socotra a powerful Moor persecuted the Christians, deprived them of their possessions and of their daughters, forced them to become Moors and subjected them to many other evils. Francis Xavier could not bear this. Thus he was very much concerned about the suffering humanity.
He felt it was his mission to help all those who were not at peace with God and their neighbour. Like Jesus he did not mind moving with sinners provided he could win them over with love. While he was in Amboina Malacca , he worked to bring reconciliation among different people especially the soldiers. Francis Xavier had a special knack to approach the people, talk to them in a friendly way and win them over and to build bridges among them. He wrote to the King of Portugal saying, that he should take care of the orphans and destitute by their fathers, who died in the service of their king, since no one is paying the salary and provisions that were due to their fathers.
It would therefore not be out of place to erect some colleges in India where such orphans would not only be fed but also educated He was interested not only to satisfy the immediate physical needs of the orphans but also to look ahead regarding their education for a better future. Amidst his busy schedule Francis Xavier made time to show his concern to a poor family in which the daughters needed to be settled. III, I have done this not so much for his own sake as for the fact that he has sisters who are poor and orphans.
What a sensitivity to the needs of the poor! Francis Xavier wanted to reach out and help as many as he could even by recommending them to others. Amidst such a situation Francis Xavier made it a point to visit the prisoners, heard confessions of those who were Christians and encouraged the rest.
The prisoners felt consoled by his visits. For instance when a servant of other religion was seized by the Portuguese he was upset and wanted him to be freed immediately. His argument being:. Even though many times the Portuguese made differences among the people and even exploited those who followed different religions, Francis Xavier was fair to everyone. He loved the people of other religions and reprimanded the Portuguese for their behaviour. He also advised his companions to love everyone especially those of other faiths and even requested them to tell the captains to care for them.
Writing to F. Mansilhas in , he says, For the love of God, write to the captain for me that I earnestly beg of him, during the whole month of September, to do me the favour of not asking or permitting any wrongs to be done to the pagans of the land of the Great King. Since they are all so well disposed towards the affairs of the Christians, there should be no need to ask that they be left unharmed He did not make any distinction between the poor and the rich not even between the Christians and people who followed other beliefs.
He was just to everyone and wanted that all should be protected from any harm. He says to F. Mansilhas, I earnestly ask you to treat this race, that is the leaders and then all the people whom you have with great love; for if you are on good terms with your people and are loved by them, you will render great service to God. Learn how to endure their frailties with great patience, remembering that if they are not yet good, they will be so in time We see the loving and patient attitude of Francis Xavier towards those who were weak. At the same time he knew how important the love of the people was for the missionaries.
Even those who did evil, received sympathy and love from Francis Xavier. He says, I earnestly ask you to deal with these people as a good father with his wicked sons. Do not become discouraged by the many evils which you see, since God, who is so greatly offended by them, does not slay them, even 44 45 These words are full of common sense, worthy even of a neurologist. They proceed from a heart always contemplating the infinite forbearance of God, and accepting himself as a gift of those divine hands When people see a genuine love shared by a person, they normally respond with love.
Francis Xavier experienced the love of the people irrespective of their caste, creed and their status. For instance, the children on the Fishery Coast were very fond of him. Did the children appreciate only his prayers? Were they so intelligent to understand the catechism he taught them? Surely it was the loving and cheerful nature of Francis Xavier that attracted them, and they found joy in listening to him, since he taught them with great love as Jesus did. His warm relationship was going to have a lasting effect on those children not just at this tender age, but all through their life.
While he did his ministry in the Moluccas, people really loved him. When he was leaving for Malacca he says, I left Maluco for Malacca, accompanied by the great affection of all both Christians and pagans alike…in order to avoid the tears and weeping of my friends, both men and women, who were devoted to me, I embarked around midnight. But even so I was unable to avoid them, since I could not hide myself from them He had touched the hearts of both Christians and people of other faiths to such an extent that they felt sad and shed tears at his depar Henry Pascal Oiz, St.
Paul Publications, Bombay NN , Such was his impact on the people. It is interesting to note such observations. The people especially those of other faiths perhaps saw in the missionaries something special, the love and concern they radiated from their lives. They were men of God. It is worth noting a report on Francis Xavier from Affonso Teixeira: he was highly regarded by all because of his words and works and because of his whole manner and the respectability of his person.
And he had a special gift in this that he won the affection of everyone. For instance, when the people in Cape Comorin were attacked by the Badagas, Francis Xavier took help from a person who was not a Christian. He writes to F. Mansilhas in saying, This canaquar, non-Christian who is a friend of mine, came to see and assist me because of his friendship for me.
I am a great friend of the Christians of this coast, and he has many relatives who are Christians. I wrote to him so that he might inform me about what was happening there, and that he might let me know when they were coming to the coast so that we would have time to embark A canaquar, was perhaps a supervisor of a territory of the ruling Nayars in Malabar or an accountant for taxes and revenues of the cast of Kanakkars. See note 3 in the same Doc. Also during the attack of the Badagas in South India, a Brahmin was involved in the negotiation of peace.
Francis Xavier advises F. Mansilhas to help him with the ship so that he may sail to Tuticorin Let us not lose heart…. What an enormous support he received from these people of other faiths! He was so grateful to them because they were instrumental to save the people from the hands of enemies. Francis Xavier must have been happy and grateful towards this person, because though not a Christian, yet he agreed to help them. He treasured such friendship of people who might not share the same faith but were of great help in the mission.
They could still be his friends and collaborate in the work of evangelization. We could sum up the love and affection which Francis Xavier showered upon the poor and the forsaken in the words of Brodrick: The sick and dying, the sinners of high and low degrees who came for his absolution at all hours of the day and night, the neglected slaves and mestizos, the children…Yes, the most shunned people and abandoned class, the living corpses who reminded people too forcibly of the grave for their presence in society to be tolerated Francis Xavier was truly a man for others - giving his time, his capacities and his whole self for their welfare and liberation.
At the same time he received love and support even from the people of other faiths and was grateful for their collaboration. Through this loving encounter with all types of people and his spirit of reaching out to them and also receiving love and support from them, he lived his spirituality of dialogue of life and action. We highlight some of his main contacts with people of other faiths — the Moors Muslims , the Hindu Brahmins and the Japanese. Francis Xavier mentions his meeting with one of the distinguished Moors of the city.
The Moor must have known that Francis Xavier was a priest and so asked him an important question, whether the churches in which we Christians are accustomed to pray are much frequented by us, and whether we are fervent in prayer, since as he told me, they themselves had lost a great deal of their devotion, and he wished to know if the same had happened with the Christians; for in that city there are seventeen mosques but only three are being used, and only a very few attend them.
Since he did not know the source of this loss of devotion, he was greatly confused. So great an evil, he told me, could come from some great sin. We can guess that before he asked this question, there must have been some exchange of words between Francis Xavier and the Moor. In the course of his talk, he must have sensed something in Francis Xavier and perhaps a sort of desire awakened in him and he felt free to ask such questions on religious issues pertaining to prayer, frequenting the church and the devil at work when the mosques are empty.
The Moor revealed his deep insight into his spirituality, about less people frequenting the mosque, the problem of practice of faith, the cause of it etc. Perhaps he wanted to get some clarification whether it was happening only. All the quotations in this section are from Doc. Hence no note is given after each quotation unless it is different from Doc. It is interesting to note that they spoke and discussed for a long time. A discussion is intense and prolonged normally when it is interesting, and one has a right to his opinion and conviction about what one holds.
A true dialogue is not to win over but to listen to the dialoguing partner and to respect the opinions of each other. For instance he met king Hairun of Maluco, a Moor. He was a vassal but a great friend of the king of Portugal. He was interested in becoming a Christian but he did not want to give up his carnal vices since he had one hundred principal wives and many others of lesser rank.
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The king began a conversation saying that Moors and Christians have one God in common and that in time both would be one. Though he was a Moor, he hardly believed in it. He was pleased with the visit of Francis Xavier and even promised him that he would have one of his sons become a Christian on the condition that after he had done so, he would become the king of the islands of Moro.
We analyze some of the points in this encounter. First of all he was a king with an authority; there were people under him. He had his own dignity and respect. At the same time as a Muslim he had many wives which according to the Christian doctrine he knew it was wrong. He had a great desire of becoming a Christian. Perhaps he had seen the life of many good Christians; perhaps the life of Francis Xavier had also inspired him. On the other hand he was not a practicing Moor. He was a Moor only because he had been circumcised and did not have much regard for Mohammed.
In other words, it appeared that he had not found any meaning in his religion, whereas he seemed to like Christianity perhaps because he found something valuable in it. And so he became a 62 Cf. Hence no note is given after each quotation unless it is different from this Doc. Why was he so fond of Francis Xavier? Perhaps because of his person and his attitude towards people he was attracted to him. Talking to Francis Xavier made him to realize that his life was not in order, he had to change.
But it was difficult, given the situation that he was the king; there was a problem of settling the wives and taking care of them. Yet we see the goodwill and the realization of the truth through this encounter with Francis Xavier. They were supposed to be the priests who conducted the rituals.
Francis Xavier contacts them and learns about their ways of worship and how they deal with the people. We describe briefly his interaction with the Brahmins. He shared a detailed description about them to his companions in Rome saying, They have charge of the temples in which there are idols. They are most perverse people in the world…They are people that never speak the truth, and they are always thinking on how they can cunningly lie and deceive the poor, the simple, and the ignorant, saying that the idols are asking them to bring them certain offerings, which are simply what the Brahmins desire and fancy for the support of their wives, sons and homes If they fail to do so, they will kill them or send demons into their homes.
These poor unfortunate people, believing that it will be so, and fearing the evil which the idols will do to them, do what the Brahmins ask of them. It is interesting to note that Francis Xavier has taken pains to study many details of these people, the way they behaved with the poor and how they cheated the people in the name of religion or gods. But in spite of knowing that they were cunning and people who deceived the poor, he did not keep a distance from them.
On the contrary, he met them, talked to them, and gained their confidence.
Just as Jesus loved the sinners and 64 Cf. All the quotations in this section are from this Doc. Hence no note will be given after each quotation unless it is different from the Doc. And because he had created this basic relationship, the Brahmins however perverse they might be, could open up to him even their secrets.
Francis Xavier goes on narrating his experience with them, When we are alone, they tell me in confidence how they deceive the people. They admit to me in secret that they have no other patrimony than their stone idols, and that they live on the lies which they tell about them. What a confession and self acceptance before a man of God!
It is perhaps because of the loving nature of Francis Xavier and the relationship that he created that the Brahmins had the courage to be so transparent and humble so as to accept their mistake! In the course of their meetings and encounter, they realized that he was a learned man and at the same time a man of truth and that they were liars and deceivers. They requested him to visit them and they tried to offer him some gifts and they were much upset because he refused to receive them.
Perhaps they offered the gifts to him so that he might not reveal their secrets to the people. But Francis Xavier made them aware that it was wrong to deceive the poor and wanted them to change their ways. They admitted their evil ways, but at the same time they could not give up deceiving the poor people, because that would be the end of all the offerings, which would mean no food for their families. They needed a strong will power to give up this habit and to bear the consequences of facing difficulties with regard to their maintenance. Deep down in their hearts they believed in one God and offered prayers to him, but in order to get the offerings of the poor, they deceived them with lies only to get money and food for themselves.
Francis Xavier felt that the poor and the simple were being exploited by these Brahmins and that he had to liberate them from that evil. He therefore built a rapport with those people and convinced them that the Brahmins were cheating them by saying that they had to give food and other offer-. His loving rapport with them must have been so genuine that they believed him, even though he was a stranger to them and denounced their religious leaders - the Brahmins.
They put their trust in Francis Xavier and were convinced of his teachings. Through dialogue they were enlightened and gave up their old ways and followed the path which Francis Xavier taught them. He became a light to them, banishing the darkness from their minds and bringing them to the light of truth.
This took place in the context of dialogue, a love relationship. In this encounter Francis Xavier, a Christian, met people of other faith. In the course of the conversation, the Brahmins were enriched by the sharing of Francis Xavier, and were helped to realize the falsehood and to admit the truth even though it seemed bitter and meant grave consequences of losing their daily bread. On the other side, the people realized the truth shared by Francis Xavier and many of them followed the path of truth. He describes another encounter with two hundred Brahmins attached to the temple of Trichendur where pilgrims flocked from all over.
He says, They came to see me and among the many matters which we discussed was a question which I posed to them, namely, that they should tell me what they were bidden to do by the gods and idols whom they adore in order to attain glory. After they had vigorously argued among themselves about who should reply to me, they told one of the oldest to give me an answer. The old man, who was over eighty, told me that I should first tell him what the God of the Christians orders them to do.
Seeing through his ruse, I refused to say anything until he had spoken. He was then compelled to manifest his ignorance. He told me that their gods ordered them to do two things so that they might go to where they are: the first is not to kill any cows, in which they are adored; and the second is to give alms, and these to the Brahmins who serve in the pagodas. Hence no note will be given after each quotation unless it is different from this Doc.
The encounter of Francis Xavier with these Brahmins is very interesting. First of all we see that they came to see him. They must have heard about him as a person who was doing a lot of good to the poor and the sick. Probably they themselves must have met him and seen the love of God radiating on his face. There were many things they wanted to discuss and get his opinion or to know what he as a Christian, thought on certain issues.
It must have been a long discussion. After discussing points of lesser importance, perhaps Francis Xavier thought that time was ripe to discuss even the religious issues. It was a question about their salvation and future life. They were quite startled at the question and were reluctant to answer.
Francis Xavier was shrewd - he remained silent. Then the Brahmin was forced to speak. He answered that their gods have ordered them not to kill any cow and to give alms to the Brahmins. Was it the real answer or were they displaying their ignorance before a learned man? It appears to be a hot discussion but it gave Francis Xavier an opportunity to share his belief and his convictions. We have his answer, Standing up…and in a loud voice I recited the Creed and the Commandments of the law in their language, pausing at each Commandment.
After I had finished the Commandments, I gave them an exhortation in their language and explained to them what paradise is and what hell is; and I told them who go to one of these places and who to the other. After I had completed my discourse, all the Brahmins stood up and heartily embraced me; and they told me that truly the God of the Christians is the true God, since his commandments are so completely conformed to natural reason. When Francis Xavier was sharing his faith and his convictions, they must have listened to him with rapt attention. All that he spoke made sense to them.
Embracing is a sign of love and acceptance. Though a Christian, at least for that moment Francis Xavier was loved and accepted by these Brahmins. Then they made a very important state-. They could make such a categorical statement only because they were convinced about the explanation given by Francis Xavier. Thus during this discussion he enlightened their minds and helped them to appreciate the truth.
It was the dialogue which took place in an atmosphere of mutual trust though with initial hesitation at the beginning, that brought about this enlightenment and knowledge of the truth. The Brahmins were still interested to talk to Francis Xavier on religious issues and so they asked him a second question regarding the immortality of the soul. They seemed to have felt quite free with Francis Xavier, and listened to him with attention.
The relationship which he had built with them and the conviction with which he spoke must have made them open to his explanation. There was a certain trust created and so they could accept what he said. It was indeed a theological question pertaining to faith! They were keen to get clarifications from a learned and spiritual man. There was still a fourth question regarding the colour of God. Their thinking was that since most of the people around that place were black and they favoured this colour, they said that God was black and so all the idols they worshipped were also black.
The Indians made a distinction between black and white gods. For example Vishnu is painted black, and Shiva is painted white Since their idols were painted black, probably they belonged to the Vishnu cult. Surely they must have been very happy with the answers and clarifications which they got from him.
Through this meeting and dialogue, they had built a rapport with this saintly and learned man, and perhaps they would keep this dialogue open to learn many more things. The reason they gave was very genuine. It was not so simple for them to change their religion, and as leaders, to give up all the security they enjoyed. What we must appreciate is their openness to listen and to admit that they were doing many evil things.
But at the same time there was the social pressure and the question of their security and livelihood. At least to some extent this encounter and dialogue with Francis Xavier must have made an impact on them. He met people of different status, listened to them and also shared his views on certain issues. We shall briefly describe some of his encounters with the people of Japan. He was highly esteemed by all in those regions for his learning, his life, his advanced age of eighty years and the office which he held.
How did this friendship come about? Surely it was because of the nature of Francis Xavier. He must have had a loving conversation with this great man, and appreciated a lot of things in him which he had observed and discovered. Having created an attitude of openness Francis Xavier dared to move further, to discuss some delicate issues pertaining to religion and faith. He says, In the many conversations I have had with him, I have found him hesitant and unable to decide if our soul is immortal, or if it dies together with the body; at times he has told me that it is, and at other times that it is not.
I am afraid that it is the same with the other scholars After discussing issues of lesser importance they both began to discuss some important issues pertaining to faith and religion. It is very interesting to note the answer of Ninjitsu. Like the Brahmins he too was confused and therefore at times felt that the soul was immortal and at times not. Francis Xavier, with his deep convictions, had stirred his mind and soul, and this could disturb him for the rest of the days and make him search for the right answer.
Ninjitsu had realised that here was someone who had a deep knowledge of interior life and could not be just brushed aside. Perhaps this friendship was helping Ninjitsu to discover the truth of Jesus through Francis Xavier and therefore a desire had grown in him to embrace it. But due to many external factors he kept on postponing it till he died in , regretting the fact that he had put off being baptized for so long Francis Xavier tells us about the response: When we were in the monastery, many people came to hear our preaching on the law of God, which we usually did twice each day.
At the end of our sermon there were always disputations that lasted for a long time. We were continuously occupied with answering questions or in preaching. Many priests and nuns, nobles and other people came to these sermons. The house was almost full, and frequently there was not enough room for everyone. They asked us so many questions that from the answers which they received, they came to know that the laws of the saints in which they believed were false, and that the law of God was true.
They continued arguing and asking questions for many days; and after the passage of many days, they began to become Christians. The first to become such were those who had been most hostile to our sermons and disputations. Many of those who became Christians were nobles; and after they had become Christians, they were such great friends of ours that I could never end writing about it First of all, a great number of people attended the sessions of Francis Xavier and his companions, that there was no place for everyone. Once people found something good and interesting the word went round and.
We are told that the Japanese were people who go by their reason, and do not swallow whatever is said to them Francis Xavier must have explained to them the law of God systematically and it appealed to their reason. They asked many questions so as to clarify the points and finally it made sense to them and conformed to their reason. Many of them decided to follow this law by becoming Christians. They must have been the people who were in a way trying to hold on to their beliefs and not wanting to accept the truth; perhaps they experienced some sort of a tension inside them, and therefore argued and questioned the missionaries.
But finally when all their doubts were clarified and all the questions answered systematically, they could not but accept the truth. The dialogue continued on very serious issues of faith: they asked him about the principle which created the world, since they said it was never mentioned in the teachings of their saints; and even more, if all things in the world had a beginning, the people of China from whom they received their own laws would have known this They further asked whether the principle was one for all things, whether it was good or evil. On the existence of the demons, they argued that if God created the human race why did he allow the demons to tempt people; if God was good he would not create people with so many weaknesses and inclinations towards sin.
Since this principle God has also created hell he did not seem to be good since he has no compassion on those who go there to remain forever. Also they said if God was good he would not have given them the Ten Commandments since they are so difficult to observe Francis Xavier had to answer all these questions.
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Though he explained to them the eternity of hell and those who go there cannot be saved, the bonzes taught the people that they had the power to release the people in hell if the people honoured and gave them what they needed. See also note Xavier kept on insisting that no one could save those who went to hell, not even the bonzes. Gradually his explanation made sense to the people. It was something like the Brahmins in India who though they knew there was one God, yet made the poor believe in idols and offer their gifts to them so that they could maintain themselves In the course of dialogue and discussion we see the truth gradually unfolding itself and people becoming aware of the wrong doctrines.
Even the bonzes who preached false doctrine now confessed the truth and their reason for hiding it from the people. When the Japanese people questioned why God had not revealed himself to them before the coming of these missionaries79, Francis Xavier made them to understand that the law of God existed long before the written laws were made. He says, We gave them a reason by means of which we proved to them that the law of God was the first of all, telling them that before the laws of China came to Japan, the Japanese knew that it was wrong to kill, to steal, to bear false witness, and to act against the other Ten Commandments; and that their remorse of conscience was an indication of the evil which they had committed, since the obligation of refraining from evil and doing good is written in the hearts of men; and pagans thus knew the Commandments of God without their having been taught by anyone except the Creator of all mankind The above explanation of Francis Xavier reveals that even though one is not a Christian or one does not have the knowledge of the laws of God through the catechesis, these very laws are written on human hearts.
He gives the example of a man living on the mountains and not having any knowledge of Christian law. But even he knows that killing, stealing or doing any harm to others is wrong. Who has taught him these laws if not God himself who created him81? Thus he taught them the classical doctrine of salvation of infidels with the true Christian interpretation, even though he became indignant at the bad behaviour of the people of.
All such questions raised by the people manifested their interest in knowing about faith, God, evil, hell etc. They felt comfortable to raise these questions to Francis Xavier and his companions. The people were happy and satisfied with the answers given by Francis Xavier and his companions. They had something beautiful to share with them and to challenge them by their views and convictions. They shared with love, clarified their doubts and the people gradually understood and were convincingly led to the truth.
It is very interesting to see the result and the effect of dialogue and relationship which Francis Xavier began with the bonzes, the dukes and the people of Japan. Many were enlightened and decided to embrace the new teaching; many argued and discussed but could not come to a decision; there were others who felt disturbed with this new law, and even opposed him But others who contemplated seriously on the teachings of Francis Xavier and his companions and found it convincing, followed the path of Christianity.
He however, never forced them to become Christians but welcomed those who expressed their desire to be baptized. Conclusion Francis Xavier lived in a non-Christian milieu.
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Practically all the time he had to be in contact with people of other faiths and cultures. It was a great challenge and a difficult task. But he took interest in learning the cultures, the languages, and the religious practices of the people. He appreciated many elements inherent in their cultures and religions. He adjusted himself in many things so that he could be one with those people.
He saw how people in their own way were committed to their faith, though there were many things in their religious practices which needed purification, or perfection which he managed to bring about on many occasions during his encounter with people of other faiths, whether in India, Japan or other places he visited. His spirituality was especially manifested through his dialogue of life, of action and religious discussion. His love and concern for every person, whether poor or rich, Christian or of other faith, was very evident. His presence, his loving words touched the hearts of the people.
His spirituality flowed into dialogue of loving actions towards the broken humanity. He worked to alleviate the sufferings of various groups of people - the poor, the orphans, the prisoners, the sick and the dying; reached out to those who needed liberation from the political exploitation and injustice; tried his best to bring about reconciliation among the warring groups and worked for the liberation of women and children. He made use of every opportunity to enter into dialogue of religious discussion with individuals as well as groups.
This was an appropriate occasion for Francis Xavier to know at first hand the religious traditions of other people and also to share his own faith experiences and the Gospel values he treasured. Many listened to him and at times even agreed with some of his views. There were others who continued in their own religious traditions. But Francis Xavier had managed to built some relationship with them, and enlighten them through his sharing.
All his contacts and encounters with people of other faiths - the Hindus, the Muslims, the Bonzes and other Japanese - his appreciation of positive elements in the cultures and religious traditions of the people, his spirit of adaptation did not for a moment make him to dilute or compromise his faith commitment to Jesus. He was very strong in his faith and at the same time could listen to others. This is an essential element in a true dialogue. All through his missionary activity, we see that the spirituality of Francis Xavier stands out at this era of the Church.
At a time when the Church worked hand in hand with colonial powers to conquer new lands and subjected all those people under their rule, destroyed their culture and religion and forced them to adopt the western culture and Christianity as part of this process, and treated them almost as second class citizens, here is a man, who first of all fell in love with the people especially the poor, the weak and the sick. His mission of love began right from the time he began his voyage to India and continued till he breathed his last.
From his letters we can say that he spent more time in meeting people, visiting the sick, and the weak, than administering the sacraments. It was through these loving encounters that he shared the values of the Gospel, and became a powerful witness of the love of Jesus to his audience. His only weapon to win people was his love through service. Truly his Spirituality of Dialogue becomes a challenge to missionaries today. A missionary has to get acquainted with the beliefs and practices of people of other faiths and discover positive elements inherent. He has to have the spirit of adaptability to a new culture, climate, lifestyle etc.
Given the religious pluralism all over, we are encouraged to enter into dialogue with people of other faiths. This respect is twofold: respect for man in his quest for answers to the deepest questions of his life, and respect for the action of the Spirit in man. The fruit of dialogue is union between people and with God, who is the source and revealer of all truth and whose Spirit guides men in freedom only when they meet one another in all honesty and love True dialogue is a spiritual act, and therefore, when correctly formed, helps the performer to ameliorate his life and take him a little nearer to the realization of the absolute Truth, God.
This type of dialogue besides being a help for personal sanctity, also promotes peace, harmony and the sense of universal brotherhood in the world. Today a missionary becomes an instrument of evangelization first of all by being present among the people of other faiths. He gets involved in their social life and works for their liberation.
A missionary has to be open to enter into dialogue of religious discussion and religious experience with people of other faiths, knowing that there are positive elements in their religious traditions which can also enrich our life and in turn we too can share the Christian values with them.
The Spirituality of Dialogue is the need of the hour for a missionary today. RM Paul Publications, Bombay , 83, Matteo Ricci: un saggio fra occidente ed oriente. Il quarto centenario della morte di p. Per la biografia in lingua italiana M. Un gesuita alla corte dei Ming, Mondadori, Milano Per la bibliografia nelle diverse lingue, compreso la lingua cinese, rimandiamo a Ch.
Matteo Ricci. Nel basti vedere ad esempio come punto di partenza D. Sulla stessa rivista anche gli interventi in merito di N. Intende semplicemente tracciare il quadro della questione abbozzando alcune linee canoniche e teologiche che ne costituiscano le coordinate di comprensione.
Premesso che, non tutti i grandi uomini sono destinati ad essere santi da altare, ma semplicemente santi da Paradiso, e che non tutti i santi in cielo sono sugli altari delle nostre Chiese, sosteniamo che esistono e sono esistiti molti santi fra di noi che non sono riconosciuti come tali4. Storia e procedura, Congregazione per le Cause dei Santi. Sussidi per lo studio delle cause dei Santi, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, , pp. Per questo, senza che ci sia un culto ecclesiale ufficialmente riconosciuto, la gente lo prega spontaneamente, si reca devotamente alla sua tomba.
Si tratta di dar voce alla memoria viva del Popolo di Dio fremente di speranza e coraggio teologale nel ricordo del santo. In questo senso va spiegato il criterio canonico espresso da Benedetto XIV nel suo De servorum Dei beatificatione et beatorum canonizatione 6. Ci sono persone o fatti che la negano? Sono i fedeli ad aver bisogno che la. Crediamo che questa ragione ecclesiale della beatificazione abbia un profondo senso pastorale. Per quale dei cinesi, maceratesi, gesuiti, questa beatificazione potrebbe avere un grande significato pastorale?
Chi sta attendendo per questa ragione la sua beatificazione? Che cosa aggiungerebbe la beatificazione alla sua preclara fama dal punto di vista ecclesiale, missionario e scientifico? Ricci ha svolto il servizio di insegnamento in India; per il tempo della sua permanenza in Cina. In vita, durante la morte e dopo la morte.
Storia e procedura, p. Da dove prende origine questa discrezione? Forse dal carattere scientifico delle pubblicazioni in esame? Anzitutto chiediamoci: esiste un culto dei santi fra i cattolici cinesi? I cinesi hanno santi propri? La Cina apprezzerebbe la canonizzazioone del p.
Sembra, infatti, che fino ad ora, in Cina, non si sia sviluppato, in modo convincente, un culto popolare spontaneo come invece avviene per altre cause in altri luoghi.
Secondo J. Inoltre si trattava, secondo p. Shih, di differenziare, in modo chiaro, il culto cristiano dei santi dal rito civile degli antenati: inutile dire che questa potesse una seria preoccupazione. Non era quindi il caso, da parte dei compagni del Ricci, incoraggiare la memoria del fondatore della missione. Il fatto poi, che p. Inoltre va ricordato come p. Secondo p. Shih, dopo la morte del p. Dalla morte di P.
Ricci alla diatriba sui Riti Cinesi Dal punto di vista formale rimane un punto critico nella causa di Matteo Ricci. Era questo il motivo per cui egli accettava che anche i cristiani vi partecipassero. A quei tempi, tuttavia, 35 anni non erano molti se si pensa semplicemente al tempo che una corrispondenza impiegava per arrivare dalla Cina a Roma. E dopo aver beatificato Luigi Gonzaga nel e Stanislao Kostka che saranno canonizzati insieme il 31 dicembre del Basti pensare soltanto a Francesco Saverio, il missionario delle Indie per le quali era salpato anche Matteo Ricci, attraversando il Portogallo.
Dal la questione dei riti cinesi ha occupato per quasi un secolo i missionari della regione cinese nei rapporti con la Santa Sede e in seguito fino al Un periodo non breve. Matteo Ricci muore a Pechino nel Ad esempio il fatto che non sono cambiati i suoi sereni lineamenti del volto, pur trovandosi in una stagione calda e pur restando esposti per alcuni giorni Il primo, illustre contestatore di p. La Santa Sede emise un primo pronunciamento di condanna sul problema dei riti cinesi nel Il Card.
La vicenda tuttavia, non ebbe conclusione; ci furono rimostranze da parte dei gesuiti. Riguardo la questione dei riti, oggi rimane il compito di reinterpretare la venerazione verso gli antenati, in modo teologico nuovo, adeguato al pensiero cinese Inculturation through Friendship and Faith, pp. Matteo Ricci? Il Concilio vaticano II insegna che il vangelo non prende nessuna cultura come normativa ma che esso viene incarnato in ogni cultura per la salvezza di tutti LG13,17; GS 39,55,58; AG , Concetti, problemi, orientamenti, Centrum Ignatianum Spiritualitatis, Roma Del resto, il primo illustre convertito fu proprio uno di questi: Paolo Xu Guangqi.
Possiamo notare infatti due dimensioni di questa scelta. La scelta del Confucianesimo, fatta dal p. In Confucio - ? Storia degli studi, in, Enciclopedia delle Religioni Vol. Ma come 28 Cfr. I fondamenti e i testi, Piccola Biblioteca Einaudi, , pp. Le categorie simboliche della cultura cinese davanti agli occhi svegli di un cristiano come Ricci conducono a tener in debito conto la sorgente della luce stessa: il Dio cristiano.
E questo mostra al Ricci il compimento che il cristianesimo porta alle stesse categorie simboliche incontrate nei discorsi dei suoi interlocutori. I fondamenti e i testi, Piccola Biblioteca Einaudi, , p. Gv 20, E forse questo che tanto attrae? In un certo senso, potremmo sentire, nel modo di procedere del p. Matteo Ricci La via tao di questa discesa potrebbe parlare a molti, nel silenzio della propria anima, nel sacrario della coscienza missionaria, culturale e scientifica.
Inculturation through Friendship and Faith, , p. In un certo senso, per quanto riguarda il discernimento, p. Ricci non ha avuto secondi fini, o meglio non ha subordinato il fine ai mezzi II settimana degli Esercizi Spirituali. La via simbolica, reale seguita dal p. Questa la via paziente, graduale, eroica, in un certo senso, che Matteo Ricci, con la sua persona, rivela. Ricci, intitolata Elogio di Xu Quangqi. Sulla copertina della lettera le due figure di Matteo Ricci, e di Xu Quangqi, compaiono insieme, rappresentate ognuno secondo la sua iconografia classica, ma accostate efficacemente come figure di due amici.
Questo conferma in modo del tutto positivo, lo sguardo sulla sua azione apostolica. Il Papa sottolinea inoltre, come ci si poteva attendere, il rispetto del p. Ricci per i germi del Verbo presenti in una cultura Le molteplici iniziative promosse in Europa e in Cina per onorare p. Inoltre Benedetto XVI mette in rilievo la sua sintesi fra Annuncio del vangelo prioritario e dialogo con la cultura conseguente: P. Dice Papa Benedetto XVI: Spesso gli aspetti scientifici hanno riscosso maggiore interesse, ma non bisogna dimenticare la prospettiva con cui p.
Benedetto XVI non ha tralasciato, inoltre, di rilevare che quella del p. Egli descriveva p. Tale atteggiamento fu subito apprezzato dai cine Egli non voleva solo farsi ascoltare, ma farsi accogliere. Elogio che fu ripetuto da quasi tutti i visitatori della salma che accorsero numerosi in quei giorni. E fu allora che i cristiani fecero pressioni su Fr. Pereira in cinese Fr. Ieuuen-Hoei di fare il suo ritratto. Pereira Ieuuen-Hoei si intendeva discretamente di pittura, e dobbiamo a lui il primo ritratto di p. Fonti Ricciane, Vol. De Ursis racconta che la sera del sabato 8 maggio egli fu chiamato dal Ricci per ascoltare la sua ultima confessione.
Il 19 dello stesso. Matteo Ricci Il saggio di occidente di p. Fernando Bortone, SJ, del , due anni dopo la morte di p. Viene citata la lettera di padre Pasio a p. La lettera di p. Cattaneo a p. Eppure in pieno secolo XIX, il noto sig. Coloro che ricevono grazie sono pregati di notificarle alla Curia Vescovile di Macerata. In questa recente immaginetta abbiamo in inglese anche la preghiera per ottenere la beatificazione e la canonizzazione di Matteo Ricci. Nonostante questo assistiamo ad un periodo di apparente silenzio dopo la morte del Padre Ricci.
In seguito scoppia la querelle sui riti cinesi che si protrae, di fatto, in modo ufficiale fino al Un grande italiano nella Cina impenetrabile , Matteo Ricci si rivolgesse a p. Fernando Bortone. Bortone 75 Cfr.
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