There is a condensed table of contents in its normal position at the front of the book. However, perhaps to avoid intimidating the reader, the detailed table of contents is at the end of the book with four levels of hierarchy. The chapters have many different authors. I have not given their names to avoid cluttering up the table of contents below.
This segment looks at the near universal consensus in the 19th century that the Jews in the Islamic Middle Ages lived in a golden age of Muslim-Jewish harmony. Muslim Spain was taken as the model but the idealised picture went beyond Spain to the entire Muslim world from Baghdad to Cordoba and from the early Islamic conquests to the era of Moses Maimonides. The author explains that this idea originated with Central Eastern European Jewish historians disappointed by emancipation era promises of equality. The tolerance ascribed to Islam was used to chastise their Christian neighbours for failing to live up to the Muslim standards of many centuries earlier.
The author reminds us that to some extent this was a myth which ignored the legal inferiority of the Jews and periodic outbursts of violence but at the same time, comparing with the treatment of Jews in northern Europe and late mediaeval Spain, it also contained a very large kernel of truth. In the 20th century, Muslims appropriated this Jewish myth as a weapon against Zionism contrasting Islamic tolerance with Christian persecution. In turn there was a Jewish response rejecting the idea of the golden age utopia with the revisionists insisting that the Prophet Muhammad was intent upon exterminating the Jews from the very beginning and contending that Islam persecuted Jews as relentlessly as mediaeval Christendom.
The author is clear that although there was no golden age as mythologised, medieval Islam was more tolerant than Christianity and he looks at this in some detail. Religious people often find it difficult to understand that divine intervention has no role in academic scholarship. Exactly the same principles apply in the academic study of religions.
Once one excludes God as a source of knowledge for Muhammad peace be upon him , one is required to find human resources for any knowledge that Muhammad pbuh had about Jews and Judaism. He considers that the isolated Jews residing in Mecca during his youth would not have served as a significant source of knowledge about Judaism. However, Muhammad may have met with Jewish trading merchants in Mecca or during his own commercial troubles, as well as meeting with Christians.
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Conversely, in Medina he encountered no Christians but large settlements of Jews. Fred M. Apart from religious motives, there was a more mundane reason for reaching out to the Jews. He needed the militarily powerful and wealthy Jewish tribes of Medina as allies against his enemies in Mecca. Most of the Jews rejected his preaching. His disappointment and frustration are reflected in many unfriendly verses in the Quran. It gives expression to the religious pluralism in Islam mentioned before.
This emendation is orthographically plausible. To Him belong the most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. The Sufi Abu Bakr al-Wasiti d.
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Th e jalal names are considered masculine while th ejamal names are viewed as feminine. Muslim naming practices often draw on the divine names. Naming is significant in other ways. However, in some Muslim texts and social contexts, the female body is uniquely associated with sex and shame. Multiple variables determine which body parts must be covered, some related to the characteristics of the female in question and others related to specific situations. As to the first, variables include whether a woman was free or enslaved — slav- ery was an integral part of premodern Muslim societies — and her age or physical maturity; it was at puberty, generally, that full cov- ering became obligatory.
With free women, the degree of covering required depended on who she was covering herself from and what activity she was engaged in. Different standards of acceptable exposure were in place for per- sons at various degrees of closeness. The greatest degree of covering is required when a woman is in the presence of non -mahram men other than her husband.
With mahram relatives, a certain degree of relaxation in dress is permissible but with men who are potential marriage partners, even a married woman who might find herself marriageable after widowhood or divorce must cover her body, including her hair. There was general agreement that the hair of a free, post-pubescent female must be covered in front of all non -mahram men. Whether a woman was obligated to cover her face was more con- troversial.
Notably, a man is permitted and even encouraged to look at the face of a woman he is considering marrying, even if he nor- mally would not be allowed to. Where women are concerned, the distinction between relatives and non-relatives does not apply. Women can generally see parts of other women except what is between the navel and the knees. How- ever, sometimes a distinction is made between Muslim women and other women in determining what it is acceptable to see.
Disbelieving in the clear signs that already exist, individuals may challenge prophets to produce signs How- ever, some people are stubborn; Q. Ayah is also the technical term for a Quranic verse; Q. The ayat themselves are also of varying lengths — some are short and rhyming, or contain brief, powerful oath-like statements e. Further reading: A Ig. This suggests that all barakah belongs to God, that it all originates from him and that he gives barakah to various things in his creation.
For example, rain is blessed since an increase in agricul- ture and life in general is obtained by it and there is also considerable growth on account of it. There is not absolute barakah and things do not on their own or in and of themselves produce barakah. The rain might come down, but if it is not followed up by some sunshine and if the soil is not appropri- ate, and if there is too much rain, then the crops will not flourish. It has become the most widely used Islamic expression of piety.
The basmalah is a ubiquitous feature of Islamic calligraphy and ornament. It is also used as a magical tool and symbol. The two divine attributes, rahman and rahim, which appear in the basmalah are derived from the same root, associated with rahmah or mercy. Quranic commentators often note that though the terms are related, these divine names or attributes carry subtle differences of meaning: while rahman is an exclusively divine epithet, rahim can be attributed to God and his creatures. Why the basmalah is missing in surah 9 is unclear, and is itself the source of much commentary.
Since the basmalah is the traditional introduction to each separate surah, other commentators regard surah 8 and surah 9 as originally constituting one surah precisely since the basmalah between them is missing. On a different level, a calligraphic rendering of the Quranic text can be a source of great aesthetic gratification. As a mural inscription in a mosque or as a precious page of a manuscript, Quranic calligraphy was and is the artistic form of the revealed word of God.
This disagreement began as infighting and ended in open conflict, causing the first Jitnah, a period of social disruption and unrest. The caliphate became a Sunni institution, last- ing in various forms until the demise of the Ottoman Empire, when it was formally abolished in by the Turkish government. One ought to have the intention of pleas- ing God when giving alms ; non-payment of alms is linked to lack ofbeliefin the afterlife The term zakat connotes purification.
Calculated at 2. It is incumbent on every Muslim who possesses the requisite amount of wealth. In medieval times, zakat was often collected and distributed by the state through a variety of intermediaries. The list of those who can receive zakat includes both the poor and new Muslims some of these categories are the same as those who may be supported from booty; see Any Muslims too poor to pay zakat themselves and who have financial obligations are entitled to receive it.
In fact, a wife can give charity to her husband if she is wealthy and he is poor. Sadaqah is voluntary charity. Tales are told of famous incidents where early Muslims gave away half or all of their possessions. The income from these endowments could be used to provide for family members or the poor, or to support institutions such as hospitals, mosques, places of education, or Sufi lodges. Charity need not necessarily be material; the Prophet reportedly said that a smile can be charity, as can a loving gesture between spouses.
It relates to, but is not precisely the same as, zulm — oppression. If he is not able, then [let him condemn it] with his tongue. If he is not able, then [let him hate it] with his heart, and that is the weakest faith. The precise scope of the interrelated duties of commanding right and forbidding wrong occupied Muslim thinkers extensively. How ought Muslims from diverse walks of life respond in concrete social interactions with other human beings who are engaged in wrongdoing?
Waliy revela- tion is the key factor underlying guidance. How- ever, God does not force people to accept guidance; rather, he expects individuals to use their free will and decide what they are going to 21 CREATION believe and how they will act. There is guidance right from the beginning, and we are taken to know how things are just by paying attention to what happens around us and through listening to those who bring messages from God Our innate character makes us aware, in varying degrees, of the truth.
Someone who converts to Islam in a sense remembers her original religion and returns to it. God has given us both revelation and also rationality, and with these two factors it should be difficult to understand how we can go awry. Human beings are variously said to be created from a clot, a drop of fluid, or from dust or clay. God not only originates but also shapes or fashions khalaqa fa sawwa as part of his creative activ- ity.
Humanity is distinguished in its creation from other beings; Q. Femi- nist commentators have argued on the basis of this and other verses that there is no Quranic basis for considering man to have been cre- ated first or viewing woman as a secondary being. All of creation is muslim, in the sense of submitting to God, though the sound foundation Jitrah of human beings does not pre- vent them from deviating. See also: caliphate, feminism Further reading: Wadud 23 DAR DAR Dar is a noun meaning a large house, especially one with a courtyard; the term could also refer to a sizeable building comprising several sets of apartments.
For medieval Muslim jurists, this was a central concept in structuring the way they conceived of the world. Dar al-harb refers to the country or countries of the unbelievers or the polytheists between whom and the Muslims there are conflicts. Christians and Jews were People of the Book regardless of which realm they dwelt in, but those within dar al-Islam had the additional status of dhimmi or protected subordinate minority.
In its de- piction of the gathering for the day of judgment, the hadith literature speaks of an extremely high temperature and people asking for in- tercession by the prophets. Due to their ablution before the five daily prayers, the Prophet will recognize the members of his community. On this day, divine justice will be carried out finally. Those who receive their books — the accounting of their deeds — through their right hands are the people of paradise. They will find what God has prepared for them to reward them for their behavior.
The second group will receive their books through their left hands. Their desti- nation is hell. The Prophet gives hope to some in this group, indicat- ing that anyone who has faith, even as small as a seed of mustard, will not stay there forever. Eventually they will get through the period of punishment and go to heaven. The importance of consultation is often taken to prefigure the institution of democracy.
The concepts of caliph and caliphate are relevant to the develop- ment of Islamic ideas about democracy. Muhammad is instructed to remind humans that God made them the caliphs stewards or trus- tees of the earth Some commentators argue that it follows that Muslims have to be involved in the running of their state and cannot give up this duty to others, since the duty is imposed on them by God. Many significant concepts of classical Islamic political thought point to the key concerns of democracy. One of the views that emerges is that the devil will be very successful in trying to get human beings to go awry.
Some Quranic passages seem to suggest that Iblis before his fall was an angel, others that he was ajinn or, in , both. His impor- tance is in resisting God and interfering with divine guidance. He first of all succeeds with Adam and Eve , where he tempts them and lies to them. He is keen on whispering to human beings and persuading them to do the wrong thing. The devil is omnipresent and has to be constantly resisted. Although the devil is powerful, his power will come to an end. After the day of judgment the devil and his hosts will be thrown into hell just like human sinners.
Historically, dhimmi communities were allowed to manage their own affairs, maintaining their own governing bodies. Under the Ottomans, this was known as the millet system. In some cases, dhimmis sought to have disputes adjudicated in Muslim courts, at times taking advantage of rights not available under their own religious laws.
For example, some Christian men availed themselves of Muslim law to practice polyg- amy or divorce. When commercial or criminal disputes pitted Muslims against non-Muslims, however, dhimmis could be at a real disadvantage in Muslim courts and were sometimes prohibited from testifying. The extent to which dhimmis were accorded inferior status — or even interacted regularly with Muslims at all — varied a great deal. Medieval Andalusia has a mostly deserved reputation as a place where a produc- tive co-existence emerged, though its egalitarianism and harmony has sometimes been exaggerated.
Even there, in times of political uncer- tainty or strife, dhimmis might find their communities under pressure as well, with symbolic humiliation becoming part of communal life. In the modern Muslim world, nations have had to decide whether to distinguish between citizens on the basis of religious affiliation. Most do so only with regard to so-called personal-status laws but for- mally allow equal economic and political rights for non-Muslims. These verses accept, modify, or some- times prohibit pre-Islamic Arab customs in many areas related to the family, but pay particular attention to marriage and divorce.
The primary form of divorce, talaq, is a unilateral repudiation by the husband. If a husband made his divorce pronouncement final, the wife had to marry and be divorced or widowed by an intermediate hus- band before she could remarry her original husband. Since talaq was based on an oath — something carrying tremen- dous weight in Arab society of the time — this form of divorce could also be delegated to the wife herself or made to hinge on some action by the wife or the husband or a third party. This form of divorce, where the point of the statement is not the divorce but the intended persuasion or coercion of a third party, was rejected by some early authorities and has been declared null by a number of modern legislatures.
Judicial dissolution has been practiced since the early years of Islam. Modern legal reforms have again adapted and adopted grounds from the more liberal schools to make judicial divorce easier for women to obtain. Even in the premodern period, however, female-initiated divorce was commonplace. It is difficult to judge what percentage of divorces were sought by women, because these cases are overrepresented in court archives.
Talaq pronouncements by men were extrajudicial. There was, therefore, no waiting period for women divorced before their marriages were consummated. In such a case, husbands only owed their wives half the agreed dower. Today, divorced women may be stigmatized or viewed as less desirable spouses in some areas — this is often the case in North American Muslim communities — but this is not universal. Remar- riage has historically been the norm for divorced or widowed Muslim women. Most often, children are taught to recite Arabic, learning rules of pronunciation without any attention to Arabic meaning.
To the extent this picture is accurate, it reveals a contrast between Islamic and modern education. The former has an otherworldly ori- entation, promotes Islam, uses curricula largely unchanged since medieval times, and treats knowledge as something to be revealed because of a divine command. The questioning of what is taught is then unwelcome, teaching styles may be authoritarian, education is mainly undifferentiated, and memorization is important.
By con- trast, modern education has an orientation towards this world, and claims to be directed towards the development of the individual pupil. Curricula change as the subject matter changes, and know- ledge is acquired through empirical or deductive methods and treated as a problem-solving tool.
Teachers ideally invite student par- ticipation and questioning, and the aim is not just to repeat material. Finally, different subjects are clearly distinct from each other, by con- trast with the fairly unified notion of religious education. Hoodbhoy has argued that the two styles of education are in con- flict with each other since they differ not only in subject matter but also in style. Students who enter the modern education system from madrasahs are unlikely to do well, as they are accustomed to an entirely different process of education, operating under entirely dif- ferent sets of rules and expectations.
After all, how much of the so-called modern curriculum is really taught in accordance with what we are told are the princi- ples of modern education? There is a good deal of rote learning there also, and students often do not feel that they are encouraged to ques- tion or challenge their teachers. Even at the level of tertiary education many students in the modern system are passive and concentrate on taking notes and repeating what they hear in the lecture hall. In addi- tion, how much of the religious curriculum is really as traditional as the stereotype suggests?
There is no evidence that children brought up within the confines of traditional religious education are any less inno- vative or active than children brought up within the modern system. It is difficult to argue, then, that Quranic education is in itself opposed to modern principles of teaching and learning. This is not to ignore that in many places Quranic education follows a traditional model that does stand in the way of modern education, but then modern edu- cation often does not accord in practice with the theory of how it should operate.
Both Eids are the occasion for congregational prayer services which the entire community of Mus- lims is encouraged to attend. Muslims observe the month of Ramadan, which is ninth in the lunar calendar, by abstaining from satisfying 31 FAITH bodily appetites from dawn to sunset. Muslims are encouraged to eat a morning meal before attending the Eid prayer. Abraham was about to sacrifice his son when he was stopped by a rev- elation from God. Muslims often sacrifice an animal and donate most of the meat to the poor, or make a monetary contribution to represent this ceremony. Like Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha also begins with a short prayer followed by a khutbah or concluding sermon.
Other customs associated with Eid celebrations vary by country. In many places it is usual to wear new and elaborate clothing to the prayers, and gifts of clothing may be given.
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Children may receive money or sweets from their parents or other adults. The remainder of Eid day, after the prayer service, is often taken up with visiting friends and family. Most Sunni creeds consider faith to include belief in God, angels, his Books, his Messengers, the day of judgment, and destiny. This brings out nicely the close links between islam submission and iman faith. Those who do not appreci- ate these signs make more than an intellectual mistake: I shall turn away from My signs those who are unjustly proud upon the earth, and if they see the way of rectitude, they do not take it as a way, and if they see the way of error, they take it as a way; that is because they rejected Our signs and did not take sufficient notice of them.
Muslim theologians debated extensively the relation- ship between faith, actions, and sins. Are deeds required to establish faith? The Mu'tazilites said that a believer who commits a major sin can no longer be considered either a believer but neither is she a dis- believer. They termed such a person a fasiq transgressor , who is between the two stations of belief and unbelief, and represents some- one who will remain eternally in hell. The Kharijites suggested that a Muslim who deliberately commits a sin becomes a disbeliever, and will remain forever in hell.
But the position of most Sunnis is that a Muslim who has committed a sin is still a Muslim, not a disbeliever, although his faith is imperfect. He will not remain forever in hell and we cannot infer from his actions that he is not a believer. An important school initiated by Abu Hanifa d. The later Hanafi school, basing itself largely on the work of al-Maturidi, argued that iman or belief does not genuinely increase or decrease, unlike taqivali or piety which does fluctuate. The Ash'arites take the opposite view on iman, and they also argue that we are strictly limited in what we can work out by ourselves using reason alone.
For the Maturidis, by contrast, we can even with- out religious instruction or revelation know that some things are just wrong. The Maturidis argue that how one ought to live is broadly so obvious that those who did not live appropriately will be sent to hell, despite their lack of revela- tion. The Ash'arites would assign them elsewhere, since they cannot be blamed for their actions.
The Hanbali position is more revolutionary, often arguing that the believer does not owe allegiance to a sinful ruler if the latter can be classified as kafir unbeliever ; on the contrary, the Muslim may well have a duty of disobedience. If God is to decide on who is a believer or otherwise, and if he is going to wait until the individual dies before examining his heart, who are we to pronounce on the issue?
Hanbalis, like the Kharijites, do point out that we can usually derive character from behavior. If the only thing of importance is the intention of the agent, then it would not matter whether those who pray are actually praying in the right direction or whether they are praying behind a just imam. Fasting requires absten- tion from food, drink, and sex between dawn and dusk.
During Ramadan, Muslims wake to eat a pre-dawn meal. In many societies, it is customary to break the fast at sunset with an odd number of dates and a glass of water or milk, as Muhammad and his Companions are said to have done. Fasting is thus both an individual obligation and a collective occasion; even Muslims who do not regularly pray or pay obligatory alms may keep the annual fast.
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According to Islamic jurisprudence, all competent adult Muslims are expected to fast except for those who are ill or traveling. Preg- nant or lactating women may fast or not, depending on their health, while menstruants are prohibited from fasting due to ritual impurity. All who miss days are required to make them up, except for the frail elderly and those who have permanent health conditions that make fasting impossible; if they can afford to do so, they should pay char- ity in lieu of fasting.
Deliberate breaking of the fast without an excuse requires significant atonement; breaking the fast with sex is a more serious offense than ingestion of food or drink. Children are usually gradually introduced to fasting over a period of years as they approach puberty.
In addition to the mandated fast of Ramadan, and optional fasts on days such as the Day of Arafat, some Muslims undertake regular vol- untary fasts as one element of their worship. A pattern of fasting one day on, one day off is sometimes said to be particularly meritorious, as it prevents the individual from simply becoming accustomed to that pattern of eating.
Other pious figures, though, are reported to have fasted continuously for years. Fasting is meant to be a spiritual exercise as well as an act of phys- ical discipline. Ideally, fasting should not only involve abstention from food and drink but also anger and careless speech.
Yet a fatwa is nothing more or less than an opinion on a legal matter, the response to a question put to a mufti, or respondent. Later, the process of seeking and receiving guidance became formalized as scholars were trained in law. Scholars have debated the qualifications necessary for a jurist to engage in ijtihad or independent legal reasoning. However, given the range of issues most frequently presented to muftis, those who are qualified merely to give accepted answers according to their madhhab can handle many questions. These fatwas will cite Quranic passages, hadith, and precedents from other jurists as well as material pertaining to social custom or circumstance.
Fatwas from prominent scholars have also been critical in the draft- ing and reform of national legal codes throughout the Muslim world. Books of fatwas from this organization are widely trans- lated and circulated. While there has historically been an important minority of female jurists - unlike the dominant classical view that women could not serve as judges, there were no restrictions on female fatwa-giving, as fatwas are not binding — in the modern world few women are recognized as muftis.
This has begun to change at the turn of the twenty-first century, however. In addition to a group of Indian schol- ars, who are of the limited-mufti type subordinate to a male scholar, a group of fifty Moroccan women religious leaders murshidat are in theory as qualified to provide the same type of religious guidance as their male counterparts.
The key difference is that they are not called imams and they do not lead men in prayer. See ahcr. Whether one ought even speak of feminism in Muslim contexts remains con- troversial. For some, feminism has no place in Islam but rather is a Western invention that has led to drastic and unwelcome social changes. Others hold that feminism and Islam are compatible and that seen in the proper light Islam is truly feminist.
The main division among gender activists is between secularists who oppose the use of religion in the public sphere, whatever their private convictions, and those who work within a religious frame- work, either out of sincere belief that Islam should be part of the public order or because they believe the use of religious language is the only viable approach to achieving desired aims. Many of those who identify as feminists are scholars or intellectu- als, and scholarship has been one important area where feminists have attempted to encourage social change.
The other major realm of activism has been legal. Organizations such as Sisters in Islam in Malaysia and the inter- national network Women Living Under Muslim Laws have pursued reforms and objected to particular instances of discrimination or unfair treatment. Other reformist thinkers and groups contest dress codes and restrictions on employment or civic activities such as voting that fall primarily on women. Many female activists, however, are primarily concerned with combating other types of social injustice such as pov- erty or lack of education, often for boys as well as girls.
Jurisprudence, which solidified into a discipline during the first Muslim centuries, is not precisely equivalent to law in the modern sense. Rather, like Jewish halakhah it governs both social and ritual obligations, and concerns itself with questions of moral and ethi- 38 FITNAH cal correctness, not only legally binding rights and duties subject to adjudication.
Unlike shari'ah, which is understood to be uni- versal, complete, and perfect ,fiqh is a human discipline that involves disagreement and development over time. Historically, these differ- ences have resulted in the creation oflegal schools sing, madhhab. The most striking difference, apart from the specific hadith compilations deemed authoritative, are in their approaches to the issue of authority and precedent. In their work, jurists must mediate between the provisions of source texts and the customs and requirements of diverse social circumstances.
Modern attempts at legal reform often rely on these subsidiary principles to work around specific doctrines rather than radically reinterpret their bases. The term is used to describe some of the major conflicts that have occurred in the Islamic world, beginning with the dispute over the caliphate in — CE. To be considered a fitnah it is not enough for there to be a conflict; it is necessary for the conflict to be internal and touch on fundamental dis- agreements.
In the case of the first fitnah, the community was divided over matters of retribution and succession to an extent that the sur- vival of the ummah seemed threatened. Fitrali , as the primordial nature of the individual, aims at perfection. Islam is held to be din al-fi trail, meaning that human beings are inclined by their inner nature to submit to the will of God; it is inher- ent in human nature to aspire to the good, to the best sort of end. Fitrali is the harmony between the creator and the created, represent- ing a possible balance between how we ought to be and how we are.
Fitrali is in tune with the nature of creation itself, and the role of humanity within creation Sin may come about through ignorance. Knowledge can be either acquired kasbi or innate ftri. Every soul has an innate know- ledge of good and evil. Our innate understanding of good and evil is sometimes not strong enough to ensure correct behavior.
The pas- sions can confuse or obscure the f trail. We have free will and so can go astray. Once we become unaware of what is really happening around us we can fall into sin. These five pillars have become standard for Sunni Muslims, but can appear in different order though the slialmdah always comes first. Some scholars have suggested that the term should be reserved for particular strands of Christianity, while others find it useful for comparative purposes to group movements that display several related traits.
In the case of Islam, it has been used to characterize everything from pietistic revivalism to violent extremism. Another term frequently used to describe Muslim fundamental- ism is Islamism, which implies support for an Islamic state. The term Islamist should not be confused with Islamicist, used for a scholar who specializes in the study of Islam. Other groups stress the creation of religious social norms and focus on reforming individual conduct.
A minority of groups, including al-Qaeda and Hizbollah, consider the use of violence justified in the pursuit of Islamic rule. It is assumed by some that most Muslims are fundamentalists or conservatives. The extent to which this gender difference, however, implies or requires social hierarchy between men and women is deeply disputed. It refers to male and female obligations in mar- riage and divorce differently, allotting husbands obligations as well as privileges beyond those of wives , Outside of the family, a few other matters are distinguished by gender.
Inheritance usually, though not always, grants a larger share to a male heir than a female, often by a ratio Although male or female testimony is equated with regard to a husband and wife testifying against each other in certain matters , the two- to-one rule is carried through by jurists in other, non-commercial contexts — where women are allowed to witness at all. However, mystical thinkers through the centuries have recognized a feminine element to the divine. Failure to obey these limits is transgression. The more serious crime of high- way robbery or brigandage merits amputation of an opposing hand and foot.
Unsubstantiated allegation of illicit sexual activity — slan- der — is punished by eighty lashes Other crimes such as apostasy and alcohol consump- tion do not have clear Quranic punishments. Drinking alcohol or becoming intoxicated is theoretically punished with eighty lashes. This penalty has been sometimes justified by an analogy to slander: people say foolish things when drunk. What makes something a hadd crime as opposed to one that merits 43 HADD discretionary chastisement ta'zir from the ruler or compensatory damages to another individual?
Muslim thinkers divide human obli- gations into two main categories: those owed to God and those owed to other human beings. Hadd crimes may very well involve injury to another person, but not always. As it also potentially destabilizes family structures it is punishable by hadd.
Rape, by contrast, may or may not be treated as a hadd crime, by analogy to illicit sex. Some legal schools punish rapists with lashes or stoning victims are not pun- ished , while others insist on compensation for victims instead. While the hadd punishments are severe, convictions have histori- cally been rare. While jurists certainly upheld the penalties in theory, in practice any opportunity to avert a punishment might be taken. In the case of theft, for instance, stealing from the treasury, or out of hunger, or below a certain amount, would not result in punishment.
In the case of illicit sex, the majority of jurists insisted on eyewitness testimony or confession rather than relying on circumstantial evidence for conviction. Although many today find the physically harsh penalties such as lashings or amputation shocking, they were in line with punishments employed in other ancient and premodern societies and set forth in texts such as the Bible.
Most modern Muslim societies do not impose these punishments, but rather rely on imprisonment to deal with crimes ranging from theft to illicit sex, when the latter is prosecuted at all. However, implementation of hadd punishments is a demand of many fundamentalist groups and a component of self-identified Islamic regimes in Iran, Pakistan, and portions of Nigeria. For Islam- ist activists, these punishments symbolize Islamic identity, much like personal-status laws for marriage and child custody. Others, however, including many lay Muslims, view hadd pun- ishments as inappropriate to the modern world.
Rejecting them outright, however, causes difficulties with those who call for literal application of Quranic rules in all times and places. Secularists criticized him for not going far enough by supporting the outright abolition of Imdd punishments, while religious conservatives viewed his call for a moratorium as a capitulation to Western ideology. Each hadith report contains two parts: a chain of transmitters ; isnad and a substantive portion main. The list of reporters may be longer than the information itself. Classical Muslim hadith scholar- ship tended to assess a hadith primarily on the basis of the reliability of its named transmitters.
If two named transmitters could not have met, for instance, or if a reporter was known to have a bad memory, then the hadith was not accepted or was noted as weak. Contrary to some Western scholarly assertions, hadith collectors did consider content as well.
There is considerable overlap between the collections, at least in terms of subject matter when not chains of transmission. There are famous hadith, however, that enjoy wide circulation and general acceptance despite not being found in these compilations. Major Shi'i hadith compilations are those by al-Kulayni, al-Qummi, and Tusi.
While the hadith have always been vital as a source of material for moral exhortation and legal reasoning by jurists, the prominence of salafi and Wahhabi methodologies in the contemporary period has meant that lay Muslims are turning to hadith as direct guidance for behavior in a way that was less common in past centuries. Muslim fem- inists, for instance, disdain hadith reports about the creation of woman from a crooked rib in favor of adhering closely to the less gendered Quranic account of creation which does not single the first woman out as secondary or deficient.
Gen- erally it means those things that God disapproves of, and the basis of what is forbidden is always the will of God. Hamm in all of these passages describes a link with God and represents something that God provides for humanity. There she completely revamped the curriculum bringing computers into her department, which led to a school-wide digital initiative. In the last ten years Nessim received commissions for large-scale installations for public buildings in New York City. You can see her work in the lobby of Centria and The Eventi Hotel.
Entrepreneur, investor and thought leader at the intersection of technology and economic opportunity for all Americans. She believes economic power is a driving force for cultural and societal change.
Leanne launched include. The product fights bias in technology by scaling access to direct referrals outside of our bias networks. The team at include. Leanne launched the Tech Jobs Tour to connect the next generation of technical talent — who happen to be women, people of color, LGBTQ people, veterans and people with disabilities — to new careers and bridge the divide between tech companies who will have 1 million open jobs by and the American workforce. The Tech Jobs Tour, which traveled to nearly 25 cities in their first year, engaged 50, people on the Tour with 13, mentoring sessions and featuring over companies.
You can learn more here: TechJobsTour. Before her work with Lesbians Who Tech, include. She also founded leanimpact. A founding editor of Ms. Times, and The Nation. Her work also appears in Jewish periodicals like Tablet, Haaretz, the Forward, and Tikkun, and she has been a regular columnist for Moment magazine for nearly 30 years. She lives in New York with her husband, Bert, a lawyer. Her most recently published book with Peter S. Her honors include a fellowship from the Dorothy and Lewis B. Amy Richards is a writer, producer and organizer.
Amy is also the president of Soapbox, Inc. Amy lectures at dozens of venues each year and contributes, though her writings and media appearances, to the current public conversations on feminism. In addition to running Soapbox, Inc. Amy also works closely with Gloria Steinem on her writings. Esther de Rothschild is an educator, filmmaker, and founder of The Love Vote.
She taught Humanities and filmmaking in public high schools for a decade. Under her leadership — , Women for Women International grew from helping 30 women upon its inception to helping more than , women and distributing more than million dollars in aid. A native of Michigan, Pamela holds a B. Melissa Silverstein is the founder and publisher of Women and Hollywood, an initiative and website that educates, advocates, and agitates for gender diversity and inclusion in Hollywood and the global film industry.
She is a speaker and consultant with extensive expertise in the area of women and Hollywood. She is the Artistic Director and Co-Founder of The Athena Film Festival at Barnard College which is a weekend of inspiring films that tell the extraordinary stories of fierce and fearless female leaders. The 9th annual festival will take place from February March 3, Wilson Emerging Leader Award from the Ms.
In , she was selected to be a film envoy for the American Film Showcase, the major film diplomacy program of the U. Department of State. In , she published the first book from Women and Hollywood, In Her Voice: Women Directors Talk Directing , which is a compilation of over 40 interviews that have appeared on the site.
Previous experience includes work on high profile public education campaigns such as Take Our Daughters to Work Day , and she was the founding project director for The White House Project. Prior to that was the Chief of Staff at the Ms. Joanne N. Joanne co-authored a book on sexual harassment, was featured on the Summer cover of YES! Magazine, received the Ms. Her remarkable life spans nearly ten decades and has included being an author, composer and singer, social and political activist, entrepreneur, mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother, historian, blogger, public speaker.
She was later hired to work at the Rosie the Riveter Park, where she works today. Gloria Steinem is a writer, lecturer, political activist, and feminist organizer. She travels in this and other countries as an organizer and lecturer, and is a frequent media spokeswoman on issues of equality. She is particularly interested in the shared origins of gender and race caste systems, in non-violent conflict resolution, in the cultures of indigenous peoples, and in organizing across boundaries for peace and justice.
Her most recent book is, My Life on the Road. She lives in New York City. In , she co-founded Ms. She has produced a documentary on child abuse for HBO, a feature film about the death penalty for Lifetime. In , she narrated, and with Amy Richards, executive produced, WOMAN, a Viceland series of eight documentaries on violence against women in eight countries. She is an advisor to Times Up, a movement for a safe, equal and dignified work for women of all kinds. Her writing also appears in many anthologies and textbooks. She is the founding president of the Ms. Foundation for Women, a national multi-racial, multi-issue fund that supports grassroots projects to empower women and girls, and also a founder of its Take Our Daughters to Work Day, an international day devoted to girls.
She was a member of the Beyond Racism Initiative, a three-year effort on the part of activists and experts from South Africa, Brazil and the United States to compare the racial patterns of those three countries and to learn cross-nationally. Holbrooke Distinguished Achievement Award.
Having gone to public high schools in Toledo, Ohio, and Washington, D. She wrote for Indian publications, and was influenced by Gandhian activism. She was the subject of The Education of a Woman , a biography by Carolyn Heilbrun, and also biographies for children. An iconic athlete, author, and advocate for sports and social causes, Kathrine Switzer was the first woman to officially register and run the Boston Marathon in
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