With respect to the online edition it is worthwhile knowing that every single page of it can be downloaded individually and since 1 January in toto and that only the free-of-text format is free of charge. The authenticity of the Gazzetta Ufficiale is guaranteed through electronic signature. The certified PDF edition has been available since January 1, The Ministry of Justice Directorate of Information Systems is responsible for archiving the Legal Gazette before the publication of the electronic edition.
The "Codice dell'amministrazione digitale" Code for digital administration is the legal basis for archiving electronic official texts in general, although not specifically for the Gazzetta Ufficiale. Regarding the last constitutional reforms, a brief synthesis of their development is offered by the Dipartimento per le Riforme Istituzionali Institutional Reforms Department. Printed Sources of Italian Law Considered as a whole, legal information is basically made up of three main elements: legislative data, case law data and legal authority data.
Naturally, this does not exclude the fact that there is a large quantity of different data, which is very important for legal purposes, such as administrative acts, notices, circulars and so on. Here, however, for the sake of our presentation, the paper-based instruments relating to the dissemination of these data will not be taken into consideration but, rather, the analysis of the paper-based sources will be limited to the three main types of sources indicated above. The concise treatment of the subject, which follows separately, deals with Italian legislation, case law and legal authority leaving aside, that is, the specific nature of the individual branches of the law.
Some special mention will only be made in relation to the main divisions of Italian law, namely, Civil La w, Criminal Law and Public Law. Legislation Legislative data are collected into tools, which can be divided into two categories: I those, which contain the text of the legislative measures and II those, which contain the legislative references. I Both official and private publications belong to the former category. The brief presentation following here is based on this distinction.
Among the official publications, we wish to cite the "Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana", the "Raccolta Ufficiale degli atti normativi della Repubblica Italiana" and the"Bollettini ufficiali regionali". The "Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana", published by the "Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato", represents the most popular collection. It publishes not only all the legislative acts, but also Community and Regional sources, as well as the decisions and orders of the Constitutional Court and government circulars. For a systematic search, monthly and annual indexes are also available which enable the user to identify the act on the basis of the date of its adoption, the number of the measure and the subject matter that has been regulated.
The "Raccolta Ufficiale degli atti normativi della Repubblica Italiana", again published by the "Poligrafico dello Stato", contains the texts of Italian legislative measures set out in order of the number of their insertion in the collection and it is provided with annual indexes. The "Bollettini ufficiali regionali" constitute a collection of legislative acts passed by the legislative bodies of the twenty Italian Regions in Sicily, a Region under a special Statute, the collection is called "Gazzetta Ufficiale".
They collect also general administrative acts, such as "regolamenti". Private publications are madeup of special periodical journals, which publish legislative material in various forms. They have chronological, numeric and subject indexes and moreuser-friendly tools compared to the "Gazette" and the "Bollettini ufficiali". Withinthis category, we shall only mention Lex. This legislative collection, edited by the UTET publishing house of Turin, contains State legislative acts, parliamentary reports, ministerial instructions, Regional laws and the legislative acts of the European Communities.
II Tools for consultation which do not contain legislative texts but only references to them belong to the latter category mentioned earlier. From the typological point of view, we can distinguish the publications which are set out in the following: Digests are made up of special periodical journals containing lists of legislative acts and also " massime " case law abstracts and bibliographies relating to legal authority.
Usually, these are accompanied by chronological, numeric and subject indexes. The Appendices to Encyclopedia Headings , usually provided in order to complete every topic covered, contain information dated at the time the heading was compiled, but they have the advantage of being systematic and authoritative because they are prepared by specialists on the subject.
Knowledge of this intention, in fact, whilst not decisive in the interpretative construction of a provision, may be of great help in understanding its original meaning. Among the Atti parlamentari published, in paper-based form, by the Italian Chamber of Deputies and Senate, the main ones are Proposte e disegni di legge and Bollettino delle Giunte e delle Commissioni parlamentari. Jurisprudence As far as jurisprudential data are concerned, the user gains knowledge about them through a good many tools for their dissemination set out here in accordance with their type.
Journals: Some journals are, exclusively or mainly, specialized in publishing decisions and other judicial measures. In these, each decision is usually preceded by a "column" which identifies, through "Headings" and "Sub-headings", the subject to which it refers for example, "Sale", "Renting", "Tender", etc. Two monthly journals - Il Foro italiano Zanichelli, Bologna and La giurisprudenza italiana UTET, Turin - publish considerable numbers of decisions and other measures issued by judicial authorities of different kinds: Community, constitutional, civil, criminal and administrative case law are divided into special sections.
The journal Giurisprudenza di merito is, instead, specialized in the publication of the decisions of the Magistrate's Courts, the Courts and the Courts of Appeal. The characteristics of these works are the annual frequency of their publication and the fact that they contain subject indexes, under whose headings the lists of the sources held to be in force are set out, together with the bibliographical details of the different law journal articles published during the year under consideration as well as the "massime" of the decisions, often with references to the Journals where they are published in their entirety.
Other indexes of the published case law material include a chronological index and an index of the names of the parties in the legal actions. One characteristic element which distinguishes " Repertori " or " Massimari " from law Journals is the fact that, in the former, only the "massime" case law abstracts of the decisions are published, whereas the latter also give the text of the decisions of greatest interest, often accompanied by a case note or references to judicial precedents, becoming, in this way, useful supplementary tools.
Also, in this case, there are more general and more specialised Journals. Legal Authority There is a very vast amount of scientific material, found in handbooks, encyclopedias, journals, treaties and monographs. Digests and Bibliographies prove to be useful tools for consultation. Also, we must point out that there are various kinds of these tools, both general and specific, taking the shape of appendices to larger works, as in the case of Encyclopedias and legal Dictionaries as we saw above, in relation to legislative data , or autonomous works.
Napolitano In this work, all the articles, which have appeared since , in the journals examined, are classified on the basis of a special index, as well as law books published since Bibliographical Guides: A panorama of bibliographical guides at the international level can be found in the Sistema della bibliografia giuridica. Strumenti e metodi della ricerca bibliografica per la scienza del diritto , published by A. Other bibliographical guides of a general nature are: Introduzione alla ricerca dei dati giuridici , editedby G.
Armani Garzanti, Milan, ; the same author has also written Come si cerca il diritto. La ricerca di leggi, giurisprudenza e letteratura attraverso biblioteche, bibliografie e banche dati. Strumenti e metodi Maggioli, Rimini, , in which there is a very long list of Italian law journals; A. Meloncelli, Come si cerca il diritto Maggioli, Rimini, ; G. Pascuzzi, Cercare il diritto Zanichelli, Bologna, Dictionaries: We shall only mention some of the more recent: the Dizionario enciclopedico del diritto , diretto da F.
Encyclopedias: In legal encyclopedias, individual subjects are subdivided into "entries", set out in alphabetical order and containing an extended treatment of the single issues dealt with in relation to the various branches of the law. The Italian Constitution The fundamental law of the Italian State is represented by the Constitution, published in a special issue of the Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica on 27 December and coming into force on 1st January The text of the Constitution comprises articles and is subdivided into four parts: "Fundamental Principles", "Rights and Duties of Citizens", "Organisation of the Republic" and "Transitional Provisions".
The so-called "Transitional Provisions" can be found in 18 articles, all listed with Roman numbers. Among the English translations of the text of the Italian Constitution, we shall only mention a few here: The Constitution of the Italian Republic. Italy , edited by A. Blauistein and G. Flanz Vol. An English translation of the text of the Italian Constitution , revised and updated to , can currently be found in A.
It is a translation, prepared by the International Constitutional Law ICL , a scientific organisation that also translates other material relating to constitutional documents, providing a series of cross references aimed at enabling a user to easily and rapidly compare texts dealing with the same topic. The Commentario della Costituzione, in 35 volumes ,edited by G. Branca and A.
Pizzorusso Zanichelli, Bologna , is still today the most extensive treatise on Italian Constitutional Law. The most updated publications are: Commentario alla Costituzione, edited by R. Bifulco, A. Celotto, M. Bartole, R. The work consists of a thorough study, updated with recent reforms. Constitutional Laws After its promulgation, the Italian Constitution was integrated with numerous Constitutional Laws, passed within the period between and For a detailed list of the laws amending the Italian Constitution, as well as the articles of the Constitution "etched into" by Constitutional laws, it is advisable to consult the Web site of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Italy , which can be consulted in five languages English, French, German, Italian, Spanish , and the website Consulta online.
In particular, the Law 23 November , No. For many issues, the need was widely felt for legislative regulation laying down proper criteria for fully implementing the reform. In this perspective, the Law 5 June , No. Among the other more recent innovations, we would like to mention here: a. Constitutional Law 30 May , No. Law 20 June , No. Law 2 October , No. Law 20 April , No. Acts of the Constituent Assembly The preparatory works on the Constitution of the Republic of Italy deserves separate discussion.
The Atti dell ' Assemblea costituente were published immediately after the conclusion of the work of the Assembly: three volumes were dedicated to the work of the Commission in accordance with the way it was divided internally Constituent Assembly and Commission for the Constitution , while eleven volumes collect the debates Atti dell ' Assemblea costituente , Discussioni. The initial proposals and reports presented to the Commission for the Constitution were only edited as "proofs". See also the database created by the Chamber of Deputies.
Only in an actual analytical index was created M. De Siervo, Il Mulino, Bologna, , regarding the second edition of the Acts, edited by the Chamber of Deputies in La Costituzione della Repubblica nei lavori preparatori dell ' Assemblea costituente. Other Laws of Public Law Interest Apartfrom the official publications and those of a private nature already mentioned with reference to legislation in general, we can indicate here the various "Codes" of constitutional and administrative laws, comprising collections of more frequently used legislative sources, created by experts in the material in different sectors of interest.
These legislative collections are not, of course, to be confused with the six proper Italian Codes, which collect together the fundamental rules in force within the field of civil law, civil procedure, administrative procedure, criminal law, criminal procedure and navigation. Amongthe most up-to-date texts, we shall only mention here: the Repertorio amministrativo dello Stato , edited by L. Roversi Monaco Maggioli, Rimini, ; Le leggi fondamentali del diritto pubblico e costituzionale , edited by M. Bassani, V. Italia, C. Tramontano Hoepli, Turin, ; the Atlante normativo di diritto costituzionale by M.
Carducci with L.
Internet, social media e salute si incontrano
Pagano Simone, The Dizionario di diritto pubblico , directed by S. It has to be mentioned even the Digital Administration Code CAD , one of the most important legislative text concerning the implementation of the information society in Italy, introduced by legislative decree no. Lgs no. Thanks to the d. The Code, which was reformed in with the d.
- Per l’edizione degli opuscula di Pierre de Jean Olivi : sul corpus e la cronologia;
- The Psychology of Serial Killer Investigations: The Grisly Business Unit (Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional).
- il Mulino - Volumi - GIAN ENRICO RUSCONI!
Public Law Jurisprudence Apart from the case law sources mentioned with reference to Italian law in general, we would like to make note of the following among the specialised Digests: the Repertorio delle decisioni della Corte costituzionale , edited by N. There are many public law journals. Public Law Legal Authority Handbooks: Apart from the encyclopedias and dictionaries we have already cited in the part relating to Italian law in general, institutional handbooks of constitutional, parliamentary and administrative law represent important reference works for learning about Italian public law.
For Constitutional Law, the following are among the most recent and important handbooks: T. Martines a cura di G. Barile, E. Cheli, S. Rescigno, Corso di diritto pubblico , Zanichelli, Bologna, ; R. Bin, G. Pitruzzella , Diritto costituzionale , Giappichelli, Turin, ; P. Caretti, U. Barbera, C. D'Atena, Lezioni di diritto costituzionale , Torino, Giappichelli, For Parliamentary Law, reference should be made to: A. Ciaurro, V.
Lupo, L. Gianniti, Corso di diritto parlamentare , Bologna, ; T. Martines, G. Silvestri, C. De Caro, V. Lippolis, R. Cicconetti, Diritto parlamentare , Giappichelli, Turin, ; E. Colarullo, La rappresentanza politica e le forme di governo , Giappichelli, Turin, For an overall but concise view of Italian Administrative Law, the following can usefully be referred to: F.
Cassese, Le basi del diritto amministrativo , Einaudi, Turin,;and V. Italia, G. Landi, G. Potenza, Manuale di diritto amministrativo , Editori vari, ;V. Sorace, Diritto delle amministrazioni pubbliche. Una introduzione , Il Mulino, Bologna, ; F. Scoca a cura di , Diritto amministrativo , Giappichelli, Turin, ; G. Corso, Manuale di diritto amministrativo , Giappichelli, Turin, ; E. Casetta F. Caringella, Manuale di diritto amministrativo , Dike Giuridica, Rome, From the point of view of the legal history of Italian public law, the work entitled Il Parlamento italiano.
In choosing one edition rather than another, the accuracy of the transcription of the official text, its updating with the later provisions of repealing laws or the amendment of individual articles and with the abrogating decisions of the Constitutional Court and the selection of the main special laws found in the appendix to the Code must all be kept in mind. Bonilini, M. Confortini and C. Granelli, who have, in turn, coordinated more than one hundred authors, chosen among the greatest experts in the various sectors of civil law. The work, published in and only available on CD-ROM, contains comments on all the articles of the Civil Code updated with the introduction of the most recent legislation and case law.
Special attention is paid to the articles of Book V, the object of the recent company law reform, in force since 1st January , including the Ministerial Report by way of explanation and comment. Commentaries: Furthermore, there are editions of the Civil Code in which, in correspondence to each article, information is briefly given on the main trends in case law and legal authority.
Among these, we would only like to mention here the Commentario al Codice civile by P. Cian and A. Preparatory works: For a detailed view of civil law matters through knowledge about the preparatory work behind the drafting of the Civil Code, it is necessary to consult the work in six volumes by Pandolfelli, Scarpello, et al. Other Laws of Civil Law Interest Here, reference should be made to a specialized journal entitled Le nuove leggi civili commentate CEDAM, Padua , which publishes, on a quarterly basis, a selection of legislative instruments relating to the material, supplementing them with in-depth comments relating to both the laws as a whole and to the individual articles of which they are composed.
Private Collections of Thematic Legislation Also in the field of private law, there are additions to periodical publications which, under the general name of "Codes", collect together all the legislation relating to specific topics, such as renting "Code of Renting" , labour "Code of Labour Laws" , etc. Civil Law Jurisprudence With specific reference to civil law case law, there are Journals and "Massimari", Digests and Reviews, edited by the major Italian publishing houses specialised in this legal domain.
Other journals specialised by subject matter dedicate a special section to the publication of decisions relating to that subject matter. The Reviews are characterised by the fact that they contain a logical and systematic description of the case law. Two large works, published in many volumes but still a long way from completion, need to be mentioned in specific reference to civil law matters: I grandi orientamenti della giurisprudenza civile e commerciale CEDAM, Padua and Giurisprudenza sistematica civile e commerciale UTET, Turin. Branca, G. Alpa, Istituzioni di diritto privato Zanichelli, Bologna, ; P.
Rescigno, Manuale del diritto privato italiano Jovene, Naples, ; A. Trabucchi, Istituzioni di diritto civile edited by G. Schlesinger, Istituzioni di diritto privato edited by F. Anelli, C. The following works are dedicated to commercial law as a subdivision of private law: G. Graziani, G. Minervini, U. Belviso, Manuale di diritto commerciale Morano, Naples, ; F.
Galgano, Diritto commerciale. Ferri, Manuale di diritto commerciale edited by C. Angelici, G. Instead,the following have labour law as their specific: G. Mazzoni, A. Mazzotta, Manuale di diritto del lavoro Cedam, Padua, Treatises: Theseare mainly aimed at those practising the law judges, attorneys, public notaries, etc.
Within the ambit of the vast amount of literature existing on the Civil Code, we recommend: F. Galgano, Diritto civile e commerciale up-dated by N. The series of volumes by different authors, organised on the basis of a plan, which provides for overall coverage of the disciplinary area under consideration also belong to the category of Treatises. In this regard, we are able to cite several works of great scientific importance as well as having a considerably broad coverage although all still remain unfinished : the Trattato di diritto civile e commerciale , directed by F. Corsi, A.
Cicu and F. Grosso and F. Other Treatises have for their object only some of the specific sectors within civil law, such as the Trattato di diritto commerciale e di diritto pubblico dell ' economia , directed by F. Riva-Sanseverino and G. Commentaries: are distinguished from Treatises in that, being specifically directed towards the needs for interpreting and enforcing the law, they follow, article by article, the order of the legislative text examined. The most widely used work among lawyers practising Italian private law is, undoubtedly, the Commentario del codice civile Scialoja e Branca , directed by F.
Furthermore, we must point out here the Commentario del codice civile directed by E. Encyclopedias: In general legal Encyclopedias, the single topics of interest to the civil lawyer are also dealt with and subdivided under "headings", set out in alphabetical order and containing a broad treatment of the individual themes being examined. For the main encyclopedias, see those that have already been discussed here in relation to Italian law in general. Thereare also numerous journals specializing in specific sectors of private law.
Monographs: Monographs, usually published as part of a "Series" of specialised publications edited by University Faculties or scientific Institutes, deal in-depth with specific themes within the branch of the law under consideration. Because they are the result of legal research, they play an essential role in setting out in a systematic fashion the problems dealt with on each occasion, proposing paths for investigation and, sometimes, even methods and original solutions.
Volumes, which collect together the contributions of more than one author or the Proceedings of Conferences, may also be of a monographic kind, in the sense of referring to a single main topic. Intellectual Property Law According to the common systematics, the intellectual property - its rules and its instruments of protection - is structured in 2 parts: the industrial property and the copyright.
The first one protects any kind of inventions, in every field of technology, which are new, involve an innovative step and are susceptible of industrial application art. The second one safeguards every kind of intellectual creations, regarding music, literature, figurative arts, theatre and cinema, regardless of any form or way of expression art. The regulation of the intellectual property in the Italian system comes from three sources: 1.
EU's rules As regards the internal rules, the industrial property law is regulated by the Industrial Property Code d. The Code is structured in eight parts and contemplates several kinds of industrial patents and trademarks. As regards the international conventional rules, in Italy signed the European Patent Convention and joined the E. European Patent Organization. As regards the EU's rules, we have to distinguish between the trademark regulation and the patent one.
On the one hand, the EU introduced a European common regulation of trademarks in The current regulation of the EU trademark is provided by CE reg. On the other hand, any EU's common regulation has come into force yet about industrial patents. Since , the UE's Council started an enforced cooperation about industrial property law and industrial patents in particular.
Therefore, reg. Italy joined the enforced cooperation about the European uuniform patent regulatioon in September Further Sources Several other special laws regulate the Italian civil trial in specific matters. The Civil Code, first of all, contains many rules about the jurisdictional protection of rights artt.
Then, Law n. We can remember Law n. All the just mentioned sources are out of the Code and regulate the Italian civil trial in specific matters. The goal of the PCT is to develop a complete system of informatic instruments, rules and proceedings in order to allow the informatization of the civil trial. After a sperimental phase, the PCT came into force on the 30 th of June and is now running in every Court in the country. As regards the source of regulation of the PCT, we have to refer to L. As regards the informatic instruments the PCT is based on, they're essentially these ones: 1 the so called "PEC" "certified electronic post" , which is an e-mail with legal value; 2 the digital sign, i.
: : Mauro Perani - The “Italian Genizah” : :
Since the 30th of June , lawyers have to deposit jurisdictional acts and documents next to the introducing ones only through the PCT system. Criminal Law Legislation Withinthe sphere of Italian criminal law, on the basis of the "principle of the legislature's exclusive power to create crimes", the legislature is reserved legislative monopoly in the field: sources of criminal law are, therefore, limited only to laws or to acts having the force of law " nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege poenali scripta ".
As a result, both non-written sources and sources written in a different way from laws or "acts non-comparable to them" are excluded as criminal law sources. With this last expression, we are referring, within the Italian legal order, to so called "material laws", consisting of acts passed by bodies different from the legislature, but having the "force of law".
In particular, the term includes: 1 "Delegated Laws" or "Legislative Decrees", enacted by the Government on the delegation of the legislature Arts. All the other legislative acts of the Executive namely, "Regulations" and "Ordinances" cannot constitute Criminal Law sources. Royal Decree of 19 October , No. It was integrated then by the Co-ordinating and Transitory Provisions R. Specific amendments were brought about by the Constitutional Court, in conformity with its recognised powers within the Italian legal order.
The Criminal Code is a pre-eminent part of so-called "Ordinary Criminal Law", in consideration of the fact that most of its provisions apply to all parties indiscriminately. Apartfrom the Criminal Code , we need to cite the legal system relating to prisons Law 26 July , No. Ronco and S. Ardizzone, who have, in turn co-ordinated a large group of professors, attorneys and judges. The paper-based work, to which the CD-ROM is appended, is structured as a commentary, in the sense that article by article it offers a very strict and in-depth analysis of the legislative provisions, taking into due consideration the contributions of greatest interest found in the most important legal authority and case law on questions of law and on the merits.
On the CD-ROM, it is possible to display through hypertext tools all the "massime" case law abstracts of the cited cases and all the legislative references inserted in the comment. In this way, it is easy to carry out an entire series of searches, which also enable the work to be consulted in a transversal way. This Law, together with D. Decree Law No. Decree of the President of the Republic 27 October , No. Criminal Law Jurisprudence and Legal Authority Journals: Within the sphere of criminal law case law and legal authority, we shall only point out here some of the main Italian journals dealing specifically with the subject matter, noting that many of them take into consideration not only case law and legal authority, but also legislation on the matter.
The bimonthly journal Archivio della nuova procedura penale La Tribuna, Piacenza covers both legislation and case law and legal authority, not only within procedural criminal law but also substantive criminal law, criminological sciences and forensic medicine; Archivio penale ESI - Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Naples , during the fifty years of its existence , as a "quarterly publication on special and comparative criminal law, procedure and legislation" has also had as its object the analysis of both legislation and case law and legal authority relating to the matters indicated here.
The following journals have an even more specific thematic approach, within the sphere of criminal law materials: the journal Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Rome , the Rivista di polizia published monthly by the publishing house Aracne Editrice - Rome, it deals with legal authority, legislation and case law, within the field of criminal law, criminological sciences, forensic medicine and administrative law and the Rivista giuridica di polizia bimonthly, Maggioli, Rimini.
Handbooks: Among the most recent and authoritative handbooks on criminal law, we shall only mention the following here: R. Antolisei, L. Antolisei, Manuale di diritto penale , Parte generale revised by L. Pagliaro, G. Marinucci, E. Mantovani, Diritto penale. Fiandaca, E. Musco, Diritto penale. Parte generale , Zanichelli, Bologna, The Italian Constitution : it contains several articles which are relevant in the criminal trial, such as artt. The Criminal Proceeding Code: it was published in and replaced the 's Code and radically innovated the Italian criminal trial.
In particular, it introduced the accusatory principles, in substitution of the inquisitory ones, and the separation between the inquiring and the judging functions; 3. The international sources: one should distinguish the European ones from the others. Portals Like search engines or directories , portals appear, from a certain point of view, to be in contradiction with the philosophy of the Internet.
Their objective is, in fact, to structure and to give a hierarchy to information in a world characterized by nets and a horizontal nature. In fact, it is not very easy to give an exhaustive definition to a term which is currently much abused [  ] and which includes sites with very different features under the same label.
The closest definition we have been able to find is the following: "a portal is an online editorial product which plays the role of a preferential access point to the Web for users and which provides them with the information resources, personal communication services and tools with which to localize and reach the online contents and services they commonly need". The Public Administration at the service of the citizen. The "Linea Amica" portal offers the citizen a point of contact with the Public Administration, while at the same time providing a valid support tool and a basic knowledge base.
This goal is pursued by ensuring a high level of usability easy navigation within the portal and quick retrieval of the requested information and accessibility both in terms of structure and content, in compliance with Law No. In the front page of the website we will find the logo of the Linea Amica service and the logo of the initiative promoter Ministry the Ministry for Public Functions and Innovation.
The central area of the website is articulated on multiple levels and has dynamic content and different functions depending on the section the user chooses to access. In the first level, there are the online Help Desk service to help users navigate within the portal and news related to the Public Administration. News that are considered relevant for a continuous updating of the citizen are provided through various channels, such as Textual News and Radio "Pubblica Amministrazione amica" News.
In the second level, the following functional blocks are displayed: "Ask an expert" to contact the Linea Amica Contact Center; "I'm looking for answers", to navigate between citizens' Questions and Answers; "I access services", to access P. Integrated Portal Addresses; "Maps of P. It is subject to the powers and responsibilities of the Prime Minister or of the minister he delegates and is responsible for ensuring the achievement of the objectives of the Italian Digital Agenda in coherence with the European Digital Agenda.
It carries out the functions assigned to it by law in order to pursue the highest level of technological innovation in the organization and development of Public Administration at the service of citizens and companies, respecting the principles of legality, impartiality and transparency and adopting efficiency, economy and effectiveness criteria. The Agency incorporates and inherits the competences previously assigned to the "Agenzia per la diffusione delle tecnologie per l'innovazione" Innovation Technology Dissemination Agency , DigitPA and the "Dipartimento per l'innovazione tecnologica" Technology Innovation Department of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers.
According to the Statute, which was approved in February , the Agency's aims are: a to ensure ICT coordination of the State, regional and local administration with the aim of designing and monitoring the strategic evolution of the Public Administration information system; b to pursue the optimization of public expenditure in computer science by monitoring current expenditure and supporting public, national and local administrations; c to carry out the tasks necessary to fulfill the international obligations assumed by the State in the matters of its competence; d to promote digital innovation in the country and contribute to the creation of new knowledges and to the dissemination of new economic, cultural and social development opportunities, by collaborating with European, national and regional institutions with similar aims, and by stipulating strategic agreements; e to issue guidelines, regulations and standards; F to promote computer literacy initiatives for citizens.
In this Catalog will be documented all the services of the Administrations so as to be able to increase the potential of information and communication technologies in the relation between P. This is a new log in the system that allows citizens and companies to access by means of a single digital identity, from multiple devices computers, tablets, smartphones to all online services of Public Administrations and adherent companies. With SPID, the dozens of passwords, keys, and codes that are currently in use will no longer be needed.
The SPID identity consists of credentials with different characteristics depending on the security level required for access. Private Portals FiloDiritto : having been born in , this is one of the most recent sites in the legal domain. It is very rich, well organized and useful not only to the lawyer but also to the citizen. The simplicity of its interface increases its appeal. This Web Site, one of the best Italian legal Web resources, has been deeply modified whether graphically or from the point of view of the contents.
Relevant tags and related legal materials are indicated for each video. From items that identify individual subjects, we can access the relevant Articles, News, and Videos. The Guide section contains works that are free of charge, generally of information nature, relating to topical issues, both of general and specialist interest. News are related to the latest significant decisions of legislative, judicial and administrative bodies, recent articles of legal literature, news about Courses and Conferences, reviews of famous ancient literary works of legal interest.
From the HomePage it is possible to register at the Newsletter, to contribute to the Website, and to acquire information about the Website Editorial Staff, Scientific Committee and Authors. The original Website, one of the main portals for lawyers, defines itself as "a legal newspaper, search engine and portal, but - above all - a community". Created by "IusOnDemand it is furnished with various and sophisticated tools for research, amongst which a search engine with a proprietary database, exclusively dedicated to the Law.
With reference to the different branches of the Law the user finds "Segnalazioni", "Documenti" and "Servizi". New technologies for legal information distribution: eBooks, search engine for news in Internet, newsagent, interactive digital television, mobile phone, podcasting, intelligent tools for online legal information retrieval, personal notes sharing, electronic documents tagging. Moreover, the "Community" section contains: a "Commenti" comments and newsletters on sentences and legal questions of general interest ; b "Forum" managed by lawyers for lawyers and citizens: experts present their considerations with regard to legal matters of generale character ; c "Selected Links" a large number, subdivided by subject matter and type: around fifty categories of Websites, relating to Environmental Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law, Administrative Law, Insurance Law, Fiscal Law, Public Institutions, Private Citizens, Courts, Court Decisions, Laws, Law Journals, Law Libraries, Lawyers, Search Engines, etc.
Finally, it is possible to take advantage of specialized services corresponding to personal needs and to ask that specific software products are developed it is available also a Dictionary of the Internet terms. Inside the Portal, an online consultancy service and a newsletter are also available. Figure 5: Home Page of the Portal "Dirittosuweb. In other words, it behaved like an intermediary between users and the real search engines.
Subsequently, the Journal created a new version which constituted a proper search engine. The old version's interface allows a simple and intuitive query of legal documents acts, administrative orders, sentences, decrees , using two of the most important international search engines, Metacrawler and Hotbot. In the new version of "Cicerone", the query is a free text one; the user can look for more terms connected by the Boolean operators simultaneously.
The result will be a list of the websites which include the searched terms in a juridical context. The search can relate to statutes, decrees and judgments in both Italian and French Law. Two wonderfull exemples were found in the Bologna State Archive: an Incipit of Leviticus, with illuminated animal and floral motifs Fr.
It is that of six pages containing an unknown Hebrew translation of Yonah ibn Janah's Sefer ha-Shorashim found in the Historical Archives of Nonantola frr. The translation of Ibn Tibbon was the only one known to exist till now, preserved in only two manuscripts. In a conclusive note at the end of his work Ibn Tibbon says that he has seen another three translations of the work made before him, two of which only from the letter alef to lamed. The discovery of the fragments found in Modena has also allowed us to identify, through the comparison of the common part containing the letter waw , the Vatican Hebrew Ms.
As a rule, the translation is more concise than Ibn Tibbon's; the translator follows the order of the work step by step, without omitting any root. The author of this translation is probably the third translator mentioned by Ibn Tibbon, namely Yitzhaq ben Yehudah Barceloni. I would like to conclude this note with a hint of some problems linked to the project and to future proposals.
First of all an increase in the number of research workers that could conclude the census of the fragments is necessary, since the research cannot be considered near to conclusion. The fact that in some areas, as in Modena, the parchment sheets re-employed have been erased on the outer side of the bindings, so that the text has been kept only on the inner side, is moreover a considerable problem.
In order to read and photograph it, it is necessary to detach the bindings from the registers they cover. Moreover there is at this regard the clash of two opposing positions that we could define as that of the book archeologist and that of the text archeologist. The former consider that it is not possible to detach the bindings, because they constitute an important document in the book history that should be preserved.
The text archeologist, on the other hand, considers saving the manuscripts to be more important, many of which are the unique remnants of lost works, essential for the critical editions of some texts. Up to now, only compromise solutions have been found and only important fragments have been detached. Up to now some regions remain to be examined, specially in northern and southern Italy. In some cases the inquiry begins by sending to all municipal or ecclesiastical archives a letter with a set of questions asking if Hebrew fragments already detached or being covers of registers are known to the archivist.
That is the case of all parish archives of the Modenese diocese. In some cases the answer was positive and new fragments were found. I want to express my thanks to Prof. Richler for the almost everyday work-excanges. Thanks also to the Israel Academy of Sciences and to all the Israeli scholars which devote themselves to the study of the Italian fragments, for the friendly scientific cooperation.
Very many thanks we have to express to the Italian Institutions, for their substantial economic support to the project, with which it has been possible to detache and restore all the Hebrew manuscripts re-employed as covers of the registers of some important Archives.
After cataloguing the small collections, more comprehensive catalogues embracing all the archives in the same town or area will be published. In these, all the fragments belonging to the same manuscript can be put together. The final aim of this project is the publication of a single complete catalogue of all these disiecta membra found in Italy, which would enrich the precious treasury of medieval Hebrew manuscripts kept in libraries throughout the world. Cassuto U. Friedmann K.
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Perani M. Pavoncello N. Nahum e D. Sarfatti G. Zatelli I. Tamani e A. Vivian edd. Medicea Laurenziana, B. Nazionale Centrale]. Emanuel S. Fumagalli P. Grossman A. Kahana M. Permani M. Muzzarelli ed. Olschki Editore, Firenze , pp. AS e altri archivi]. David A. Ghisalberti C. Sermoneta , in The Italian Genizah , pp. Tamani G. Baroffio G. Campanini S. Engel E. Frenkel V. Caratteri generali e stato della ricerca , ibid.
Rilievi codicologici e paleografici , ibid. I: Biblical, Rabbinical, and Medieval Studies , pp. Catalogue edited by Mauro Perani, Crevalcore Bonilauri e E. CXI, Leo S. Radicchi P. Sul ritrovamento di antiche pergamene negli Archivi di Stato di Massa e Pontremoli sec. Hillel M. Richler B. Rosenthal D. Sirat C. CX, Leo S. Sussmann Y. Stemberger G. Ta-Shma I. A proposito dei frammenti di Bazzano , ibid. Perani e C. Ruini curr. Recupero e studio dei frammenti di manoscritti medievali e rinascimentali riutilizzati in legature, Ravenna, Longo editore , pp.
I manoscritti ebraici riusati nelle legature in Italia , in M. GRUYS edd. Data about the findings in Emilia Romagna can be seen in M. Sirat and B. Richler here presented. Perani - S. Campanini, I frammenti ebraici di Bologna. Campanini, I frammenti ebraici di Modena. BUSI ed. Rilievi Codicologici e Paleografici , In M. Perani Ed. Grossman, Mi-'Genizat Italia'. Japhet ed.
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