Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)

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Edited by Cynthia Sugars

In Portugal it has been claimed that he was born in that country, as Salvador Fernandes Zarco but this is disputed. Columbus married the daughter of a plantation owner on Porto Santo and so was well aware of the profits to be made. He also understood the necessary growing conditions for sugar and the navigational technique known as the Volta do mar. On one of his voyages to the Caribbean he took sugar cane plants with him. By the end of the 15th century, Madeira was the world's greatest producer of sugar. In the earliest times, fish constituted about half of the settlers' diet, together with vegetables and fruit.

The first local agricultural activity with some success was the raising of wheat. Initially, the colonists produced wheat for their own sustenance but, later began to export wheat to Portugal. However, in time grain production began to fall. To get past the ensuing crisis Henry decided to order the planting of sugarcane - rare in Europe and, therefore, considered a spice - promoting, for this, the introduction of Sicilian beets as the first specialized plant and the technology of its agriculture.

Sugarcane production became a leading factor in the island's economy, and increased the demand for labour. Genoese and Portuguese traders were attracted to the islands. Sugarcane cultivation and the sugar production industry developed until the 17th century. Madeira wine was perhaps the most popular luxury beverage in the colonial Western Hemisphere during the 17th and 18th centuries. The British Empire occupied Madeira as a result of the Napoleonic Wars , a friendly occupation which concluded in when the island was returned to Portugal, and the British did much to popularise Madeira wine.

Valdez was forced to flee to England under the protection of the Royal Navy September When plans for some of the hospitals were exposed as being designs for hotels and holiday camps, the Madeirans realized that they were being colonized through the back door and promptly withdrew the concession.

The site was left abandoned until when the Madeirans continued to build the Hospital dos Marmeleiros. Locals say that the reason that the hospital construction was abandoned by the Germans was not just because of their colonization plans being discovered.

History of Madeira

It was that during the construction of the hospital the Germans needed special materials not available on Madeira, so it was agreed that Madeirans would take the materials up to the site from the German ship in the harbour. The strongest horses were used to bring up the wooden barrels. The local Madeiran with the strongest horses bringing up the materials was suspicious that what he was taking up the hill was heavier than what should be needed to construct the hospital, so he on purpose let one of the barrels roll down the hill and smash open.

It is alleged that it was filled with rifles. When the locals looked inside what was already constructed they found ammunition and more guns. This caused the Madeirans to confiscate all German property in Madeira and stop the construction of the hospital.

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In all German property was confiscated in Madeira, including the ship, the Colmar, built in which was interned in Madeira in In it was renamed Machico and in it was bought from the Portuguese Government and renamed Luso; in it was scrapped after grounding damage. On 9 March , Germany declared war on Portugal, followed by Portugal declaring war on Germany and starting to organise Portuguese troops to go to the Western Front. The Dacia, a British cable laying vessel, [8] had previously undertaken war work off the coast of Casablanca and Dakar , was in the process of diverting the South American cable into Brest, France.

Batteries on Madeira returned fire and eventually forced the Germans to withdraw. This time the attack lasted around 30 minutes. Forty, 4. There were 3 fatalities and 17 wounded, In addition, a number of houses and Santa Clara church were hit. It incorporates the anchor chains from the sunken ships from Madeira on 3 December and is over 5 metres tall. He died there on 1 April is buried in Monte. Charles I had tried in to secretly enter into peace negotiations with France. Although his foreign minister, Ottokar Czernin , was only interested in negotiating a general peace which would include Germany as well, Charles himself, in negotiations with the French with his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma , an officer in the Belgian Army, as intermediary, went much further in suggesting his willingness to make a separate peace.

When news of the overture leaked in April , Charles denied involvement until the French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau published letters signed by him. This led to Czernin's resignation, forcing Austria-Hungary into an even more dependent position with respect to its seemingly-wronged German ally.

Determined to prevent a restoration attempt, the Council of Allied Powers had agreed on Madeira because it was isolated in the Atlantic and easily guarded. Portugal in World War II was neutral and become non-belligerent in Salazar 's decision to stick with the oldest alliance in the world, cemented by the Treaty of Windsor between Portugal and England still in force today , meant that the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance allowed Madeira to take in refugees on a humanitarian basis; in July , around 2, Gibraltarian [12] evacuees were shipped to Madeira due to the high risk of Gibraltar being attacked by either Spain or Germany; the Germans had planned but never initiated an attack on the British colony, code-named Operation Felix.

The Gibraltarians are fondly remembered on the island, where they were called Gibraltinos. Some Gibraltarians had married Madeirans during this time and stayed after the war was over. Tito Benady , a historian on Gibraltar Jewry, noted that when some Jews of the evacuees from Gibraltar were evacuated as non-combatants to Funchal at the start of World War II , they found a Jewish cemetery that belonged to the Abudarham family.

This is the same family after whom the Abudarham Synagogue in Gibraltar was named. He stated "I also request that the problem of occupying Madeira and the Azores should be considered, together with the advantages and disadvantages which this would entail for our sea and air warfare. The results of these investigations are to be submitted to me as soon as possible.

Michel Vergé-Franceschi : un prince portugais, Henri le navigateur

On the May 28th , the first party of evacuees left Madeira for Gibraltar; by the end of , only non-priority evacuees remained on the island. In , a monument was made in Gibraltar and shipped to Madeira, where it has been erected next to a small chapel at Santa Caterina park in Funchal. The monument is a gift and symbol of everlasting thanks given by the people of Gibraltar to the island of Madeira and its inhabitants. The city of Funchal and Gibraltar were twinned on 13 May by their then-mayors, the mayor of Funchal Miguel Albuquerque and the mayor of Gibraltar, who had been an evacuee from Gibraltar to Madeira Solomon Levy , respectively.

On 1 July , following the democratic revolution of , Portugal granted political autonomy to Madeira, celebrated on Madeira Day. The region now has its own government and legislative assembly. The blue part symbolizes the sea surrounding the island and the yellow represents the abundance of life on the island. The red cross of the Order of Christ, with a white cross on it, is identical to the one on the flag of Prince Henry's ships that discovered the island.

Madeira in a 17th-century map. Pre-Portuguese times Pliny mentions certain Purple Islands, the position of which with reference to the Fortunate Islands or Canaries might seem to indicate Madeira islands.

ester, Erstausgabe

Tenth- or eleventh-century fragments of mouse bone found in Madeira, along with mitocondrial DNA of Madeiran mice, suggests that Vikings also came to Madeira bringing mice with them , prior to col. It is an archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.

Its total population was estimated in at , The capital of Madeira is Funchal, which is located on the main island's south coast. Bermuda and Madeira, a few time zones apart, are the only land in the Atlantic on the 32nd parallel north. It includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands.

The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution. The autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union as an ou. Madeira wine Madeira is a fortified wine made on the Portuguese Madeira Islands, off the coast of Africa. Madeira is produced in a variety of styles ranging from dry wines which can be consumed on their own as an aperitif to sweet wines usually consumed with dessert. Cheaper cooking versions are often flavoured with salt and pepper for use in cooking, but these are not fit for consumption as a beverage.

The islands of Madeira have a long winemaking history, dating back to the Age of Exploration approximately from the end of the 15th century when Madeira was a standard port of call for ships heading to the New World or East Indies. To prevent the wine from spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added. On the long sea voyages, the wines would be exposed to excessive heat and movement which transformed the flavour of the wine.

This was discovered by the wine producers of Madeira when an unsold shipment of wine returned to the islands after a round trip. Today, Madeira is noted for its unique winemaking proces. The city has a population of ,,[1] making it the sixth largest city in Portugal, and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries. Because of its high cultural and historical value, Funchal is one of Portugal's main tourist attractions. It is also popular as a destination for New Year's Eve, and it is the leading Portuguese port on cruise liner dockings.

Etymology The name Funchal was used by the first settlers that landed on its shores due to the abundance of wild fennel where, as tradition goes, the primitive burg was built. From the Portuguese word "funcho" fennel and the suffix "-al", to denote "a plantation of fennel" Funchal, to whom the captain gave this name, because it was founded in a b. The population was 8, at the census. Madeira is served by its own police department, while fire service is provided by the Madeira-Indian Hill Joint Fire District.

Madeira is largely a residential community, with a small downtown and some light industry. Educational needs are served by the Madeira City Schools. Madeira is a suburb of Cincinnati. Like the Jews of mainland Portugal, Madeira jews are mainly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities who have originated in the Iberian Peninsula.


There was once a Synagogue of Funchal, which is now disused. Menasseh Ben Israel was born in Madeira in Jews from Morocco arrived in and set themselves up in the cloth and wine trades. The Abudarham family from Gibraltar were involved in the Madeira wine industry from the early s onwards.

The Jewish community on the island of Madeira expanded in , due to the Evacuation of the Gibraltarian civilian population during World War II to Madeira, which included a number of Jews, who attended the Synagogue of Funchal. Some of these evacuees were buried in the Jewish Cemetery of Funchal. It was established in by Lucy Madeira Wing.

Demographics The demographic breakdown of the girls enrolle. The airport is located It mostly hosts flights to European metropolitan destinations due to the importance of Madeira as a leisure destination, and is pivotal in the movement of cargo in and out of the archipelago of Madeira. It is the fourth busiest airport in Portugal. The airport is named after Madeiran football player Cristiano Ronaldo.

The airport is considered one of the most peculiarly perilous airports in the world[1] due to its location and its spectacular runway construction. The first stamp of Madeira, overprint on a stamp of Portugal, Subsequent stamps were also overprinted, through Unoverprinted Portuguese stamps were used from to From to , while the administrative title of Madeira was changed to the District of Funchal, definitive stamps were issued with the inscription "Funchal".

In a series of stamps commemorating Vasco da Gama was issued with the inscription "Madeira". Subsequently Madeira used stamps of Portugal from , with two exceptions; the first was the Pombal Issue of postal tax stamps in , and a variant on the Ceres design, issued 1 May The 21 values of Ceres stamps were obligatory on all mail for eight days — 1 May, 5 June, 1 July, and 31 December , and 1 January, 31 January, 1 May, and 5 June The funds raised went to help build a museum.

The Ceres st. Madeira cake is a sponge cake in traditional British and Irish cookery.

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Name It is sometimes mistakenly thought to originate from the Madeira Islands; however, that is not the case as it was instead named after Madeira wine, a Portuguese wine from the islands, which was popular in England in the mid s when it was invented, and was often served with the cake. It is eaten with tea or occasionally for breakfast and is traditionally flavoured with lemon. The easternmost municipality on the island, it is also the third most populous area; its population was 21, in We saw a great bay History FLAMA carried out around bomb attacks between ,[1] during the revolutionary period that followed the Portuguese Carnation Revolution April 25, During this period the new government withdr.

At least 29 people were killed—18 women and 11 men—and 27 more were injured, including the Portuguese driver and guide. The Madeira uprising, also referred to as the Island Revolt or the Revolt of the Deported, was a military uprising against the government of the National Dictatorship — that took place on the island of Madeira, beginning in the early hours of 4 April Military mutinies, planned for the continent, never occurred.

The rebellious military in the Azores, lacking popular support, surrendered soon without a fight, between 17 and 20 April In Madeira, where rebels had won popular support, taking advantage of the discontent generated by the government's restrictive economic policy to alleviate the effects of the international crisis of , the uprising was only neutralized on 2 May, with the arrival of a military expedition which crushed the revolting forces after seve.

Paul Langerhans in Paul Langerhans 25 July — 20 July was a German pathologist, physiologist and biologist, credited with the discovery of the cells that secrete insulin, named after him as the islets of Langerhans. Eponymous terms Islets of Langerhans — Pancreatic cells which produce insulin. Langerhans discovered these cells during his studies for his doctorate at the Berlin Pathological Institute in In , Langerhans used the technique taught to him by Julius Friedrich Cohnheim to stain a sample of human skin with gold chloride and identified the cells which bear his name.

From their appearance, Langerhans believed they were nerve cells. However they are a form of dendritic cells. Layer of Langerhans — In the same paper in which he described Langerhans cells dendritic cells , he described the granular cells in the exterior portion of the Malpighian layer of. The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. Prior to 20th century - Cathedral of Funchal construction begins. Nacional and C. It is the second most populous municipality, behind Funchal.

The population in was 43,,[1] in an area of Geography It is located southeast of Santana, southwest of Machico and northeast of the regional capital Funchal ; it is linked by an expressway to Funchal and Machico, as well as an ancillary road linking it to Santana. Urban sprawl from Funch. M is a brewery in Madeira. The main brand is Coral Lager.

The company is the biggest producer and drink distributor in the Autonomous Region of Madeira. It produces alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. However, Monde Selection awards are non-competitive and only products that pay to enter are judged. Coral Branca'Lager 5.

History of Madeira - WikiVisually

Zarco was born in Portugal, and became a knight at the service of Prince Henry the Navigator's household. In his service at an early age, Zarco commanded the caravels guarding the coast of Algarve from the incursions of the Moors, was at the conquest of Ceuta, and later led the caravels that recognized the island of Porto Santo in to and afterward, the island of Madeira to He was granted, as hereditary leader Capitania , half the island of Madeira the Capitania of Funchal, being its first Captain-major.

Almost every surfspot is rocky and powerful. No waves seem to break under six feet in the winter months. Madeira did not really come to the attention of foreign surfers until articles in surfing magazines in the mids. Since , top Portuguese surfers from the mainland compete in the Madeira regional edition of the 'Billabong' Challenge.

One memorable session in the history of Madeira surfing occurred on 25 January at Jardim Do Mar. The conditions which were some of. Old map of the Azores Islands. The following article describes the history of the Azores. Myth and legend Stories of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, legendary and otherwise, had been reported since classical antiquity. Plato articulated the legend of Atlantis. Ancient writers like Plutarch, Strabo and, more explicitly, Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy, testified to the real existence of the Canary Islands. The Middle Ages saw the emergence of a new set of legends about islands deep in the Atlantic Ocean.

These were sourced in various places, e. The peoples of the Iberian peninsula, who were closest to the real Atlantic islands, and whose seafarers and fisherman may have seen and even visited them,[3] articul. Decline Train after the boiler exploded on 10 September References "Funchal railway line". Retrieved 9 November Genoese and Portuguese traders were attracted to the islands. Sugarcane cultivation and the sugar production industry developed until the 17th century. Madeira wine was perhaps the most popular luxury beverage in the colonial Western Hemisphere during the 17th and 18th centuries.

The British Empire occupied Madeira as a result of the Napoleonic Wars , a friendly occupation which concluded in when the island was returned to Portugal , and the British did much to popularise Madeira wine. Valdez was forced to flee to England under the protection of the Royal Navy September He died there one year later and is buried in Monte Funchal. In July 1 , following the democratic revolution of , Portugal granted political autonomy to Madeira.

The region now has its own government and legislative assembly. Funchal , the capital of Madeira Island, is on the south coast of the principal island, in. The archipelago lies about miles from the coast of Africa, miles from Lisbon , miles from Gran Canaria , and miles from Santa Maria , the nearest of the Azores. Its longer axis lies east and west, along which lies a mountain chain with a mean altitude of 4, feet 1, metres , considered the backbone of the island from which many deep ravines radiate outward to the coast.

The highest point on the island is Pico Ruivo , at 1, meters 6, feet. In the south, there is very little left of the indigenous laurisilva subtropical rainforest which once covered the whole island the original settlers set fire to the island to clear the land for farming and gave it the name it now bears Madeira means "wood" in Portuguese. However, in the north, the valleys contain native trees of fine growth. A long, narrow, and comparatively low rocky promontory forms the eastern extremity of the island, on which lies a tract of calcareous sand known as the Fossil Bed.

It contains land shells and numerous bodies resembling the roots of trees, probably produced by infiltration. Madeira Island's geographical position and mountainous landscape result in a very pleasant climate which varies between the north side, south side, and smaller islands groups like Porto Santo and Savages.

With its mild humidity, the weather of the island is classified as oceanic subtropical and with its low rain level, desertic on the Savages. Municipalities Just like the districts of mainland Portugal, Madeira is also further subdivided into 11 municipalities :. Capital city Today Funchal is a modern city with about , inhabitants. Funchal is located in a unique area; the natural geological features form an " amphitheatre " surrounding the city, which begins at the harbour and rises almost metres high on gentle slopes.

This provides a natural shelter and was what attracted the first settlers. Madeira's capital for more than five centuries, Funchal is said to have been named as such because of the abundance of fennel funcho in Portuguese growing there. The harbour and climate combined with an excellent geographical position allowed Funchal to have a rapid population growth.

Geological origin and volcanism Madeira Island is the top of a massive shield volcano that rises about 6 km from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, on an underwater mountain range called Tore, which stands on the African plate. The volcano formed atop an east-west rift in the oceanic crust. Construction of the bulk of the volcano began during the Miocene Epoch over 5 million years ago and continued into the Pleistocene until about , years ago.

This was followed by extensive erosion , producing two large amphitheaters open to south in the central part of the island. Volcanic activity later resumed, producing scoria cone s and lava flow s atop the older eroded shield. The most recent volcanic eruptions were on the west-central part of the island only 6, years ago, creating more cinder cone s and lava flows.

The Macaronesia region harbours an important floral diversity. In fact, the archipelago's forest composition and maturity are quite similar to the forests found in the Tertiary period that covered Southern Europe and Northern Africa millions of years ago.

The great biodiversity of Madeira is phytogeographically linked to the Mediterranean region, Africa , America and Australia , and interest in this phytogeography has been increasing in recent years due to the discovery of some epiphytic bryophyte species with non-adjacent distribution. Madeira also has many endemic species of fauna — mostly invertebrates but also some vertebrates such as the native bat, some lizards species, and some birds as already mentioned.

These islands have more than species of land molluscs snails and slugs , some with very unusual shell shape and colours. Levadas The island of Madeira is wet in the northwest but dry in the southeast. In the 16th century the Portuguese started building levadas to carry water to the agricultural regions. The most recent was made in the s.

Madeira is very mountainous, and building the levadas was often difficult. Many are cut into the sides of mountains, and it was also necessary to dig 25 miles of tunnels. Today the levadas not only supply water to the southern parts of the island but provide hydro-electric power. There are over miles of levadas and they provide a remarkable network of walking paths.

Some provide easy and relaxing walks through beautiful countryside, but others are narrow, crumbling ledges where a slip could result in serious injury or death. It is known as the mimosa levada because mimosa trees are found all along the route. Economy The setting-up of the Free Industrial Zone has led to the installation, under more favourable conditions, of infrastructure, production shops and essential services for small and medium-sized industrial enterprises. The Free Zone of Madeira, also called the Madeira International Business Centre, being a tax-privileged economic area, provides an incentive for companies, offering them financial and tax advantages via a whole range of activities exercised in the Industrial Free Zone, the Off-Shore Financial Centre, the International Shipping Register organisation, and the International Service Centre.

The services sector makes the largest contribution to the formation of the regional gross value added as opposed to the agricultural sector , for which the share has continuously declined in the regional economy. Over the last few years, the regional economy has managed to open up and establish more internal and external competitiveness, so that its companies have become internationalised.

The largest industries are associated with the activities of food, beverages and especially Madeira wine and construction.

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The island of Porto Santo , with its 9 km long beach and its climate, is totally devoted to tourism. Over the past decade it has recorded a substantial increase in its hotel accommodation capacity.

Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)
Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)
Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)
Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)
Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)
Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)
Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)
Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition) Lécuyer dHenri le Navigateur (Roman historique) (French Edition)

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