Yve-Alain Bois [Full text]. Yve-Alain Bois [Full text translation]. Pierre Leguillon [Full text]. Pierre Leguillon [Full text translation]. Conceptualising Colour with Radicalness [Full text translation]. Art, participation et politique [Full text translation]. La Nature qui vient [Full text]. The Coming Nature [Full text translation]. After the War [Full text translation]. Peter Weibel [Full text]. Peter Weibel [Full text translation]. An Exemplary Artwork [Full text]. Hans Hartung, an Archival Life [Full text translation]. Armin Linke [Full text]. Armin Linke [Full text translation].
Who Run the World? The Exhibition in the Age of Formatting [Full text translation]. Le Genre des images [Full text]. The Gender of Pictures [Full text translation]. Anna Maria Guasch [Full text]. Anna Maria Guasch [Full text translation]. Esther Ferrer [Full text]. Esther Ferrer [Full text translation].
Criticism and Oblivion [Full text translation]. Dissecting the Imperceptible [Full text translation]. Good News for Art History? For a History by Work [Full text translation]. Alfred Schmela zum Representaciones femeninas en la pintura del siglo XIX. John DeAndrea [Full text will be published on May ]. Ein Afrikaner in Paris. Florence Lazar [Full text will be published on May ]. Christine Lapostolle, Ecoldar [Full text will be published on May ].
More than Real. Art in the Digital Age sous la dir. One Hundred Years later [Full text will be published on May ]. Susanne M. Kaufmann, Duchamp. Laure Prouvost [Full text will be published on May ]. Paul B. Nathalie Kremer, Traverser la peinture. Diderot-Baudelaire [Full text will be published on May ]. Shomei Tomatsu [Full text will be published on May ]. Grand bassin [Full text will be published on May ].
Speculations on Anonymous Materials. Nature After Nature. Inhuman [Full text will be published on May ]. Anita Molinero [Full text will be published on May ]. Ana Mendieta. Martha Rosler: Irrespective [Full text will be published on May ]. Encountering the Spiritual in Contemporary Art sous la dir. Fanning [Full text will be published on May ]. Peinture, couleur, etc. Appropriation inventive et critique sous la dir.
Simon Pageau and Agathe Presselin. Danh Vo [Full text will be published on May ]. Why Art Museums? The Unfinished Work of Alexander Doner sous la dir. Le centre ne peut tenir [Full text will be published on May ]. Tome 2, [Full text will be published on May ]. Max Neuhaus, Les pianos ne poussent pas sur les arbres [Full text will be published on May ]. Rediscovering Japan through Duchamp. Marcel Duchamp and Japanese Art. Error: the Art of Imperfection. Ars Electronica [Full text will be published on May ].
Lewis Baltz, Textes [Full text will be published on May ]. Gilles Rouffineau, Editions off-line. Pierre Jean Giloux: Invisibles Cities. Ann Veronica Janssens [Full text will be published on May ]. Julien des Monstiers [Full text will be published on May ]. Otto Dix — Estampes [Full text will be published on May ]. Braddock, Karl Kusserow [Full text will be published on May ]. Les Contes cruels de Paula Rego sous la dir.
Gilles Saussier , Spolia [Full text will be published on May ]. Please save the date! Les artistes et leurs calendriers sous la dir. Julien Berthier [Full text will be published on May ]. Post-apocalyptic Realism sous la dir. Christiane Pooley, Paintings, [Full text will be published on May ]. Friedrich von Borries. Politics of design. Design of Politics [Full text will be published on May ]. Sovereign Words. Melanie Manchot. Open Ended Now [Full text will be published on May ]. Michele Greet, Transatlantic Encounters. Neolithic Childhood: Art in a False Present, c.
New Commons for Europe sous la dir. Hicham Berrada [Full text will be published on November ]. Jean-Hubert Martin [Full text will be published on November ].
France at the Liberation 1944–47
Subodh Gupta [Full text will be published on November ]. Catherine Millet [Full text will be published on November ]. Lahsen Bougdal, Femmes artistes marocaines contemporaines [Full text will be published on November ]. Conversations avec Louise Bourgeois, [Full text will be published on November ]. Guernica sous la dir. In Between [Full text will be published on November ]. Dubuffet and the city [Full text will be published on November ]. Harald Szeemann: Museum of Obsessions sous la dir. Samuel F. Concrete Matters [Full text will be published on November ].
Virginie Yassef [Full text will be published on November ]. Bruce Nauman: A contemporary [Full text will be published on November ]. Bertrand Lavier [Full text will be published on November ]. Julian Rosefeldt, Manifesto [Full text will be published on November ]. De Wolf [Full text will be published on November ]. The Museum of Rhythm sous la dir. Jean Caune, Formes artistiques et pratiques culturelles [Full text will be published on November ].
Selected Writing [Full text will be published on November ]. Fiona Tan, 10 Madnesses [Full text will be published on November ]. Picasso et la danse sous la dir. Olivier Mosset: Wheels [Full text will be published on November ]. Superflex: One Two Three Swing! Lever de rideau. Le Lettrisme et son temps sous la dir. Kanal-centre Pompidou : brut [Full text will be published on November ]. A [Full text will be published on November ]. Richard Texier, Zao [Full text will be published on November ]. Ligne de mire [Full text will be published on November ].
Positions on Emancipation. Architecture between Aesthetics and Politics [Full text will be published on November ]. Tom Wesselmann : la promesse du bonheur [Full text will be published on November ]. Vivan Sundaram: Disjunctures sous la dir. Katinka Bock: Intenso [Full text will be published on November ]. Observation - Le Consortium [Full text will be published on November ].
Capital sous la dir. Couples modernes [Full text will be published on November ]. Emily L. Anthony E. Li Xin [Full text]. Alexi Kukuljevic, Liquidation World. On the Art of Living Absently [Full text]. Trap Door: Trans cultural production and the politics of visibility [Full text].
Beatriz Gonzalez : [Full text]. Julia Deck , Sigma [Full text]. Jasper Johns [Full text]. Komorebi - Art brut japonais [Full text]. Palatino Contemporaneo. Da Duchamp a Cattelan. Arte contemporanea sul Palatino [Full text]. Rwanda Artists Who Make Books [Full text]. Kerry James Marshall [Full text]. Mondes Flottants [Full text]. Anne Tronche, Denise A. The Ends of Collage [Full text]. Robert Storr, Interviews on Art [Full text].
Roman-photo [Full text]. California - Designing Freedom [Full text]. Anna Boghiguian [Full text]. Damir Ocko : Novlangue [Full text]. Elisabeth Ballet : tout en un plus trois [Full text]. Textes et contexte [Full text]. Haegue Yang - Lingering Nous [Full text]. Anny Lazarus, La critique d'art chinoise contemporaine. Anselme Boix-Vives [Full text]. What was the object of such a step? To prevent Loubet's precedent from becoming a habit. Could the pontifical diplomats be unaware of this decisively important rapprochement which, after President Loubet's visit to Rome, was now becoming clearly apparent?
The ill-humour so violently manifested on pretext of "protocol" had Un siecle sons la tiare Bibliotheque catholique Amiot-Dumont, Paris , pp. There is, incidentally, clear proof of the Vatican's dishonesty in this question. The Pope was unable, according to the Vatican, to receive a head of state who, by visiting the King of Italy and Rome, appeared to recognize the legitimacy of the "usurpation" of that former Pontifical State. Cristiani,16 a prelate shortly to be mentioned again, alludes to this in his recent book: "Upon his accession, the new Emperor William II, when visiting his ally, the King of Italy, insisted also upon paying an official visit to the Pope, on 12 October , a gesture which he was to repeat in This shows the value of the plea of "inflexible protocol" invoked by the Roman Curia.
Only the Croix continues to stigmatize the Republic",17 wrote Yvon Lapaquellerie. As a result of a storm of abuse from the press, the French Ambassador was dismissed; relations with the Vatican became increasingly strained; and, two years later, Parliament was voting a law of separation of the Church from the State. It condemns the principle of separation. Despite Emile Combes Flammarion, Paris , p. He was to joke at the beginning of , in front of Camille Bellaigue Pope Pius X's confidant : —Holy Father, what are you going to do in the French affair?
This startled Bellaigue: —Oh! Holy Father, do you really think of doing that? But one has to fight with fists. War is not fought with charity; it is a battle, a duel. The lasting character of the Church's hatred is seen again in what a "prelate of His Holiness"—as he calls himself—dares to write today on the origin of the first world war. Cristiani, or the art of falsifying history "Through a strangely blind and ill-considered policy, our country seemed to take pleasure in provoking the bellicose appetites of its redoubtable neighbour. Nor need we be surprised to see it issue from the pen of one of His Holiness's prelates.
Nevertheless we take the liberty of reminding this monseigneurial historian of a few dates. The alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary had been in existence from Italy joined the two central empires in , thus constituting the Triple Alliance. France, on the other hand, was alone, without an ally, in face of this bloc, and she put an end to her isolation—wrongly, according to Mgr. Cristiani, and "through a strangely blind and ill-considered policy"—by allying herself with Russia in Paris , pp.
Such is the Vatican—not to say the German—brand of history, which is taught to the children of France in the so-called "free" schools. It is understandable that the "sectarians" who have been so much disgraced should not be enthusiastic about it. Before leaving this historian and prelate—who may be French, but is certainly a Francophobe—let us glean from him a few more lines on the subject of the conflict: "There were even those who dared to put out what was called the 'infamous rumour', by which evilly disposed people tried to pin on to the Church and the clergy the responsibility for the terrible scourge of the war.
That sounds fine. In this vengeful expression the adjective and noun go very well together, and its euphony cannot be impeached. But can we say as much for its truth? This will be seen in the following chapter. A pious fable: Pius X tries to avoid war and dies of grief when it comes. THE following may be read in the current "Concise Holy History" used in parochial catechisms: "Pius X did all he could to prevent the war of and died of grief when he forsaw the evils it was about to unleash.
At the risk of being taken for impious "rationalists", we shall take the liberty of drawing aside the honourable veil of fable in an attempt to clarify this question. Let us first of all consult Abbe Brugerette,1 an historian entirely free from the suspicion of anti-papist leanings: "Pius X, who was extremely severe towards certain modernizing innovators, thought it better to abstain from all rigorous measures against the instigators of war, contrarily to those who prayed for one of those official and tragic excommunications which, in the Middle Ages, brought consternation into the souls of guilty kings and released subjects from their oath of allegiance.
Was not Serbia, it was asked, a sufficient reason for the Pope to intervene? Could he, should he, suffer an empire of fifty million men to prepare to crush a small neighbouring people of barely five million, a people which, to keep the peace, ever since 25 July, had given almost complete satisfaction to Austrian demands? Actually, there were already two camps, two blocs in Europe: one, that of the Western democracies, and the other, that of the imperialist and reactionary Central European Powers.
No one had any doubt as to which side Pius X would support, and Pierre Dominique,2 on the authority of Count Sforza's Memoirs and of 1Le pretre francais et la societe contemporaine, Nihil obstat. Lethielleux, Paris , Vol. III, p. What did it mean for the Habsburgs? That Serbia, an Orthodox people, should be chastised. The prestige of Austria-Hungary, of the Habsburgs— who, with the Bourbons of Spain, were the Jesuits' last prop—and especially that of the heir, their man Francis Ferdinand, would thereby be greatly strengthened. For Rome, the matter was assuming an almost religious importance; the apostolic monarchy's success over tzarism might be considered as Rome's victory over the Eastern schism In these conversations the Secretary of State spoke explicitly in the name of the Pope, who, he informed the Austrian representative, deplored the fact that Austria had not before this inflicted upon the Serbs the punishment they deserved..
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Here is the document:3 "In times of extreme political tension such as those we are now going through, human fantasy runs away with itself, redoubles its intensity and soon goes beyond the limits of common sense. Thus the last few days there has again been a rumour that Pope Pius X had intervened in the Serbian conflict and had been in touch with His Apostolic Imperial Majesty, entreating him to spare the Christian nations the horrors of war.
An argument based on such absurd premises is of course bound to lead to the conclusion, as logical as it is erroneous, that there was in fact intervention by the Pope. The real opinion of the Curia is not without interest. When, two days ago, I went to the Cardinal Secretary of State, he did, of course, speak about the serious questions and problems that at present 3.
His Eminence's conversation bore no sign of any particular goodwill or moderation. He unreservedly approved the note addressed to Serbia, and he indirectly expressed the hope that the Monarchy would hold out to the end. Austria's representative at the Vatican then endeavours to justify the attitude of Pope Pius X with arguments which, according to Pierre Dominique,4 Count Sforza reports in these terms: "One might well ask oneself why the Catholic Church adopts such a bellicose attitude.
The answer is very simple. The Pope and the Curia see in Serbia a consuming disease which, little by little, has penetrated to the very marrow of the Monarchy and which, in time, would end by disintegrating it. Austria-Hungary is and remains the Catholic state par excellence, the strongest buttress of religion that is now left to the Church. For the Church the fall of this buttress would mean the loss of her strongest support; she would see the fall of her most devoted champion in the battle against Orthodoxy. In the light of this fact, it is not difficult to forge a link between the apostolic feelings and the spirit of war.
In July , after the signature of the Peace of Bucarest, Austria-Hungary was already threatening to attack Serbia, and it was the turn of the Austrian prince Schonburg to go and acquaint himself with the feelings of the Vatican on the subject. This is how he reports5 to Count Berchtold the conversations that he had there at the end of October and on 3 November "Among the first subjects tackled by the Cardinal Secretary of State during our interview last week, as was to be expected, was the question of Serbia.
The Cardinal began by expressing his joy at the energetic and commendable attitude which we have recently adopted. During today's audience upon which I have made a 4 Op. Far be it from us to question the good faith of the Holy Father's apologists. At the same time, we cannot help asking by what miracle are his unequivocal appeals for war transformed, in their eyes, into appeals for peace? Let us confess in all humility that we are unable to explain this fantastic state of affairs.
But no matter: we have now established, beyond all possible question, with official records, the way in which Pius X "did all he could to prevent the war of ". Might it be said, nevertheless, in an attempt to excuse him, that he was hoping to see the conflict limited to Austria-Hungary and Serbia? Let us hear the pious Rene Bazin,6 of the Academie francaise, another author who cannot be suspected of bias against the Vatican: "Pius X ruled the Church from 4 August to 20 August On 2 June of that year, he entered his eightieth year.
The war was approaching. He had forseen this upheaval of the world; he had more than once said to Cardinal Merry del Val, who used to bring him diplomatic despatches and other papers of the previous day, whenever he was explaining some serious question: " What is that, compared with what is to come?
The Great War is coming: will not be over before it breaks out. Less than three months later, five nations were mobilizing their armies, and Germany was invading Belgium. On the contrary, he foresaw it so well, that he expressly mentioned it before a diplomat, during an interview recorded in another official document which is quoted 6.
The Cardinal Secretary of State does not see when Austria could make war if she does not decide to do so now". The opinions of the Pope and his minister were certainly the most likely to influence him. Hence the despatch of Count Palffy. Cristiani was exposing! And one of the "evil minds" propagating it is Count Sforza, one of the most well-known statesmen. Thus, it is proved that Pius X and his Secretary of State, when they encouraged the most Catholic Emperor to make war, were coldly contemplating the consequences of their act: a general conflict which would set the Central European Empires against France and Russia.
They believed they had accurately estimated the strength of the different forces involved. But, what His Holiness and his accomplice had not foreseen was the participation in the war of England and finally of the entire Anglo-Saxon world, a participation which was to thwart their plans, tip the scales in favour of France and liberate the Orthodox populations from the Viennese yoke.
One may say quite specifically that in , the Roman Church started the series of hellish wars. It was then that the tribute of blood which she has always taken from the peoples began to swell into a veritable torrent. The French Catholics call him the "Boche Pope". This inadequate sanction does not prevent the Vatican from preparing its revenge. ON 20 August , Pope Pius X died, and it certainly was not— despite what his biographers say—from sorrow at seeing the outbreak of a conflict which he had ardently desired.
Roger Peyrefitte, in his Les cles de Saint-Pierre is rather of the opinion that he died of joy. It may also be supposed that England's entry into the war on 4 August, by enabling him to foresee the defeat of his champions, caused him an emotional shock that was to prove fatal.
However that may be, he entered into the "peace of the Saviour" soon after having dealt his decisive blow to that of the earth. At that time, Mgr. Merry del Val, the very Germanophile and very bellicose Secretary of State. The memory of these wonderful years Pope Pius XII must surely have had in mind when, forty years later, he was occupying the throne of St.
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Peter—how, we shall soon see—and, when during the second world war, he made a point of canonizing his great predecessor, who had done everything to set the first slaughter in motion. As Adrien Dansette1 writes: "Out of Catholic Austria-Hungary, a Germany which was Protestant, but had nevertheless a highly organized Catholic minority, and in a way embodied the notions of authority and hierarchy, France shortly Italy as well , Catholic but both "bad 1. And it was therein, it was said, that the origin of the present war was to be found.
One of the obligatory exercises of piety was the recitation of a prayer that Benedict XV had been good enough to write himself Indeed, the prayer for peace was taken as a pernicious propaganda designed to weaken the efforts of the French, just when the German hordes were feeling that irresistible pressure which was to drive them from French soil, and when the Kaiser was beginning to see the terrible consequences of his unpardonable crimes.
Peace, at present, is desired only by Germany. To pray for peace is to pray for Germany. This is more than I can do. Would you kindly let me know just how far our conscience is bound by those prescriptions of the Holy See which concern neither faith nor morality. Le pretre francais et la societe contemporaine, vol. III, pp. Un siecle sous la tiare Bibliotheque catholique Amiot-Dumont, Paris , pp. Pacelli, had had conversations with the Chancellor of the Reich, Emperor William II and Emperor Charles of Austria, was pressing the belligerent states to start negotiations for peace.
This was received in France with a chorus of recriminations, some sad and some vehement. We are sons who sometimes say: "No! The eloquent Dominican was to pay for the "impropriety" of such a lesson, taught where it was and to the head of the Christian world, with a long and uncomfortable retirement.
The Vatican Against Europe by Brian Marks - Issuu
The Germanic influence was extremely active in pontifical circles. In , l'Illustration4 published a particularly well documented study on the subject: "In the extracts which follow we quote Count Poldzer-Hoditz, who for twenty years was friend and adviser to Charles, Emperor of Habsburg: 'On 14 February , Emperor Charles said to me: "We are going to lose the war; we are bound to lose the war if America comes in. It is unfair to encourage our people with hopes of victory.
What should we do? But if the nation is constantly hearing about our brilliant position, it will never understand why concessions must be made in order to obtain peace! Erzberger, published in 'Germania' of 22 April , that the peace proposal launched by the Pope in August was known to have been preceded by a secret agreement between the Holy See and Germany. The Holy See, he had added, had strongly endeavoured to bring Germany and England nearer on the question of Belgium, which would have resulted in the isolation of France and would have encouraged Germany to keep Alsace and Lorraine.
Whether professors or ecclesiastics, they would stop at nothing to inculcate into the Italian clergy and the Catholic world of Rome respect and admiration for the German army, and disdain and hatred of France. It was the right thing to wager on the victory of the Central European Empires. Investigations, directed towards German espionage, led to Mgr.
This case against him was resumed in Von Gerlach failed to appear and was condemned to 20 years' hard labour". Moreover, it took good care not to stigmatize the criminal act of its chamberlain. A similar piece of sabotage was being carried out in 5 Le 6,7.
Duchesne and friend of Father Laberthonniere, his spiritual brother. The author no doubt obtained most of his information from the political services to which he was attached during the war. His wide culture and the gallican tendencies of his mind later enabled Louis Canet to become Director of Ecclesiastical Affairs at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs". These articles constitute such vitally important material that they warrant reproduction here of the following, somewhat lengthy, extracts: Irrefutable Accusations "Benedict XV", writes Louis Canet,8 "does not belong to our party.
There was no point in saying this, so long as no one in France was trying to lead French Catholics away from French politics, and it was charitable to say nothing so as not to grieve those good people who are pleased to believe, and who were doing their utmost to show that the Pope, for love of justice, had declared himself for the Entente. But this is no longer so today. Not only are we told that the Pope is with us, we are told that we should be with the Pope; this is admitting that he is not one of us, and undertaking to leave our camp for his.
The interests of the Holy See and the two coalitions "Thus a distinction must be made between the two functions that history has united under the majesty of the Tiara. The Pope is the 8. Sovereign Pontiff, absolute master of the Catholic Church, supreme judge of faith and morality. But he is also heir to the political power which, today as in earlier days, is still subject to the same influences as are all human affairs, influences for evil, prone to error.
So bitter was the disappointment that, it is to be feared, the remembrance of it will never fade. But surely everyone will understand how cruel was the alternative. Thus it was that Mgr. At the same time Benedictines from Beuron were installed in the Greek pontifical college of Saint Athanasius in and at the primate's abbey of Saint Anselm, on the Aventino. Dobbing to the very gates of Rome, at the episcopal see of Sutri. But popes are not in the habit of making such subtle distinctions; unlike the French, they do not consider their apostolic responsibility in the abstract, without taking human contingencies into account.
Their strength lies in fusing everything, politics with religion, the interests of the Holy See with those of the Church, and the interests of the Church with those of people at large, so as to turn general policy to further the end of their own particular policy and to use to that end the dominating influence which they acquire by virtue of their religious role. That is what Benedict XV did. Now what we are trying to do here is precisely to bring out, with irrefutable proof and fully authenticated evidence, the character and tendencies of pontifical policy.
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Thus we hope to show without any possibility of contradiction: 1. The sources "His apologists will protest that none of this is apparent from the public and official acts of the Holy See, and that it is only fair, as the Pope himself asked in a letter dated 11 July to the Archbishop of Paris, that one should not look for his real thoughts anywhere else.
They would be right if the records were clear and. But, in order to decipher this wizard's book of spells one must be in a position to give each document its proper value and to know the validity of every source of information. If the accusers knew what instruments were given to the Director of the paper by Benedict XV immediately upon his accession and what part the State Secretariat and Cardinal Gasparri himself took in the drafting of the articles, they would be more careful. So much so, that without going into this mystery, one need do no more than read a letter dated 22 November, from the Secretary of State to the Archbishop of Lyons: 'Your Eminence is not unaware of the fact that, at the outbreak of the present war, the Holy See, equally solicitous for the shepherds and flock of the universal Church, thought fit to observe, and has ever since maintained, the strictest and most absolute impartiality towards the different belligerent nations, and that it peremptorily recommended the Catholic press in particular the Roman press to do the same.
I can assure you that the Holy See's directives and advice have been faithfully followed by the Osservatore Romano, which is under its direct authority, as well as by the Corriere d 'Italia, the principal organ of the publishing house'. If after that they do not strike the same note, it does not follow that they should be set one against the other; it should merely be concluded that each is playing in the concert the part assigned to it.
Moreover they do not comprise the entire orchestra. The pontifical sentence "There are two opposing theories about the present war: "The Entente accuses Germany of having wilfully provoked the war in order to bring the whole world under her domination; of having started it by the execrable violation of Belgian neutrality; and of deliberately continuing it with methods peculiar to herself, methods which are condemned by established rights and human conscience alike. Germany protests that she did not want the.
This being so, we are entitled to complain and to appeal against the wrong that is being done to us; to accuse those who are not with us of being against us and those who are not against Germany of being her accomplices, whatever may happen. Never yet had a nation preferred death to dishonour, and for the first time in history a government sacrificed an entire nation to martyrdom out of respect for a piece of paper.. But its representatives spoke, and declared that Belgium was to blame for not having resigned itself to the inevitable, and for having gone into the battle at the side of atheist France when a mere show of resistance would have been enough to save its face, and, finally, for the sake of misconceived honour and a lack of Christian prudence, for having brought misfortune upon herself.
Fine arguments, but not of juridical validity. The issue was really one of rights: Germany confessed through her Chancellor that she had acted against them, and the supreme guardian of moral law remained dumb before the confession. Benedict XV, 'are there for the expiation of the sins which have made public authorities and nations stray from God. Reference must now be made to the work that don Lucantonnio has just dedicated to Cardinal Gasparri, La Supranationalite du Saint-Siege; Benedict XV having supervised the planning of the book, insisted on revising the proofs himself, and it is there that one must seek the true expression of his innermost thoughts.
It teaches that the calamities which are ravaging the earth today have their real origin in 'doctrinal liberalism': states claimed that they could break away from the tutelage of the popes and forcibly separate civil power from religious power; the present conflict is a kind of epilogue to all the anger, all the fury and all the hatred which, having smouldered in the hearts of different nations and burst into tumults and domestic upheavals, could only result in a general outbreak of barbarous and pitiless war, in which human brotherhood has been drowned in an ocean of blood.
Thus, 'the facts speak with terrifying eloquence; the Papacy, so much attacked, is vindicated by events'; and 'any people which is not climbing towards the summits of the faith, is little by little going down to the depths of a shameful slavery, whose chains it will have forged with its own hands.
Let us for a moment adopt the hypothesis that the ambitions of the Entente do not differ in kind from those of the Central European Empires; we might still hope that a distinction could be made between our war methods and theirs. This is sheer illusion: every accusation made by the Allies against the Imperial Powers is made by the Imperial Powers against the Allies with as much justification if not more, and 'war is war', says Benedetto Governa philosophically.
By these two arguments the balance of right and wrong is once more restored. In the eyes of Benedict XV, therefore, the situation is the exact opposite of what it seems to us to be: it is Germany that is pacific, and the Entente that is bellicose; it is therefore the Entente that must be forced to give way. But Baron Sonnino was strangely weak. This was more or less the argument of the Austrian diplomats who, in the spring of , were promising wonders to Italy, as a price for her neutrality. The pontifical press was pleased by these intrigues; and in the spring of this year , the Civitta Cattolica was still surprised that the Royal Government should have laid claim to some of the provinces under Austria without also asserting her rights to Malta, Corsica and the Cote d'Azur.
It was no use inciting the French against the English and the Italians against both, unless it was possible at the same time to break the Franco-Russian alliance. That Germany had more than once tried to negotiate separately with Belgium, is a matter of history. From 2 to 10 January , a Catholic German mission, including among others Belzer, Herold, Irl, Welstein, Meyer, Neuhaus and Kuckhof, went to Belgium to preach, in the Pope's name, as they said, the doctrine of the separate peace. The Belgian bishops protested that it was not true that the Pope was behind them, but the Nuncio kept quiet and the Pope was dumb.
The Pope, at the Consistory of December , raised three of our bishops to the rank of cardinal, paid homage to the land of Clovis, Saint Louis and Joan of Arc, and expressed the wish that France. Ever since the spring of the Holy See had shown the keenest solicitude for Italy and had spared no pains to make her believe that only the throne of Saint Peter had the power to rescue her from danger.
If this ingenious doctrine should gain credence it would result in complete confusion. Under the orders of the man who has been christened the "Boche Pope", Mgr. Pacelli, his best diplomat, was sent as Nuncio to Munich, to establish contact with William II to try to negotiate with France a separate peace which could have saved the Central European Empires.
For him this was the beginning of a long diplomatic career entirely devoted to promoting German hegemony in Europe, a career that he was to pursue under Pius XI before assuming himself the tiara. But no matter how Germanophile his predecessors might have appeared, it can be said that the student surpassed his masters. The scheme failed, thanks to Clemenceau's obstinacy. The Treaty of Versailles, in July , put the finishing touch to the defeat of His Holiness's champions. The Pope had in fact nothing to do with working out plans for the new Europe—a circumstance which is not difficult to understand; but—and this is significant—this ban was primarily due to Italy, the most fervent Catholic of all the allied Powers.
Three people well-known at the Vatican, among others, bear witness to this: "During the first world war. Benedict XV had had to overcome. Italian distrust of any unwarrantable interference on the part of the Vatican in international questions. An article of the secret treaty signed in London in lifnited the Papacy's right to direct participation in the peace conferences: England, France and Russia undertook to support Italy, should she see fit to oppose the possible participation of a representative of the Holy See in the preliminary negotiations for the settling of the problems raised by the present conflict.
It was a conference that was to decide the world's fate for many a long year. But the Papacy did not participate in this conference. In pursuance of article XV of the London pact 26 April , which defined the conditions on which Italy would take part in the war, Baron Sonnino had obtained from the other Allies a promise that they would oppose any intervention on the part of the Papacy in the peace negotiations.
Italy was the first to rejoice over this. Unfortunately, this ban was the only measure taken by the Allies against their most implacable enemy. Who, after all, would ask for sanctions to be taken against the Vatican? This weakness was to be paid for dearly by Europe and the whole world. He was to stir up Fascism, then Nazism, and, with Mgr. Pacelli, to prepare the war of revenge.
Meanwhile, the Vatican, through its influence with the Allies, was doing all it could to save its German friends and proteges from their well-deserved punishment as war criminals. Irrefutable proof of this is to be found in the report which Count de Salis, H. Indeed, Minister Satis wrote from Rome on 26 January that he had had a long conversation with Cardinal Gasparri on the subject of legal proceedings against the Emperor William and the superior officers of the German army: "The Holy See, the Cardinal said, had always thought desirable that for two reasons the proceedings against the Kaiser should be abandoned".
The two reasons are then given: to avoid the continuance of national hatreds and to prevent the shaking of the thrones of all the monarchical States! Cardinal Gasparri, after enlarging upon these and other farfetched and puerile reasons, which to his idea were strongly against a trial of the superior officers, had added, "The Holy See trusted that the British Government.
His admiration for the Fascist chief: "Mussolini is a wonderful man! A bargain is struck. The Church will ensure the triumph of Fascism. Kaas, Chief of the Catholic Zentrum, will have full rights voted to Hitler. Schuster, Cardinal-Archbishop of Milan, calls it "a Catholic crusade". The Nazi Party financed by Rome. Moreover, there is never an important Fascist ceremony at which the clergy are not in the place of honour. Let us listen to Francois CharlesRoux,1 former French Ambassador to the Vatican, who knew the Holy Father personally and who, during his eight years in Rome, had many an opportunity to speak with him: "His reputation as an authoritarian and self-willed pontiff, knowing what he wants and wanting it strongly, is indeed well established.
Governing must come fairly naturally to him. He governs a great deal unaided. Pius XI was in no way the blessing type. Pius XI was firmly convinced that none of the great men of this world could reach his level. Megalomaniac by calling, one might say, he had, even before donning the tiara, singled out a lay fellow-megalomaniac, who seemed fit to serve his ends. Still only Cardinal Achille Ratti, this is what he said, in , in front of the writer Luc Valti about the future Italian dictator: "Mussolini is making rapid headway and, with elemental strength, will conquer all in his path.
He is a new convert, since he comes from the ranks of the extreme left, he has the zeal of the novice to spur him on. Moreover, he recruits his adepts from the school benches, raising them all of a sudden to the dignity of manhood, of armed men. He seduces and fanatizes them, reigning over their imaginations.
Do you realize what that means and what power it gives him? The future is his. L'Illustration, 9 January , p. Pius XI, Socialism's bitter enemy Charles Ledre3 points out that "In several of his most notable speeches, the Rerum novarum Pope has denounced the perils of 'Socialism' for society as well as for religion. He told the faithful that they should arm against it. He never gave up the fight and Pius XI will be able to write that Socialism was 'the principal adversary aimed at in his encyclicals.
In cold blood he planned a war to the death against everything Socialist, and in order to carry it out he supported that NaziFascism which was to cause so much bloodshed. Ledre adds: "Pius XII often reiterated that the Church's condemnations of the 'various systems of Socialism' are still valid". The political position of the Holy See was thus quite clear. That of Mussolini, on the other hand, could have appeared to be just the opposite: According to F. In March , he founded a first Fascist group in Milan, while retaining the ideas and attitude of a Socialist and trade-unionist. He encouraged every strike as well as the occupation of the factories.
Mussolini called for a national Constituent. Its first task was to proclaim the Italian Republic, the people's right to vote, the abolition of the standing army, a universal ban on the manufacture of arms, the suppression of all titles of chivalry and nobility, the dissolution of all joint-stock companies, the abolition of stock exchanges, the confiscation of unearned incomes, and the payment of the national debt by well-to-do classes only.
The land was to be given over to the peasants. What happened in the meantime, that could have reconciled two such opposed views as that of the Vatican and that of the chief Fascist? Consequently, he hastened to give a warm welcome to its envoys. The temptation was great for this ambitious man: if he would discard his original doctrine, his power would be ensured.
The bargain was struck. The rise of Fascism "We feel", said Claudio Treves, "as if we were caught up in a sinister wind of counter-revolution, before the revolution itself. The presence of a compact group of a hundred Catholic deputies, which could have been a force for ministerial and political stabilization becomes a force for disruption, owing to this group's subordination to the Vatican.
It is governed by a Sicilian ecclesiastic, don Sturzo. Huit ans au Vatican Flammarion, Paris , pp. The vestries have been the font in which this party has been baptized. Authoritarian, tenacious, ardent and punctilious, he constrained the party's deputies to assiduity, discipline, and the block vote, so that they from the outset formed a compact mass at Montecitorio October 31 witnessed the apotheosis of the Blackshirts who had marched on Rome. Go ahead, you heroes of the coldly premeditated massacres of Perugia and Turin!
This is the apotheosis of crime The Monarchy and the Church have made the party what it is.. The massive vote of Mgr. Kaas's Catholic Zentrum made certain of the dictatorship of Nazism. Now Mussolini paid his debt to his masters "1 May Undoubtedly, Fascism, by adopting the attitude it has towards the Vatican, can be certain of the approval of Catholicism. Likewise, l'Illustration points out that: "Even at the price of the most cruel experience, Fascism depends upon all the old forces of the past.
Moreover, there is never an important Fascist ceremony at which the clergy are not in the place of honour". Here are a few extracts, quoted by Domenico Russo,13 from the Rule book of the Fascist militias, which strongly resemble the militia of von Ledochowski, General of the Jesuits: "The Fascist Party is, by definition, a militia. The Fascist militia is in the service of God and the Italian nation. His sole right is to do it and to love it. Be he officer or soldier, he must obey with humility and command with strength. The obedience of this militia must be blind, absolute, even at the highest level of the hierarchy, the Supreme Chief and the Executive Committee of the Party".
No doubt it is in virtue of this blind and absolute obedience that the "Blackshirts" committed so many crimes on the orders of their Chief. Count Sforza, in his memoirs recalls the long list of assassinations which marked the dictator's career. Mussolini the criminal After having recalled the circumstances of the assassination of Matteotti at the orders of Mussolini, Count Carlo Sforza14 writes: ".
The tale of the crimes would fill a book; it is enough to recall, among the most horrible, the attack on Amendola, who was beaten to death at Montecatini in July , and shortly afterwards, at Florence, the treacherous assassination of several brave Florentine opponents, including Pilati, a war cripple, who, stabbed on the bed where he lay sick, murmured: 'The Austrians spared my life: it is the Italians who kill me. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item.
Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: 1 2 3 4 5. Preview this item Preview this item. Subjects Gavard, Jean. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. View most popular tags as: tag list tag cloud. World War, -- Personal narratives, French.
Related Une jeunesse confisquée 1940-1945 (Mémoires du XXe siècle) (French Edition)
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