Taking the detail of the TT, discuss the main differences between it and the ST, paying special attention to cases where it incurs, or manages to avoid, unacceptable translation loss. Where you think the TT can be improved, give your own revised version and explain the revision. The A8 is a model of car. Er verleiht der leichtgewichtigen Luxuslimousine den Charakter eines Spitzensportlers: Moderate Verbrauchswerte 26 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 Thinking German translation und hohe Laufkultur machen den A8 4.
Das maximale Drehmoment, das zwischen 1. Audi a: 20 Published TT Another landmark achievement in diesel technology for Audi Substantial torque, high performance, and outstanding acceleration and pulling power: all characteristics of a top athlete. The latest remarkable example is the new 4. It lends this lightweight luxury saloon the attributes of a top athlete. The V8 TDI engine in the Audi A8 is currently the highest-powered, highest-torque V8 diesel engine in any production saloon car, developing kW bhp and Newton-metres of torque.
Its peak torque of Newton-metres, which is achieved from engine speeds of 1, to 2, rpm, offers a quality of traction across the entire road-speed range that can otherwise only be experienced in sports cars. The 4. Your tutor will tell you which of the TTs to discuss. Taking each TT as a whole, place it on the scale of degrees of freedom given on p. Taking the detail of each TT, discuss the main differences between it and the ST, paying special attention to cases where it incurs, or manages to avoid, unacceptable translation loss. Tjaden goes off into a hut so as to keep out of trouble.
The others fall to reminiscing about their schooldays and wonder what, if anything, they learned at school. ST Wir erheben uns. Raus mit der Sprache. Er versucht es andersherum. Ich gehe in die Baracke und sage Tjaden Bescheid, damit er verschwindet. Dann wechseln wir unsern Platz und lagern uns wieder, um Karten zu spielen.
Niemand beachtet ihn. Er fragt nach Tjaden. Wir zucken die Achseln. Immerhin traut er sich in diesem Punkte nicht ganz und kommt uns entgegen. Das sind die Geschosse der Flaks. Da waren wir gestern. Auf Leute wie Sie haben wir hier gerade gewartet. Remarque 68—9 TT i We get up. No one knows, of course. Himmelstoss glowers at us wrathfully. Out with it! He tries another way. He disappears. Then we change our possy and lie down again to play cards. Not much for twenty years;—and yet too much for twenty years.
Half an hour later Himmelstoss is back again. Nobody pays any attention to him. He asks for Tjaden. We shrug our shoulders. Those are anti-aircraft. We were over there yesterday. Five dead and eight wounded. Please may I hop it? Remarque —2 TT ii We stand up. Himmelstoss glares angrily at us. Come on, out with it. He tries a different tack. I go off to the hut to warn Tjaden, so that he can disappear.
We shift along a bit, then lie down again to play cards. Because that is what we are good at: playing cards, swearing and making war. Not much for twenty years — too much for twenty years. Half an hour later, Himmelstoss is back. Nobody takes any notice of him. He asks where Tjaden is. Himmelstoss is thunderstruck. Five dead, eight wounded. And that was actually an easy one. Permission to fall down dead, sir! Remarque 63—5 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 3 Cultural issues in translation In this chapter, we complete the introduction to translation loss by looking at cultural transposition.
We shall use this term to cover the main types and degrees of departure from literal translation that may be resorted to in transferring the contents of an ST from one culture into another. For it should never be forgotten that translating involves not just two languages, but a transfer from one whole culture to another. To that extent, the degrees of freedom considered on pp. In this chapter, we look at translation procedures that are chosen by the translator in the light of general cultural differences that go beyond purely linguistic differences.
The two overlap, of course, and are often inseparable. Some of the most straightforward examples of the basic issues in cultural transposition are offered by proper nouns, or names. Dealing with names in translation is not usually a major issue, but it does provide a useful introduction to the cultural dimension of translation. There are two main alternatives in dealing with names. This loss will not usually matter; most often it will actually be welcomed as a reminder of the origin of the text. More serious is the sort of case where using the ST name introduces into the TT different associations from those in the ST.
Brand names are a typical danger area. In the unlikely event of translating a German narrative in which someone wearing Gammon aftershave snacked on Mini Dickmans, it might be prudent to 32 Thinking German translation drop the brand names altogether, or perhaps invent English ones with more product-enhancing associations. Simply using the ST name unchanged in the TT may in any case sometimes be impracticable, if it actually creates problems of pronounceability, spelling or memorization.
The second alternative in dealing with names, transliteration, to some extent solves these problems by using TL conventions for the representation of an ST name. This is the standard way of coping with Russian and Chinese names in English texts. How a name is transliterated may be entirely up to the translator, if it has never been put into the TL before. Or it may be necessary to follow a precedent established by earlier translators. Some names do not need transliteration at all, but have standard TL equivalents.
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So would failure to spot differences between, say, SL and TL historical and geographical conventions. The translator has to be alert to such variations in convention between languages. Another alternative in dealing with names is cultural transplantation. SL names are replaced by indigenous TL names that are not their conventional or literal equivalents, but have similar cultural connotations. This ingeniously Germanizes the two characters, Cultural issues in translation 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 33 retains the connotations of commonness of the names, and imitates the ST play on different spellings.
However, cultural transplantation of names must be done with care. But this could become incongruous if the story is clearly set in Berlin or Tracey Brown turns out to be addicted to sliced sausage and pickled gherkins. This brings us to discussion of more substantial problems of cultural transposition.
Any degree of cultural transposition involves the choice of features indigenous to the TL and the target culture in preference to features with their roots in the source culture. The result is to reduce foreign features in the TT, thereby to some extent naturalizing it into the TL and its cultural setting. Whether this is desirable or not depends on the purpose of the TT. The various degrees of cultural transposition can be visualized as points along a scale between the extremes of exoticism and cultural transplantation: Source-culture bias Exoticism Target-culture bias Calque Cultural borrowing Communicative translation Cultural transplantation Exoticism A TT marked by exoticism is one which consistently uses grammatical and cultural features imported from the ST with minimal adaptation, thereby constantly signalling the exotic source culture and its cultural strangeness.
Nicholson , but the TT will have an impact on the TL public quite unlike any that the ST could have had on an SL public, for whom the text is not exotic. Cultural transplantation At the other end of the scale is cultural transplantation, whose extreme forms are more like adaptations than translations — the wholesale rewriting 34 Thinking German translation of the ST in a target-culture setting.
Cultural transplantation on this scale can produce highly successful texts, but it is not normal translation practice. But it often also happens that a translator needs to consult the ST author over linguistic or cultural issues. This often results in a voluntary rewrite of parts of the ST for translation purposes, sometimes amounting to a small-scale cultural transposition see e. Bell Cultural transplantation is sometimes used by literary translators where an ST contains a lot of dialect.
It would be incongruous to have e. Bavarian peasants using TL regionalisms, so, if dialect is essential to the text, cultural transplantation is sometimes the only solution. Otherwise, translators generally ignore dialect, which tends to be irrelevant in informative texts. By and large, normal translation practice avoids the two extremes of exoticism and wholesale cultural transplantation. In avoiding the extremes, the translator will consider the alternatives lying between them on the scale given on p. Calque One alternative is to introduce a momentary foreignness in the form of calque.
A calque is an expression that consists of TL words and is acceptable as TL syntax, but is unidiomatic in the TL because it is modelled on the structure of an SL expression. This lack of idiomaticity may be purely lexical and relatively innocuous, or it may be more generally grammatical. Cultural issues in translation 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 35 Morgenstund hat Gold im Mund. Morning hour has gold in the mouth. For most translation purposes, it can be said that a bad calque is misleading or ungrammatical in the TL, while a good one compromises between imitating ST features and offending against TL grammar.
It is all too easy to mar the TT with bad calques. However, in some TTs the momentary foreignness of calque may be necessary, even if its effects need to be palliated by some form of compensation. Cultural borrowing Another alternative introducing an element of foreignness is to transfer an ST expression verbatim into the TT. This is termed cultural borrowing. But cultural borrowing is different from exoticism and calque, because it does not involve adaptation of the SL expression into TL forms.
Cultural borrowing is most frequent in texts on history or legal, social or political matters, in references to institutions or concepts which have no clear counterpart in the TL. As always, the critical factors are the function of the ST feature and the purpose of the TT.
We shall see examples in Chapter 4, when examining German words in W. These present the translator with serious problems of cultural transposition that can only be solved with the help of compensation. However, caution needs to be exercised in translating SL words that have become TL loan-words, and vice versa.
It thus has strong connotations of Nazi aggression and imperialism. Both the literal meaning and the connotations are now inescapable when the term is used in English. The same connotations are of course present in German too — but to what extent they are active depends on the context. English loan-words in German texts should also be treated with caution. Communicative translation As we saw on p.
Only special contextual reasons could justify not choosing communicative translation in such cases as the following: Cultural issues in translation 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 ST Ein gebranntes Kind scheut das Feuer. TT Once bitten, twice shy. Morgenstund hat Gold im Mund. Beware of the dog. This would not matter, of course, if the translation strategy were to signal the foreign origin of the text through exoticism or frequent calque.
Which one is appropriate depends on the context. Usually, however, there is not this luxury of choice, and it sometimes happens that the obvious communicative equivalent will not be appropriate in the context. This is usually because the TL expression clashes with the context either in literal meaning or in its overtones. In such cases, the solution is generally to use some kind of compensation.
We shall begin Chapter 4 with an example of this. Discuss the strategic decisions that you have to take before starting detailed translation of this ST, and outline and justify the strategy you adopt. Die Wirklichkeit sieht ohnehin etwas anders aus. Bisher sind wir aber damit sehr gut zurechtgekommen. Zehetmair a: 1—2 Cultural issues in translation 39 3.
The ST is an extract from one such interview. The voice-over will be accompanied in the usual way by shots of the interviewee, cutting once or twice to landscape and crops. Specifying where in the English-speaking world the programme is to be transmitted, discuss the strategic decisions that you have to take before starting detailed translation of this ST, and outline and justify the strategy you adopt. Contextual information The text is a transcript of an undated interview archived by Inter Nationes.
Kultureller Tonbanddienst n. The ST uses a popular quasi-proverbial saying to tease the architect. The TT compensates for this loss by using a popular proverb to do the teasing. It also retains suitably damp imagery. It does incur translation loss, of course. In this case, our example is from a TT addressed to students of the history of urban planning, so we wanted to preserve the punning hint at human rivalries underlying even such things as housing design. Note that these departures from literal translation have not been forced on the translator by the dictates of TL grammar.
The changes have been freely chosen to compensate for a rarely occurring major snag involving a standard translation.
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This question of choice versus constraint is vital to the understanding of compensation. Even if a German expression has no closely matching structural counterpart in English, this does not necessarily mean there is a problem — let alone any need to compensate. Grammatical transposition is as much the rule as the exception; and where a communicative translation is indicated, there is usually no problem in using the appropriate expression.
These are constraints: the only element of choice is in the decision not to depart from the standard rendering. Compensation does not come into the reckoning until there is something that rules out using the obvious, conventional translation. That is what happened in the architecture text, and it required a freely chosen, creative compromise between losses. This solution, a true case of compensation, is virtually unrepeatable, because produced in response to a virtually unique problem.
Compensation is more of a concern in non-technical texts than in technical ones. There is more to technical translation than that, of course, but compensation rarely comes into it. In many genres, however, successful translation is impossible without compensation. Compensation is most clearly illustrated from literary texts, so our examples here will be from such texts. But, as the course progresses, it will be found that compensation is needed in translating many different types of text.
To illustrate how compensation works, we shall use examples from published translations. But it is possible to analyse ways in which translation loss has actually been compensated for, deliberately or not.
Synonyms and antonyms of hotten in the German dictionary of synonyms
That is what we shall be doing in what follows. However, this does not mean that compensation should be a matter of guesswork for the translator. When we said at the start of this chapter that unacceptable translation loss is reduced by the freely chosen introduction of a less unacceptable one, we meant exactly that: freely choosing a solution entails carefully weighing the possibilities and making a conscious, deliberate decision.
Several of our examples come from W. This is because it is a well-known and unusually compelling text, embraces a 42 Thinking German translation familiar and morally urgent subject, and has been translated by a distinguished translator. In Austerlitz, many foreign expressions are quoted verbatim, in Flemish, French, Czech, etc. In practically every case, the English translator has kept the feature. This strategy ensures that TL readers face the same kind of challenge to their sophistication as SL readers. These sometimes pose serious problems.
Most come late on, when Austerlitz tells the narrator about the notorious Theresienstadt ghetto set up by the Nazis as, in effect, an antechamber to the concentration camps. We shall take two examples from a long, ten-page sentence which, in its exhaustive and often grotesque detail, imitates the suffocating nightmare existence of the inmates. Here is one the reference is to temporary improvements designed to conceal the true nature of Theresienstadt from a Red Cross visitation in : 5 ST [. But the ST expressions are more expressive than their TT counterparts. Comparing them is an instructive illustration of semantic translation loss.
Of course, for a German-speaker, these connotations are predominantly latent. The contrast between the sham of care and the reality of Theresienstadt is made strident and painful. The TL words can have little of this effect. Perhaps, unusually, the compensation does not work very well here. Here, for discussion in class, are some possible alternatives: Kriechlingskrippe, as it was termed, said Austerlitz, in another of their barbarisms. Kriechlingskrippe, as they termed it, said Austerlitz, in another barbarous perversion of the language. Kriechlingskrippe, as it was termed, said Austerlitz, in one of their barbarous perversions of the language.
Kriechlingskrippe, as they barbarously called it. Kriechlingskrippe, as they chose to call it, said Austerlitz. The next example illustrates another typical approach to compensation for lost ST connotations. Early in the ten-page sentence, Austerlitz lists 44 Thinking German translation some of the myriad jobs that the ghetto inmates were compelled to do.
But the emotional impact of this passage is more than the sum of its parts. For instance, the reference to parlour games acquires grisly overtones in this context, which literal translation cannot convey. In this context, it may acquire a jarring irony. It acquires these in two stages. The translation loss in this exegetic translation is obvious: the TT is less economical than the ST, and goes into explicit, concrete detail where the ST is implicit, abstract and generic. The Theresienstadt examples mostly involve problems posed by connotations. But connotation is not the only thing that can necessitate compensation.
Compensation often solves problems posed by grammatical structures. A common problem is the difference between SL and TL verb systems. Five women are on trial for an alleged war crime. One of them is Hanna, with whom the narrator, the law student Michael, has a complex relationship. Michael attends the proceedings. Eventually, the charges are read out: 5 In der zweiten Woche wurde die Anklage verlesen. Die Verlesung dauerte eineinhalb Tage — eineinhalb Tage Konjunktiv.
Die Angeklagte zu eins habe. Hanna war die Angeklagte zu vier. Schlink There is an acute problem here. This Konjunktiv I is used for certain limited special purposes, is formal, and is instantly recognized. The convention of using it for reported speech is nowhere more scrupulously observed than in reporting unproven allegations.
For translating subjunctives, there are set procedures. It took a day and a half to read — a day and a half in the subjunctive. Furthermore she is alleged. In addition, she is alleged. Thus she comes under the necessary conditions of paragraph so-and-so, furthermore she is alleged to have committed this and that act. She is alleged to have acted illegally and culpably. Hanna was the fourth defendant. One possibility, then, would be to embed the key word in an exegetic translation: Compensation 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 47 During the second week the charges were read out.
The reading took a day and a half. A day and a half of the stiff subjunctive verbs used for indictments: Prisoner no. It is further alleged that she. Subsequently, it is alleged, she. She is further alleged to have committed a felony in terms of Subsection this and Subsection that. She is charged with having acted unlawfully and with malice aforethought.
Hanna was Prisoner no. This solution has a serious drawback, however: it contains no subjunctives! It is in fact hard to see how TL subjunctives could be brought in here. Once this atmosphere is set, the rest of the published TT can be used, because there is no longer any need for extra jargon. However, it is important to note that this is the full extent of the compensation in this example.
It would have been wrong not to choose the correct term, but there is no compensation involved in avoiding this elementary mistake. The examples we have analysed illustrate the three most common features of compensation. Sometimes, the TT feature will be shorter than the corresponding ST one. More often, though, ST features have to be spread over a relatively longer length of TT, whether continuous or divided into parts.
This is almost inevitable 48 Thinking German translation when there is any element of exegetic translation. This, too, is seen in all our examples. Finally, compensation nearly always entails a difference in kind between the ST textual effect and the TT textual effect. It may involve making explicit in the TT what is implicit in the ST, or vice versa. It may involve substituting abstract for concrete, or concrete for abstract.
An ST effect produced through alliteration may have to be rendered through some grammatical device, or vice versa. An ST rhyme or pun may have to be replaced with a different form of wordplay. Compensation nearly always involves using different parts of speech and grammatical structures from those indicated by balanced translation. Sometimes, indeed, a whole text may be affected.
The Biermann song text in Practical 4. A strategic decision to produce a singable TT from it entails wholesale translation loss. Compensation is needed whenever consideration of these factors confronts the translator with an unwelcome compromise. Simply put, it is a less unwelcome compromise, the reduction of an unacceptable translation loss through the calculated introduction of a less unacceptable one.
Compensation is unlikely to be successful if inspiration is not allied with analysis. So, before deciding on how to compensate for a translation loss, it is best to assess as precisely as possible what the loss is and why it matters both in its immediate context and in the TT as a whole. This reduces the likelihood of inadvertently introducing more serious translation losses than the one that is being compensated for. Some further details about the report are Compensation ii iii iv 49 given there. Discuss the strategic decisions that you have to make before starting detailed translation of this ST, paying particular attention to the constraints imposed on your TT by the layout requirements explained in the contextual information.
Translate the text into English. Discuss the main decisions of detail you took, paying special attention to cases where you used compensation to avoid unnecessary translation loss. Compare your TT with the published one, which will be given to you by your tutor. The car featured is the A8 L Zylinder. The ST starts on a left-hand page, and then stretches across all six A4 pages of the chapter as a kind of continuously developing header; thus it is split into six fragments, one to a page, each marked off by suspension points before and after.
On each of pages 19—23, the ST is printed in a single line across the page without undue stretching. Audi require the English-language edition of their company report to be laid out exactly like the German edition. The numbers we supply in square brackets are the page numbers of the original publication. Stets und zu jeder Stunde. Die Gewissheit, gut zu sein: Anspruch des Gewinners. Hochschalten in den sechsten Gang. Im Detail und mit Niveau. Genau wie sein A8. Blinker links.
Sanfte Beschleunigung. Jeden Tag aufs Neue. Audi a: 18—23 4. Say why you think the compensation is successful or unsuccessful; if you think it could be improved, give your own translation, and explain 50 Thinking German translation why you think it is better. Contextual information It will be useful to bear in mind that the ST is a song, with a ballad-like rhythm which the translator imitates fairly closely.
In , while he was performing in the Federal Republic, he was stripped of his citizenship by the East German authorities. Kalte Dusche. Ice-cold shower. Piece a cake. Kleiner Ofen. When I get cold, son When I get cold, son I reach up and grab the sun and pop it under my coat. Little oven. Das ist Liebe. Engel weinen. Angels weeping. Poor old bugger. Ausweis bitte! Passports ready! Biermann 70—2 Biermann 71—3 5 Textual genre and translation issues It will have become clear by now that different STs require different strategic priorities. In deciding which textual variables to prioritize, the translator has always to ask: what is the purpose of the ST, and what is the purpose of the TT?
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These questions imply two others: what kind of text is the ST, and what kind of text should the TT be? The texts we have used as examples and in practicals all illustrate the importance of these four inseparable questions in deciding a strategy. Most texts belong to a genre or genres. Therefore, in order to assess the nature and purpose of the ST, the translator must have some sort of overview of genre-types in the source culture, and be familiar with the characteristics of relevant genres within those types. What is true of SL texts is true of TL texts.
Since the nature and the purpose of a given text imply one another, the translator has to be as familiar with target-culture genre-types and genres as with those of the source culture. Paying due attention to the nature and purpose of the TT Textual genre and translation issues 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 53 guarantees a degree of TL bias that helps to prevent the excessive SL bias that so often defeats the purpose of the TT.
Since translators need to consider these genre-related questions before translating a text, it is useful for them to have a framework of broad genretypes. This will help students to identify salient genre characteristics of the ST, and to check those of the TT they are producing. At this training stage, it will take some time to learn how to pick out the features that signal a particular genre and — just as important — what the TL expectations are for that genre.
However, once this ability has been developed, applying it takes very little time. Within each type, there are innumerable genres. And many texts have important characteristics from more than one genre and more than one genre-type. So we are not going to attempt an exhaustive typology of genres; that would be far too elaborate for our purposes. In determining the genre of a text, two essential factors need to be considered. The second is the question of whether the text is an oral one or a written one. These deal with the real world as it is experienced by observers. An empirical text is more or less informative, and it is understood to take an objective view of observable phenomena.
The second category comprises philosophical genres. This does not, of course, prevent it being easy for the reader to misunderstand the point; hence the elaborate t-crossing and i-dotting with which philosophical authors try to reduce the uncertainty of effect. Philosophical genres have not proliferated as much as empirical ones, but they are strikingly diverse nonetheless.
The third category comprises religious genres. The author is understood not to be free to create the world that animates the subject matter, but to be merely instrumental in exploring it. Even so, the author can never be certain that the desired effect will be produced — witness the proselytizing or threatening tone of many religious texts. The fourth category is that of persuasive genres, which aim to make listeners or readers behave in prescribed or suggested ways.
The many genres and sub-genres in this category have a common purpose, that of getting an audience to take a certain course of action, and perhaps explaining how to take it. The very notion of trying to persuade implies an element of uncertainty as to whether the text will succeed. From propaganda to video manuals, the history of persuasive genres is marked by failure as well as success. This is a crucial factor in the selection of a style for such texts. Finally, there is the category of literary genres. There are innumerable subgenres of poetry, prose narrative and drama, each with its characteristic style.
However, all texts in this category have two essential features.
First, they concern a world created autonomously in and through the texts themselves, and not controlled by the world outside. Second, whatever other characteristics they have, literary texts contain features of expression that emphasize, modify or actually create features of content. For example, the extract from Austerlitz on p. With their reliance on suggestion — through e. First, what are the salient features of the ST? What do these features imply about its purpose?
What genre do the features and purpose suggest it belongs to? If so, which of them should be retained in translation? Third, what TL genre s provide a match for the ST genre? What do existing specimens of these TL genres suggest regarding formulation of the TT? In truth, it is almost impossible not to distinguish an oral text as belonging to a discrete oral genre, and a written text as belonging to a discrete written genre, even where the texts share the same subject matter: the difference in medium generally entails a difference in attitude to treatment of the subject matter.
Thus, a story told in a pub is in a different genre from a story printed in a magazine. A song read silently from the page is in a different genre — and is arguably a different text — from the same song performed aloud. An awareness of the properties of oral texts is a necessary starting-point for translating an oral ST into an oral TT.
Oral translation is not simply a matter of verbal transposition: the genre-related body language of the target culture must be respected as well, including gestures, facial expressions, and so on. Translating a joke, for instance, will generally involve quite different genres from conference interpreting; yet both make it clear that an oral text in any genre is not only an utterance, but also a dramatic performance.
However, translators actually do most of their work in a written medium, even when it involves an oral text. Inevitably, the crossover from written to oral and vice versa results in changes. These changes are essentially due to the fact that writing is such a pale copy of speech in terms of expressive nuance. A good example is the song in Practical 4. Whatever the text, two words of caution are needed by way of conclusion. Of course, in many professional situations translators know in advance what genre the text will belong to. But they still have to serve an apprenticeship in mastering the particularities of that genre.
In any case, many other professional translators do not get such predictable work, and have to decide what genre-features the latest text has before getting down to detailed work. This approach permits a more sensitive appraisal of the true purpose of the text. So, for example, instruction manuals may vary in character between the empirical and the persuasive categories.
Advertising commonly shares features with literary texts, as do religious and philosophical texts. Religious texts often share features with persuasive texts. Many legal or administrative texts — e. Texts may quote from texts that belong to other genres, or may parody other genres. The second word of caution is that it is essential for translators to be familiar with the characteristic features of the TL genre or genres that they decide correspond most closely to the ST genre s.
If in doubt, examine sample texts from the chosen TL genre before the translation is started. Before embarking on any of the exercises in Practical 5, the student should where necessary do some of this preliminary TL genre-sampling. Textual genre and translation issues iv 57 Compare your TT with the published one Schumann , which will be given you by your tutor.
The TT is not subject to any special constraints of length or layout. Arturo Toscanini — was regarded by many as the greatest Italian conductor of his generation. Siebenmal erklingt das Thema, in andere Tonarten versetzt, immer reicher umgeben von Figuration und Klang. Es ist wie eine Vorahnung von Bruckners Adagio-Steigerungen. Darum messen wir unternehmerische Entscheidungen und Leistungen an den Renditeanforderungen unserer Kapitalgeber, den Kapitalkosten.
Wir setzen uns damit ein ehrgeiziges Ziel. BASF a: 19 5. The point of the translation is to attract some of the English-speaking visitors for whom Germany means little more than Bavaria and the Rhine Valley. The Rennsteig itself is a long-established ridgeway path for walkers and cyclists. The ST has — apart from the missed umlaut — various minor misprints and errors.
ST 5 10 15 20 25 30 Der Rennsteigtunnel Am Kurz vor Ab Die Gesamtbaukosten beziffern sich auf ca. Davon wurden ca. Damit ist der Rennsteigtunnel einer der sichersten Tunnel der Welt. Dadurch ergeben sich 25 unterirdische Fluchtwege. Zwischen dem Ausbau des Eisenbahntunnels und der Sohle des Rennsteigtunnels liegen nur ca. Rennsteigportal 5. A former pupil of the school, now a U-boat captain, has come to give a talk about his war experiences.
The submariner wears a medal at his throat, which is actually more often referred to as e. Mohn ging bei ihm am Himmel auf. Angriff gefahren. Boot in den Keller auf hundertzehn. Letzte Peilung hundertsechzig, Backbord zehn. Chapter 3. In Chapters 6—8 we shall look at these on six discrete levels. In any text, there are many points where it could have been different in sound, spelling, intonation, punctuation, word order, etc. We shall call these points of detail — points where a text could have been different, i. Looking at textual variables on a series of discrete levels makes it easier to see which are important in the ST and which are less important.
As we have seen, all ST features inevitably fall prey to translation loss in some respect or other. Even if the TT conveys literal meaning exactly, there will at the very least be phonic loss, and probably also loss in terms of grammar, sentence structure, connotations, etc. It is helpful in forming a translation strategy to decide in broad terms which categories of textual variables are indispensable in a given ST, and which can be ignored.
And of course the adequacy of a putative TT can be assessed in the same way. The six levels are hierarchically arranged, in the sense that each level is built on top of the preceding one. We shall work our way up through the levels, from phonic details to intertextual questions, showing what kinds of variable can be found on each, and how they may function in a text. Together, the six levels constitute part of a checklist of questions 64 Thinking German translation that the translator can ask of an ST, in order to determine what levels and properties are important in it and most need to be respected in the TT.
This does not imply a plodding or piecemeal approach to translation: applying the checklist quickly becomes automatic and very effective. For the whole checklist, see p. Oral texts are normally only looked at in phonic terms. Even written texts may need to be looked at in phonic terms as well — in fact, translators consider them more often phonically than graphically. Phonemes and graphemes are on the same level of textual variables. Generally, listeners and readers take little notice of the sounds or shapes of what they hear and read, paying attention primarily to the message of the utterance.
The sounds and shapes are usually irrelevant to the message. Often, however, repetition of sounds does have an expressive function, so it is useful to have terms in which to analyse it. Note that it is the sound, not the spelling, that counts in discussing alliteration and assonance.
The more technical or purely informative the text, the less account is taken of repetitions or other sound patterns, because they rarely have any thematic or expressive function. That is true of the sentence about screenbowl centrifuges from an engineering text : the alliteration and assonance are incidental to the message. However, many texts are marked by the expressive use of phonic patterns, including rhyme. The less purely factual the text, the more likely it is that alliteration, assonance and rhyme will be exploited. The most obvious example is poetry. What are the implications of these observations for translators?
As always, the translator must be guided by the purpose of the ST, the purpose of the TT and the function of the feature in its context. It takes two main forms. In the context, the sounds of given words may evoke other words that are not present in the text. Or the sound of a given word occurs in one or more others, and sets up a link between the words, conferring on each of them connotations of the other s.
The context is crucial. If the sun is maturing, it may well be low in the sky; if so, it looks larger when seen through mist, like a swelling fruit. But in respect of sound-symbolism poetry offers very clear examples of two vital factors that all translators do need to bear in mind. The Keats example is useful for this very reason. Practically none of the images and associations derive from literal meaning alone. All are reinforced, or even created, by phonic features. In fact, none of the phonic features in the lines from Keats has any intrinsic meaning or expressive power. Such expressiveness as they have derives from the context — and that is the second vital factor.
In a different context, the same features would have a different effect. The sounds of the words have their effect in terms of the literal and connotative meanings of the words. To take a German example, the sound [v] does not in itself suggest subtle light and sound phenomena in Nature, nor a terrifying, chaotic maelstrom just off a rocky coast. Clearly, before starting to translate, a translator confronted with soundsymbolism has to decide how it is produced, what its function is, and how it relates to the purpose of the text. The aim will be to convey as much of the ST message as possible.
Even if it is essential to this message that the TT include sound-symbolism, it is almost certain that the TL sounds involved will be different from the ST ones: trying to reproduce phonic patterns in the TT usually entails too much loss in respect of literal and connotative meaning. It should also 68 Thinking German translation be borne in mind that poets sometimes use words musically rather than suggestively, in which case sound-symbolism does not come into it.
The translator is only likely to want to replicate ST sounds when they are onomatopoeic. In translating onomatopoeia, there will virtually always be some phonic translation loss. Es kann kurzfristig etwas lauter werden, wenn sich der Motor einschaltet. Bosch n. The bubbling [cf. Cracking [cf. A multi-zone or No-Frost appliance may cause a low hissing [cf. Only very rarely will it be desirable or possible to use the ST rhyme sounds in the TT. In fact, there can be no hard and fast rule regarding rhyme in translation. Each TT requires its own strategic decision. Translators often compensate for this loss by using different sorts of recurrent sound, such as assonance, alliteration or half-rhymes, and perhaps gratefully accepting the odd true rhyme if it presents itself and is not inappropriate.
With some sorts of ST especially comic or sarcastic ones , where the precise nuances of meaning are less important than the phonic mockery, it is often easier, and even desirable, to stock the TT with rhymes and echoes that are different from those of the ST, and perhaps differently distributed, but have a similar effect. Our examples have concerned the sounds of words, because the shapes are less commonly a source of textual effects.
However, written texts often do depend to some extent on their visual layout. Such effects can lead to problems of layout if the TT takes up more space than the ST, or uses short words where the ST has long ones, etc. Practical 4. In English and German, in any word of more than one syllable, more loudness or emphasis is conventionally given to one of the syllables than to the other s. On top of this standard accentuation, voice stress can be used for greater expressiveness or clarity.
Naturally, voice stress is also different in these two sentences. As this example suggests, 70 Thinking German translation stress and intonation always function together in any spoken utterance, along with the third prosodic feature, namely the speed of vocal delivery. Like stress and intonation, speed of delivery varies for expressiveness or clarity.
In texts not meant to be read aloud, prosodic patterns are unlikely to have much textual importance. However, in texts intended for oral performance, such as speeches, plays, poetry or songs, prosodic features can be very important in creating moods and reinforcing themes. This is sometimes even true in literary narrative not intended for reading aloud: insistent prosodic patterns may draw attention to themselves and acquire expressive force.
In texts where prosodic effects do play an important role, the translator may have to pay special attention to the prosodic level of the TT. Occasionally, it is worth aiming for similar rhythms in the TT to those of the ST. Prosodic translation loss often arises from a failure to heed the nature and function of ST intonation and stress. This is relatively straightforward in the case of oral texts. Even in written texts, the intonation and its communicative purpose will usually be shown by the grammatical structure, the context, or, very often, modal particles.
Neither of these sentences is remotely ambiguous. This implies that the translator will normally select an intonation and a stress pattern that give the TT sentence the same communicative purpose as the ST one. If the genre or style of the TT precludes using italics to mark the stress, a judicious comma or cohesion marker may do the trick.
TT He speaks perfect French as well. He speaks perfect French as well. He speaks perfect French, as well. And he also speaks perfect French. He speaks perfect French too. He too speaks perfect French. They can put a disarming spin on a potentially tactless question — or add needle to a neutral remark. The second sentence needs to be nuanced differently. In each case, to safeguard the communicative purpose of the ST sentence, the translator has to select an appropriate TL intonation and stress pattern, using one or more of the available linguistic ploys such as italics, punctuation, grammatical transposition or idiomizing translation.
Contextual information The ST reproduces the sleeve notes to recordings made in the March valley, on the Austrian-Slovakian border. Obvious misprints in the original have been corrected here. In this text, it is as important to give the birds their correct names as to render their calls accurately.
Peterson, G. Mountfort and P. Wie jede Landschaft ihr ganz eigenes Klangbild besitzt, unterscheidet sich das des Auwaldes doch recht erheblich von dem eines Mittelgebirgsoder gar Bergwaldes. Tilgner 6. Contextual information The advertisement was one of a series which appeared in Germany in the late s. Similar advertisements appeared in other European countries at the same time. It took the form of a two-page spread in a magazine. Treating it as an oral text, discuss its genre, content and impact. This download has obvious errors in lines 8, 30, You may hear slight discrepancies between the printed words and those actually sung: one of your decisions will be what to do about these.
Nena did actually record an English version of the song; however, resist the temptation to track this down — you will be given a copy by your tutor to compare with your own version. Note: To do this exercise, you do not need to be a musician at all. It is enough just to listen to the song two or three times, marking on the text where the strong beats come. The melody is simple and easy to remember. Fitting a TT to the music and rhythm is quite straightforward. As well as extracts from plays, the programme includes songs and poems, including the ST printed below.
The ST is closely modelled on a familiar hymn see Contextual information. Even if you do not know the usual tune, the text has characteristic rhythmical features that are not hard to match in English.
- Alien Ashley (Alien Characters Book 59);
- File history!
- Breeding Latin American Tigers (Latin American Development Forum).
Lobe den Herren was in mir ist, lobe den Namen! Kommet zuhauf Schaut in den Himmel hinauf: Schon ist der Tag euch vergangen. Lobet das Gras und die Tiere, die neben euch leben und sterben! These are the levels we look at in the present chapter. Translation loss on this level is very common, so we shall only give a few examples here. The course as a whole yields scores more, and Chapters 14—16 will be devoted to three areas in which grammatical and sentential translation loss is particularly frequent.
Words Everybody is familiar with dictionaries. They list the practical totality of the words in a given language. This totality is known as the lexis of a language adj. However, meanings are not found exclusively in Grammatical and sentential issues 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 79 the words individually listed in the dictionary. Any text shows that the combination of words creates meanings that they do not have in isolation, and even meanings that are not wholly predictable from the literal senses of the words combined.
In translation, lexical loss can occur for all sorts of reasons. It very often arises from the fact that exact synonymy between SL words and TL words is relatively rare. Another common source of lexical translation loss is the fact that, in any text, words have connotations on top of their literal meaning. The lines from Keats are a good example see pp.
We shall look at these questions in more detail in Chapter Grammatical arrangement Lexical issues are a particular category of grammatical issue, so it is not surprising that some of them are most conveniently examined under the heading of grammatical arrangement. In both, what concerns the translator is the fact that the structural patterns differ from language to language.
One way in which German differs from English is that it gender-marks far more nouns — e. Behind The Scenes Big Ass 22, Big Dick 27, Big Tits 45, Bisexual Male 1, Blonde 31, Blowjob 25, Bondage 4, Brazilian British 2, Brunette 43, Bukkake 1, Cartoon 1, Casting 2, Celebrity Closed Captions College 1, Compilation 7, Cosplay 1, Creampie 8, Cuckold Cumshot 15, Czech 2, Described Video Double Penetration 2, Ebony 6, Euro 4, Exclusive 16, Feet 2, Female Orgasm 1, Fetish 13, Fingering Fisting French 1, Funny Gangbang 3, German 2, Handjob 4, Hardcore 43, Hentai 1, Indian Interactive Interracial 8, Italian Japanese 6, Korean Latina 5, Lesbian 13, Massage 2, Masturbation 19, Mature 3,
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