Among non-paternal cases, however, proximate psychological processes responding emotionally to needy young or functional ends exploiting an orphan to curry favors or reduce agonistic encounters with other group members may be at play. Paternal care is a regular, if quite plastic, feature of human reproductive behavior. Human males may thus have some predisposition toward care of young.
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Studies of adoption in humans have pointed to the seeming paradox of why males might invest tremendous resources and time in unrelated individuals, without mating effort serving as a potential cause as in the case of caring for stepchildren. In cross-cultural scope, most adoption of other children is actually fostering—becoming a long-term caregiver for more distant, dependent relatives such as nieces or nephews. In those cases, kin selection appears to help account for otherwise puzzling behavior.
In the U. S, however, adoptions of unrelated offspring invite direct attention.
Adoption Through the Eyes of the Adoptive Father
In a study of over 10, families of kindergarteners and first graders, some consisted of two-parent adoptive parents. Researchers relied on several measures of parental care, including economic and interactional items such as how often a parent helped with homework. Results indicated that adoptive mothers and fathers invested more in their offspring than did parents in other family types. However, adoptive parents were also better educated and had higher incomes.
When adjusting for such potential confounding variables, adoptive parents invested at similar levels as households with two genetic parents, and more so than other family types. Instead, the emotionally rewarding aspects of caring for dependents proximate psychological processes , perhaps amplified among some adoptive parents who had unsuccessfully tried having genetic children, may help account for adoptive caregiving.
In another interesting U. Why do people invest time and resources not just in some unrelated offspring, but in some unrelated dependent of another species? As the American Pet Products Association points out, expenditures in the pet products industry continue to show recession-proof increases. While dogs can serve various functions—in protection, as beasts of burden, as food, as garbage disposals—they increasingly serve as emotional surrogates of young children. In summary, adoptive fathers, whether human or some other species, raise various questions from an evolutionary perspective. A host of factors, including activation of proximate psychophysiological mechanisms, may help account for what appears to be puzzling behavior.
But in a season when a jolly bearded fellow supposedly gives out toys to millions of unrelated children, we might need even more explanation to inquiring young minds. Boesch, C.
Altruism in forest chimpanzees: The case of adoption. Gibson, K. Differential parental investment in families with both adopted and genetic children. Evolution and Human Behavior 30, Gray, P. Human-pet dynamics in cross-cultural perspective. Anthrozoos 24, Hamilton, L.
Adoptive parents, adaptive parents: Evaluating the importance of biological ties for parental investment.
1. “I know you’re not their real dad, but happy Father’s Day all the same.”
American Sociological Review 72, Muller, M. Mating, parenting , and male reproductive strategies. Mitani, J. Call, P. Kappeler, R. Silk Eds. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Riedman, M. The evolution of alloparental care and adoption in mammals and birds. Quarterly Review of Biology 57, Joseph and his family went up to Jerusalem on two occasions, once to present Jesus to the Temple, and again, during Passover when Jesus was twelve years old. Joseph is not mentioned during the period of Jesus' public ministry and may have died previously. Joseph was one of 12 sons of Jacob.
He was the first born son of Rachel Gen He received preferential treatment which angered his ten older brothers.
7 Things You Should Never Say to Foster or Adoptive Dads on Father’s Day | Babble
His brothers faked his death to their father Jacob, and sold him to a caravan of Ishmaelite traders who were on their way to Egypt. God gave Joseph the power to interpret dreams, and when the Pharaoh had two disturbing dreams, Joseph was brought before the Pharaoh, and interpreted his dreams, of seven years of plenty, followed by seven years of famine Gen Joseph also suggested how to put this foreknowledge to good use, by storing produce in warehouses.
Pharaoh charged Joseph, then at age thirty the rank and authority of a viceroy. When the famine came, it effected Canaan whereupon Jacob sent all his sons, except for Benjamin, to Egypt to buy food. Joseph broke down on seeing his brothers they did not recognize him at first , gave them food, and eventually had his entire family move to Egypt to live. Jacob's family of seventy people traveled to Egypt, and multiplied into a few million before Moses led them out.
Joseph had two sons by his Egyptian wife Asenath , Manasseh and Ephraim. Joseph died at age , his body was embalmed in Egypt, and his bones returned to Canaan in the Exodus. The name Joseph means "May God increase. Joseph was a wealthy man from the Judean town of Arimathea.
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