The regulations allow 'eco-development', gated housing projects that include acres of land per house. These homes are for the very wealthy, for vacations or retirement. Eco-hotels are also being built to serve an international elite. I trace the history and evolution of this conservation corridor from its roots in the Central American environment movement to its transformation by the World Bank into a vague bureaucratic framework. John, US Virgin Islands. Specifically, it focuses on the emergence of an organisation called Friends of the Virgin Islands National Park.
Rockefeller in The paper highlights the inequitable structural relationships in which local people find themselves and their values disregarded. We then discuss how and why these realities are rendered invisible in the discourses and images of transnational conservation. We conclude by proposing alternative approaches that we believe would contribute to improved conservation governance and community prosperity. The government of Zanzibar has come up with an innovative system to guarantee access to international funds through its Environmental Management for Sustainable Development Act.
This Act strategically enables external organisations to be designated as protected area managers while maintaining a role for the state as an intermediary in reaching local communities. More attention must be given to acknowledging the role played by the Zanzibari state, as well as strengthening local initiatives for natural resource protection. This becomes clear when reviewing current trends in the conservation-development debate and combining these insights with trends in environmental governance, most especially the commodification of 'nature' under pressures of neoliberalism.
Through a discussion of the current neoliberal turn in environmental governance, we suggest that the potential of actors to promote divergent and ambiguous values in policy and practice across scale has increased over the past decade and will continue to do so. Export selected to Endnote. The growing body of work on the 'neoliberalisation of nature' does not as yet pay adequate attention to conservation policy and its impacts. A protected area near Cancun was the first in Mexico initiated by local communities.
There are rapidly increasing tensions between actors engaged in the governance of environment and natural resources in Africa. Schmidt-Soltau Brooks, S.
Journal of Historical Geography Brooks, T. Mittermeier, G. Brosius, J.
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Anthropological engagements with environmentalism. Green dots, pink hearts: displacing politics from the Malaysian rain forest. American Anthropologist Indigenous peoples and protected areas at the World Parks Congress. Seeing communities: Technologies of visualization in conservation. Tsing and C. Representing communities: Histories and politics of community-based natural resource management. Bruner, A. Gullison, R. Rice and A. Bryant, R. Third World Political Ecology. Political Studies Campbell, L. Overcoming obstacles to interdisciplinary research. Carruthers, J.
Natal University Press, Durban. Cernea, M.
Brain, Mind and Society.
The risks and reconstruction model for resettling displaced populations. Population displacement inside protected areas: A redefinition of concepts in conservation politics. Policy Matters McDowell eds. World Bank, Washington. The end of forcible displacement? Conservation must not impoverish people. Poverty risks and national parks: Policy issues in conservation and resettlement.
Chape, S. Harrison, M. Spalding and I. Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity target. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Chapin, M. A challenge to conservationists. World Watch 17 6 : Chatty, D. Colchester eds. Berghahn Press, New York. Christiansen, J. Hall, H. Chandler, et al.
Brain, Mind and Society. | revolexituju.tk
Friends of the Earth, Amsterdam. Clynes, T. They shoot poachers, don't they? Observer Magazine 24 November , pp. Colchester, M. Salvaging nature: indigenous peoples and protected Areas. Ghimire and M. Pimbert , pp. Who will garrison the fortress? A reply to Spinage. World Rainforest Movement, Montevideo.
Conservation policy and indigenous peoples. Cultural Survival Quarterly Conklin, B. Cronon, W.
A new Magna Charta.
The trouble with wilderness, or, getting back to the wrong nature. Cronon , pp. Dasmann, R. Milton and P. Wiley, Chichester. Demeritt, D. Scientific forest conservation and the statistical picturing of nature's limits in the Progressive Era United States. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space Denevan, W. The pristine myth: The landscape of North America in Annals of the Association of American Geographers Dowie, M. Conservation refugees: When protecting nature means kicking people out.
Drayton, R. Yale University Press, New Haven. Duffy, R. Journal of Southern African Studies Killing for Conservation: Wildlife Policy in Zimbabwe. Dunlap, T. Ellison, K. Renting biodiversity: The conservation concessions approach.
Sample Journal Issues
Conservation in Practice 4: Emerton, L. The nature of benefits and the benefits of nature: Why wildlife conservation has not economically benefited communities in Africa. Murphree , pp. Escobar, A. After nature: Steps to an antiessentialist political ecology.
Fairhead, J. The Nature Lords. Times Literary Supplement 5 May , pp. Feeny, P. Oxfam, Oxford. Ferraro, P. Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Fitter, R. Fauna Preservation Society, London. Folke, C. Fonseca, G. Bruner, R. Mittermeier, et al. On defying nature's end: the case for landscape-scale conservation. The George Wright Forum Forsyth, T.
Fortwangler, C. The winding road: Incorporating social justice and human rights into protected areas policies. Brechin, P. West , pp. Foucault, M. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Gadgil, M. Berkes and C. Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. Ambio Geisler, C. A new kind of trouble: evictions in Eden. Your park, my poverty: Using impact assessment to counter the displacement effects of environmental greenlining. From refuge to refugee: The African case. Ghimire, K. Pimbert eds.
Gibson, C. Gjertsen, H. Can habitat protection lead to improvements in human well-being? World Development 33 2 : Graham-Rowe, D. Under the gun. Nature Grove, R. Origins of western environmentalism. Scientific American Hajer, M. Harrison J. Miller and J. Hays, S. Hecht, S. Kandel, I. Gomes, N. Cuellar and H. Globalization, forest resurgence and environmental politics in El Salvador.
Heine, B. The mountain people: The Ik of north-eastern Uganda. Africa Hingston, R. Proposed British National Parks for Africa. Geographical Journal Holdgate, M. Holmes, C. Homewood, K. Howarth, D. The Shadow of the Dam. Collins, London. Hulme D. Murphree eds. Hulme, D. Communities, wildlife and the 'new conservation' in Africa. Journal of International Development Hurd, W. Rangers by Birth. Cultural Survival Quarterly 32 available at:.
Hutton, J. Adams and J. Back to the barriers? Changing narratives in biodiversity conservation. Forum for Development Studies M and N. Sustainable use and incentive-driven conservation: Realigning human and conservation interests. Igoe, J.
Measuring the costs and benefits of conservation to local communities. Journal of Ecological Anthropology Infield, M. Community attitudes and behaviour towards conservation: An assessment of a community conservation programme around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. The World Conservation Strategy. Jacoby, K. California University Press, Berkeley. James, A. Gaston and A. Balancing the Earth's accounts.
Nature , Jeanrenaud, S. Jepson, P. Environment and History 8: Kaimowitz, D. Faure and R. Your biosphere is my backyard: The story of Bosowas in Nicaragua. Kemf, E. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco. Poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation: A South African perspective.
Kleijn, D. How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology 4: Koziell, I. Saunders eds. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Kramer, R. Johnson eds. Oxford University Press, New York. Langholz and N. The role of the private sector in protected area establishment and management.
Terborgh, C. Davenport and M. Kremen, C. Niles, M. Dalton, et al. Langholz, J.
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New forms of biodiversity governance: Non-state actors and the private protected area plan. Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 7: Langton, M. The 'wild', the market and the native: Indigenous people face new forms of global colonization. Leader-Williams, N. Allocation of resources for conservation. Leakey, R. Lyons, M. From 'death camps' to cordon sanitaire: The development of sleeping sickness policy in the Uele District of the Belgian Congo, Journal of African History Mace, G.
Balmford, L. Boitani, et al. It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation efforts. MacEwen, A. National Parks: Conservation or Cosmetics? Allen and Unwin, London. Mackenzie, A. Contested ground: Colonial narratives and the Kenyan environment, MacKenzie, J. Manchester University Press, Manchester. Maisles, F,. Sunderland, B. Curran, et al. Margules, C. Systematic conservation planning. Marsh, G. Mascia, M. Brosius, T.
Dobson, et al. Conservation and the social sciences. McCarthy, J. Neoliberalism and the politics of alternatives: Community forestry in British Columbia and the United States. McElwee, P. Displacement and relocation redux: Stories from southeast Asia. McGregor, J. In Social History and African Environments eds. Beinart and J. McGregor , pp. McNamee, K. From wild places to endangered spaces: A history of Canadian national Parks. Oxford University Press, Toronto.
McNay, L. Foucault: A Critical Introduction. Polity Press, Cambridge. McNeeley, J. Economic incentives for conserving biodiversity: Lessons for Africa. McNeely, J. Miller eds. McSweeney, K. Indigenous population growth in the lowland Neotropics: Social science insights for biodiversity conservation. Meine, C. Soule and R. Milner-Gulland, E. Journal of Applied Ecology Mittermeier, R. Gil, M. Hoffman, et al. Murphy, R.
Westview Press, Boulder. Myers N. Mittermeier, C. Nash, R. Wilderness and the American Mind. Nature, Nature ; Naughton-Treves, L. The Geographical Review Holland and K. Nelson, J. Indigenous Affairs 4: Neumann, R. The political ecology of wildlife conservation in the Mount Meru area, northeast Tanzania. Land Degradation and Rehabilitation 3: University of California Press, Berkeley. Africa's 'last wilderness': Reordering space for political and economic control in colonial Tanzania.
The postwar conservation boom in British colonial Africa. Environmental History 7: In: Liberation ecologies: environment, development, social movements eds. Peet and M. Watts , pp. Moral and discursive geographies in the war for biodiversity in Africa. Political Geography Making Political Ecology. Hodder Arnold, London. Newburn, D. Reed, P. Berck and A. Norton-Griffiths, M. The opportunity costs of biodiversity conservation in Kenya. Ecological Economics O'Riordan, T. Stoll-Kleeman, S. O'Riordan and S.
Stoll-Kleeman , pp. Oates, J. Page, B.
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