Oosting, and F. Petersburg, commonly known as the Leningrad Codex, cited from new color photographs made by the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center of Claremont, California. As the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible, it serves as the base text against which other witnesses are collated. A general introduction in English, German, and Spanish present this edition, characterizes the text and Masorah of the base text, the particular use of resources, the relation of BHQ to BHS and previous editions, standards of collation and citation of witnesses, and a comprehensive list of sigla and abbreviations in the edition.
An introduction to each book discusses the particular textual features of that book and characterizes the ancient witnesses. Each book is also accompanied by a commentary.
Here the editors discuss their decisions, translate the Masorah magna and note problems with the Masorah magna and parva, and where possible resolve them. The Minor Prophets and Proverbs will be a future addition at no cost once it is released. The Gospel of Thomas, a collection of words of Jesus, is one of the most significant extrabiblical texts of the early Christian era.
This edition presents the texts in the classical languages and provides an English translation and a readily readable commentary. It includes: An introduction to the Gospel of Thomas, the complete Coptic text, the text of the Greek fragments and a Greek retranslation of all logia with parallel texts from the canonic gospels, an English translation, an extensive commentary, and a bibliography.
The introduction and commentary do not assume knowledge of the classical languages, making the Gospel of Thomas accessible to a broad audience. For the first time this appendix published the Coptic version of the gospel together with new translations in English,German, and Greek translation—which are included in this collection. This digital edition makes the Gospel According to Thomas available in electronic format for the first time. He is also the author of The Fifth Gospel. It is the Bible which the Greek-speaking world read during the time of the apostles, to which Paul would have referred in his dealings with his churches.
The morphology, prepared by the University of Pennsylvania, gives the user the ability to draw parsing and glossary information directly from the text, which is especially important because the Greek of the LXX is significantly different from that of the New Testament. The revised edition, edited by Robert Hanhart, includes several hundred corrections according to the results of newer scholarly research.
This collection also includes the alternate texts and apparatus for each. It was especially designed for translators who have not received formal training in textual criticism. It enables them—and other people interested in the initial text of the Greek New Testament—to discover more easily the reasons that certain variant readings in the New Testament are more likely to be original than others.
Therefore the notes of Metzger have been simplified and expanded. Included are discussions of significant differences in divisions and punctuation where those involve differences in meaning. Technical matters are explained in non-technical language. An easy-to-read introduction provides a brief overview of textual criticism, including explanations of key terms, a history of the text, and methods that are used by scholars to arrive at their conclusions. This resource contains the book of Psalms translated from the Hebrew, as well as a variant reading of IV Esdras — Both texts have been included along with this edition of the Vulgate for the purpose of comparison.
In the electronic edition these texts have been created as an independent resource in order to use the comparison tools of Logos Bible Software. Also included is the apparatus to go along with this resource. July 21, Mt. Hamilton S. According to others, she was the daughter of Evenus and mother of Helenus by Jupiter. July 6, Mt. Wilson S. July 30, Mt. September 28, Mt. September 11, Palomar C. The Egyptian city of Thebes was named after her. He swallowed her when she became pregnant; Athena was subsequently born from the forehead of Zeus.
October 19, Spacewatch J. Scotti, T. Spahr, R. McMillan, J. Larson, J. Montani, A. Gleason, and T. Kowal and E. Roemer , and S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, Y. Fernandez, G. Magnier, M. Holman, B. Marsden, and G. Williams November 25, Mauna Kea S. Fernandez, and G. November 26, Mauna Kea S. In revenge for this incestuous relationship, she killed the son she bore him, cooked the corpse, and served it to Clymenus.
She was transformed into the night bird called Chalkis, and Clymenus hanged himself. Some say that she was transformed into that bird because she had intercourse with Zeus. November 23, Mauna Kea S. After Laius was killed, Iocaste unknowingly married her own son Oedipus.
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When she learned that her husband was her son, she killed herself. Some say she was the mother of Agamedes by Zeus. December 10, Mauna Kea S. Jewitt and J. She received the name of Thyone in Hades by Dionysos before he ascended up with her from there to heaven. December 11, Mauna Kea S.
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December 9, Mauna Kea S. February 8, Mauna Kea S. February 9, Mauna Kea B. Gladman and L. February 9, Mauna Kea S. October 31, Mauna Kea S. February 6, Mauna Kea S. February 26, Mauna Kea S. February 5, Mauna Kea S. Jewitt, J. February 27, Mauna Kea B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, J. Petit, and L. Jacobson, M. Brozovic, B. Gladman, M. Dia is the daughter of Eioneus known as the divine daughter of the seashore.
Zeus, disguised as a stallion, seduced Dia, who then gave birth to Peirithous. December 5, Mauna Kea S. Roman name for Greek Hygeia. She is the goddess of health and hygiene. March 23, Cerro Tololo S. Sheppard Saturnian System Satellites in the saturnian system are named for Greco-Roman titans, descendants of the titans, the Roman god of the beginning, and giants from Greco-Roman and other mythologies.
Gallic, Inuit and Norse names identify three different orbit inclination groups, where inclinations are measured with respect to the ecliptic, not Saturn's equator or orbit. Retrograde satellites those with an inclination of 90 to degrees are named for Norse giants except for Phoebe, which was discovered long ago and is the largest.
Prograde satellites with an orbit inclination of around 36 degrees are named for Gallic giants, and prograde satellites with an inclination of around 48 degrees are named for Inuit giants and spirits. Other civilizations have given different names to Saturn, which is the farthest planet from Earth that can be observed by the naked human eye. Most of its satellites were named for Titans who, according to Greek mythology, were brothers and sisters of Saturn.
July 18, Slough W. Enceladus was crushed by Athene in the battle between the Olympian gods and the Titans. Earth piled on top of him became the island of Sicily. August 28, Slough W. However, the names used today for these satellites were applied in the early 19th century by John Herschel, who named them for Titans and Titanesses, brothers and sisters of Saturn. Tethys was the wife of Oceanus and mother of all rivers and Oceanids. March 21, Paris G.
December 23, Paris G. March 25, The Hague C. September 16, Cambridge, MA W. Bond and G. Bond; independently discovered September 18, at Liverpool by W. October 25, Paris G. August 16, Arequipa W. Dollfus from observations in Dec. It was proven to have a twin, Epimetheus, sharing the same orbit but never actually meeting. It is named for the Roman god of the beginning. The two-faced god could look forward and backward at the same time.
Dollfus , D.
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Fountain and S. Larson as confusing the detection of Janus. They assigned the correct orbital period, and the satellite was finally confirmed in Named for the son of the Titan Iapetus. In contrast with his far-sighted brother Prometheus, he "subsequently realized" that he was in the wrong.
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Larson , D. March 1, Pic du Midi P. Laques and J. April 8, Tucson B. Smith, H. Reitsema, S.
Larson, and J. March 13, Flagstaff D. Pascu, P. Seidelmann, W. Baum, and D. She married Epimetheus and opened the box that loosed a host of plagues upon humanity. Son of Hermes, brother of Daphnis, and a descendant of the Titans. Discovered orbiting in the Encke division in Saturn's A ring. August 7, La Silla B. Petit, H. Scholl, M. Marsden, P. Nicholson and J. September 23, Mauna Kea B. All the Western original sources on Charlemagne's coronation are available. The title of Emperor was confirmed by Byzantium in Otto I, in , assumed the style of imperator augustus.
In he also used the style imperator augustus Romanorum ac Francorum , but reverted the same year to the previous, simpler style, which his successors kept. By the 12th century, the standard style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator semper augustus , and it remained until the 16th c. Throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the elected king of Germany a kingdom formed by the division of the empire in and the separation of the western Franconian kingdom in was also Emperor of the Romans. His title was royal king of the Germans, or from king of the Romans from his election to his coronation in Rome by the pope; thereafter, he was emperor.
The title of "king of the Romans" became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome; the emperor-elect was either known as German king or simply styled himself "imperator" see the example of Ludwig IV below. The election day became the starting date permanently with Siegmund. Ultimately, Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in , with papal approval: after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus. That is, he was "emperor elect": a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet fully emperor, but only that he was emperor by virtue of the election rather than papal coronation by tradition, the style of rex Romanorum electus was retained between the election and the German coronation.
For this reason, the title king of the Romans Rex Romanorum , sometimes king of the Germans or Rex Teutonicorum came to mean heir-apparent, the successor elected while the emperor was still alive. The peculiar "translation" of semper augustus appears on a Lehenbrief letter of enfeoffment of in the form zu allen ziden ein merer des heiligen Romischen riches. The emperor had precedence over all Christian monarchs.
The emperor's wife, the Empress, also had rank, but not his children, since the office was elective. The composition of the Reichstag evolved over the Middle Ages. By it had been divided into three colleges or sections:. The status of State of the Empire was originally attached to a particular land, and was a right of the owner or ruler of that land. This institution emerges sometime in the first half of the 13th c. It appears in the Sachsenspiegel , a compilation of German feudal law written between and Its composition seems to have been set fairly early, by the s at the latest.
Initially the electors nominated a candidate, subject to ratification by the magnates, but fairly quickly their choice became final. Its formal regulation came with the Golden Bull of , although changes were made occasionally. The status of the king of Bohemia was controversial for a long time, because he was not necessarily German; on the other hand, he was the Butler of the Empire, and one theory founded the right to elect the Emperor on holding one of the four high offices. One view was that the king of Bohemia's vote was meant to be the deciding vote in case of an even split of the other six.
The Sachsenspiegel did not include him as an elector, but the Schwabenspiegel did. It took the Golden Bull of to settle the matter definitively. The king of Bohemia did not attend the elections after Wenceslas in the 14th c. The electors elected the king of Germany or king of the Romans who, once crowned, became the Emperor. Under the Habsburgs, it had become usual for the Emperor to have his oldest son crowned as king of the Romans. At the peace of Westphalia, France and Sweden tried to have the right to elect the king of the Romans transferred to the Reichstag, without success.
Finally, the electoral capitulation of included the stipulation that an election would take place only in case of extended absence, advanced age, permanent incapacity of the Emperor, or other urgent necessity. It was up to the electors to decide to hold an election. They were obligated to give the emperor prior notification, but could proceed without his approval. The electors were free to elect whom they wished, and the Emperor, in his capitulation, promised not to interfere with this freedom or use any form of coercion. They could, nevertheless, pledge their vote: when Brunswick later Hanover was given an electorate in , it promised in return never to vote for anyone else but the eldest-born archduke of Austria.
In the election of , there were none, and the elector of Hanover was free to cast his vote. A spiritual elector could vote even before having been invested by the Pope and received the pallium, as long as he had been invested by the Emperor. Conversely, an archbishop deprived of his electorate but not of his see could not be replaced as elector and his vote was forfeited as happened to Cologne in A minor's vote was cast by his tutor. The electors were summoned by the archbishop of Mainz, or else by the archbishop of Trier, normally within a month of the death of the Emperor.
The electors met in Frankfurt, as prescribed by the Golden Bull when they didn't, the city protested and it was granted reversals reserving its rights for the future normally within three months of notification. The Grand Marshal was responsible for the logistics and protection of the electors and their suites. Electors appeared in person, entrusted their vote to another elector, or more often sent an electoral embassy, even if they were present as the king of Bohemia in and , or the elector of Mainz in The ministers presented their credentials to the archbishop of Mainz, who presided over the deliberations, in particular the drafting of the electoral capitulation.
When the moment to vote came, the Grand Marshal ordered all princes, noblemen, ambassadors, representatives etc. The electors proceeded on horseback from the city hall to the cathedral, and convened in the electoral chapel, and swore to choose the worthiest man, and to accept the majority vote. The elector of Mainz proceeded to collect the votes, starting with Trier and ending with Saxony, and then himself. Electors could vote for themselves, as the king of Bohemia frequently did although formally, a majority voted for him and he then consented.
The candidate receiving more than half of the votes was elected. In modern times the votes were unanimous. However, some elections were contentious. The election of was one. Then Maximilian decided to have his grandson Charles elected before his own death, and soon had the commitment of Brandneburg, Cologne, Mainz and the Palatinate, with the vote of Bohemia the minor king Louis II cast by his guardians Maximilian and the king of Poland.
With Maximilian's death all bets were off and negotiations began anew. In the end, Charles secured enough votes to win the election, in part through payments to the electors , florins in lump-sum payments and a total of 30, florins in annual pensions promised to four electors. What happened on June 27 when the voting began and broke off after an hour and June 28 is unclear; there is a possibility that Frederick the Wise of Saxony was elected but declined. In the end, all electors voted for Charles, although the elector of Brandenburg made a notarized statement beforehand that his vote was not free.
Another contested election was that of Karl VI had died in , the last male Habsburg: there was no obvious successor for the first time in over two hundred years. In the electors decided to exclude the ambassadors of Karl's daughter Maria Theresia, queen of Bohemia, not because she was a woman but because of the pending dispute over that crown the elector of Bavaria had just seized Prague and had himself crowned king of Bohemia in December She protested against the legality of the election until the treaty of April 22, with Bavaria, by which she posthumously recognized Karl VII as emperor.
At the election of , she voted, but the electors Palatine and of Brandenburg abstained, although the elector of Brandenburg later recognized the validity of the election on Dec. Once elected, the candidate was asked by the archbishop of Mainz if he accepted the election capitulation drafted by the electors until , the ambassadors of the king of Bohemia were shown the draft beforehand in an adjacent room. If he did, he was immediately proclaimed in the cathedral. In the elect's absence his ambassador or representative took the oath, but the imperial government remained in the hands of the vicars until the elect had taken the oath himself.
The procedures for electing a king of the Romans were identical, except that the king-elect swore not to intervene in the affairs of the Empire. The Golden Bull prescribed that the German coronation take place in Aachen, although in modern times it usually took place in the same city as the election. According to an agreement of 16 June , included in the Wahlkapitulation of , the ceremony was performed either by the archbishop of Cologne or the archbishop of Mainz, according to whose province was the location of the coronation Frankfurt was in the province of Mainz ; and if it took place outside of either province for example, Regensburg, in the province of Salzburg then Cologne and Mainz alternated.
The insignia used in the coronation consisted of the crown, the silver scepter, two rings, a gold orb, the sword of Charlemagne and the sword of Saint Mauritius, various clothes, an illuminated Gospel, a sabre of Charlemagne, and a number of relics the tablecloth of the Last Supper, the cloth with which Christ washed the feet of the Apostles, a thorn of his crown, a piece of the Cross, the spear that pierced his side, a piece of his crib, the arm of Saint Ann, a tooth of John the Baptist, the blood of Saint Stephen.
The emperor was crowned by either the archbishop of Mainz or that of Trier, depending on the diocese in which the ceremony took place in , the archbishop of Cologne, brother of Emperor Karl VII, officiated with the consent of the archbishop of Mainz. All three spiritual electors laid together the crown on the emperor's head. After the election the emperor was made a canon of the cathedral of Aachen. He then proceeded to the city hall for the banquet. Clerics , as in other European Estates such as the House of Lords in England or the Estates General, had a seat by virtue of the see or abbacy.
Related Heldennamen für Romanfiguren (German Edition)
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