Below is a side by side comparison of a 12 block by 4 block radius in the West Englewood and Lakeview neighborhoods of Chicago.
These maps reflect the abandoned buildings, vacant lots, corner stores, and other food retail establishments within each radius. While West Englewood and Lakeview are only 15 miles apart from each other, in terms of access to food and resources for development, there is a stark contrast between the two neighborhoods.
Using public policy to promote lasting change toward food justice. Launching an education campaign that stresses the benefits of healthier lifestyles. Students' weight and height were measured in light indoor clothing without shoes. There were three main intervention components. The Snackin' Fresh logo was imprinted on small giveaways and banners, and was displayed in corner stores. A branded Web site, comic book and video were also developed. All store owners received training on buying, handling and selling fresh produce to reduce food costs, promote proper display and maintain produce quality.
Whole produce, which was usually sold by weight, was sold per unit to students so they could more easily purchase them as snacks. Whole fruit was priced competitively with retail prices in comparable stores. Owners were encouraged to group healthy snacks together. Bottled water 20 oz. Intervention staff provided 11 Snackin' Fresh branded refrigerated barrels and one branded countertop refrigerator to intervention stores to stock fruit and water, respectively.
Why a booming Manhattan is full of empty storefronts
Youth leaders provided feedback on which healthy items to introduce and on marketing messaging. Because the default starting values for the covariance parameters failed, the following dependent variables were dichotomized at their baseline medians: calories, fat, sodium, carbohydrates, sugars, protein, fiber and calories. Analyses consisted of differences in proportions falling above or below the median in each treatment group based on a binomial distribution with a logit link function. There were no problems for starting values for age adjusted BMI, BMI percentile scores, and BMI z scores, therefore these analyses were based on comparison of means between treatment conditions assuming a normal distribution with an identity link.
Because the model failed to converge with the repeated statement, a random effect for participants was used to accommodate for clustering of measurements over time within subjects. A similar strategy was utilized for BMI categories except multinomial and a cumulative logit link were used to compare groups. The 10 schools had At baseline, students provided consent and students completed assessments.
Characteristics of the student sample are in Table 1. Participant flow through the study is in Figure 1. Stores were on average Items were analyzed by intercepts. The mean number of intercepts per store was Average items per intercept at year 1 were 2. There was no difference in energy content per intercept in control or intervention purchases at baseline. Similarly, there were no significant differences in energy per intercept between control and intervention store purchases at years 1 or 2, Table 2.
Corner Stores In The Middle Of The Block
There were also no significant differences between control and intervention corner store purchases in fat, sodium, carbohydrate, sugar, protein or fiber at baseline, year 1 or 2 Table 2. Typical items purchased by students were beverages, chips and candy. Weight measurements were available only for consented students see Figure 1. There were no differences in the prevalence of obesity between control and intervention students at years 1 or 2 Table 4.
Corner Store Campaign
There were three principal findings from this study. It is unclear why the intervention did not impact the energy content of purchases. One potential reason may be the challenge of stocking fresh items in a corner store environment with limited space and equipment. It is also possible that students saw less value in the items targeted by the intervention i. Additionally, students may have been reluctant to purchase water given that water is widely available at no cost. Finally, it is possible that students were not motivated to make healthier decisions when less expensive, highly palatable items were still readily available.
Finally, due to the challenges in working with national snack distributors, space that was allocated specifically for healthier items was difficult to maintain. There has only been one other evaluation of corner store interventions among children, and it was not randomized. Second, there were no differences in the fat, carbohydrate, sugar, fiber, or sodium content of corner store purchases of control or intervention students. At year 2, intervention corner store purchases remained high in sugar SSBs were not specifically targeted in our intervention, and future corner store interventions may benefit from focusing on reducing SSB consumption.
Obesity prevalence in the overall sample also did not change significantly over the 2 years. Obesity nationally appears to be plateauing or declining 1 , 27 and recent epidemiological data from Philadelphia also show this trend Our study has several strengths. It is the first randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative that utilized direct observation of corner store purchases, included assessment of height and weight, and evaluated children. Our study also had several limitations.
Only We did not record whether students shopped in corner stores alone or with others. Detecting differences in corner store purchasing patterns between individual students versus students shopping with parents or in groups may help identify future intervention targets. Future studies may benefit from developing more robust interventions that work with corner store owners to make more substantive changes in stocking healthier snacks and beverages, and in marketing these items There is already work under way in Philadelphia to improve and strengthen corner store initiatives to effect meaningful change i.
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Future studies are needed to assess their efficacy. Larger studies with a wider age span may also help provide insights on how to promote more healthful eating behaviors in urban children.
It is also possible that corner store efforts need to be part of larger comprehensive efforts to impact healthy eating in schools and communities. Volume 22 , Issue If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Obesity Volume 22, Issue Original Article Free Access. Michelle R. Lent E-mail address: tue temple. Stephanie S. Tara A. Alexis C. Gary D. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation.
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Look Back Elyria: Memories of the corner store - Chronicle-Telegram
Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Objective Although many initiatives exist to improve the availability of healthy foods in corner stores, few randomized trials have assessed their effects. Conclusions A healthy corner store initiative did not result in significant changes in the energy content of corner store purchases or in continuous or categorical measures of obesity. Corner stores Corner stores were businesses that primarily sold food and beverages, had 1—4 aisles, and had only 1 cash register.
Nutrition information The primary outcome, the energy content calories of corner store purchases made by students, was based on directly intercepting students outside of the 24 corner stores. Results Participants Schools and students The 10 schools had Asian
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