An Overview on Oral Cancer


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This clearly states that radio communication had potential benefits even during ,s where the way of communication was less and media was not as developed as today as most of the people today have access to some sort of communicatory media either internet or radio or Television or newspapers.

Besides radio and television, newspapers can also be used to convey anti-tobacco message through articles on smoking hazards and different cartoons to reflect its hazards and to encourage the public to avoid tobacco use. Besides this there should be made voluntary organizations and these organizations can also play a role in educating the people about smoking and tobacco hazards and thus they can make a difference as well.

Secondary prevention consists of screening programmes to detect and treat precursors of oral cancer thus preventing or reducing the incidence of highly invasive cancers. Effective screening can detect invasive cancers very early and thus improve the likelihood that treatment will be successful. The cost effectiveness of secondary prevention depends on many factors including the costs of diagnostic tests, the prevalence of disease and the availability of effective treatments.

Medical interventions include surgical removal of the tumors, chemotherapy and radiation. In general the standard of treatment in developing countries is less well organized and not available to everybody due to its costs as compared to developed countries. The preventive interventions are also different in developing and developed countries with better preventive interventions in developed countries. The availability of cost effective methods of prevention and treatment for cancers in low and middle income countries varies significantly depending on the type of cancer, with a substantial effects on the equity of the outcomes.

As smoking is one of the major causes and risk factors for oral cancer in South Asia so the South Asian governments i. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Jammu and Kashmir have all launched different awareness programmers at different levels to discourage smoking and create awareness among people to avoid smoking and develop clean habits. In few Indian and few states of Nepal shopkeepers are informed not to sell cigarettes to youngsters below 16 years of age but these is no legislation passed about it yet in any of these countries.

The problem in the educated population is that they are although aware of the effects of it but they either use it as a fashion or to relive stress. Both in India and Pakistan, there is ban on smoking in public places but rarely seen to be followed or obeyed by people and there is less action from the government or legislative authorities against those who disobey or violate the roles.

There are programmes about adverse effects of smoking on Television but as most of these cigarette companies are international companies so they get the state television and other private channels easily hired for publicity of their cigarettes and other tobaccos. There needs to be strict legislation against smoking from these regional governments and those who do not abide by the law should be punished. Smoking advertisements should be banned on television and radios and strong anti smoking campaigns should be launched. More awareness needs to be created amongst the public about smoking hazards and smoking should be strictly banned in all public places and those found guilty of disobeying the law should be fined.

Besides antismoking campaign more is needed to be done in creating awareness among the general population about regular use of brush and tooth paste, use of less Paans chewable form of tobacco in the subcontinent and discourage the use of Alcohol. Although informal tobacco cessation clinics have been in use in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh for longtime but no evaluation reports are available from any of these countries.

The recent of availability of nicotine replacement therapy in the shape of nicotine patches and Buproprion has prompted several health facilities to set up tobacco cessation clinics for people who want to quit smoking but cannot do it on their own. Economic analysis by several agencies has shown that tobacco is a net drain on an economy. Demand side interventions such as advertising and promotion bans, smoking restrictions as well as increase in price through taxation are all effective at reducing tobacco related oral cancers, mortality and morbidity.

Measures to reduce the supply of tobacco in these countries have been met with less success except in control of smuggling to some extent but nevertheless aids given to farmers in some parts of these countries have seen a shift amongst the farmers from tobacco cultivation to other crops cultivation and thus further steps must be taken to encourage the farmers to cultivate other crops instead of tobacco. The farmers should be given special aid for this as once suggested by World Bank as well in World Bank, Research carried out in Indian state of Karnataka has shown the willingness of framers to shift from tobacco cultivation to other crops like dairying and cotton crops if given some aid and assistance by the government Panchamukhi, Additionally phasing out government support to tobacco production and finding substitute crops for revenue generation and export will aid in the transition to a tobacco free society.

The South Asian governments are taking steps on individual levels to counter the risk of oral cancer and smoking but not much on regional level and together. These include more taxes on tobaccos imports, decreasing the subsidies for tobaccos and increasing the cost of cigarettes so that people can be discouraged from smoking.

Men are common smokers in this part of the world and females are rare smokers in this region whereas this gap is narrow in high income countries mainly Europe and America. About 1. Nearly all the South Asian governments are implementing more taxes on cigarettes and tobacco to raise the cost of the habit and discourage smoking this way.

Only educating consumers that tobacco or smoking is injurious to health is not sufficient as mostly the people underestimate the future risk to their health and young people are more prone to develop and adopt to risky behaviors and life styles. Although most of these countries have done some sort of legislation to ban smoking in public places, implement high taxes on tobacco but more efforts are needed and more steps should be taken be these regional governments.

Intervention proven effects can be to increase the taxes on tobacco, disseminating information about health risks in the general public, restricting smoking in public places, banning advertising and increasing access to therapies. Some governments in the developing countries are using the tobacco tax even for health care purposes. As cigarettes are the most widely publicized products in the world so strong anti smoking campaign in the public alongwith education and information campaigns can counter this hazardous effect of smoking.

These governments can also publicize reports about smoking hazards through health ministry and directing all the smoking manufacturer companies to put warning labels on packages, broadcasting antismoking messages in the media. The governments can also provide nicotine replacement tablets at low costs to smokers so that they can quit the habit of smoking. The challenge here is that most of these governments take money from these companies while issuing licenses before launching their products and also take financial aid from these companies during their election campaigns.

These tobacco manufacturers also provide money to media to promote their products and advertise their tobacco products. Fortunately most demand side interventions are cost effective and even cost saving as well. Successful interventions in Poland and South Africa went well even with the modest increase in price, almost doubling the prices over short time DCP2, Chapter 8; Levine and others Despite the price increase being the most cost effective measure to counter tobacco consumption, this public health measure is grossly underutilized.

There should be fewer taxes on the daily use material for hygiene. More awareness should be created among the general public about daily brushing the teeth twice, less alcohol consumption, in case of any oral trauma inspection of the wound in oral region by a surgeon or physician and to avoid use of hot food or drinks for longer time. India also passed a bill through Lok Sabha on 30 th April, addressing all types of tobacco products known as Bill, The bill prohibits advertising and sport sponsorship by tobacco companies although such legislation is not in place in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Afghanistan.

Afghanistan is the world leading opium producer currently and efforts are under way by the international community to halt the opium trade somehow. The bill also prohibits smoking in public places to protect nonsmokers especially children from environmental smoke. It has put a ban on selling of tobacco to persons below 18 years of age and within meters of educational institutions, government and semi-government offices.

Clear health warnings are made mandatory on all packages in local languages and in English, alongwith tar and nicotine content, to inform the public about the risk of the using the product Gupta, This bill is awaiting presidential approval in India and the next step will be to tackle the issues of enforcement once it becomes law and the law enforcement agencies have to play a really active and honest role in implementing it to tackle the tobacco problem. It will need the support of all professionals and especially healthcare professionals have to support this idea and implementation of the law besides all the citizens and influential Figures in this country.

About members of the United Nation have participated in these negotiations and this convention was adopted by World Health Assembly in This treaty has been ratified by most members of the United Nation and it has paved the way for strong and effective control of tobacco use and advertisement at nation as well as international level. There are multiple factors which are causing obstacles in the effective tobacco control policy implementation at both national and regional level.

BioMed Research International

At regional level there is lack of trust between the member states of South Asian region and their border disputes. At national levels, corruption in politics involving politicians accepting money as bribes from the tobacco companies so they are not sincere in tackling this problem in most of these countries. Indian Subcontinent is a region which is highly affected with lots of diseases including oral cancer. Many of steps have to be taken to improve the current situation. This is just an initiative in that direction. Much is still needed to be done at both the regional level and national level in all these countries.

There is also a greater need for more efficient steps to be taken by all these countries to create awareness among the general public, provide aid to farmers to cultivate other crops and to provide health care access and facilities to the general public, effective screening programmes to detect cancers at early stages and thus making the treatment possible and cheaper. There is also a great need at the regional level between these countries to work with one another to counter this problem and thus decrease the incidence of oral cancer as its incidence is one of the highest in this region as compared to the rest of the world.

Geology and Geography. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopaedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, Werning, John W May 16, Oral cancer: diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. Sankaranarayanan, R. Anticancer Res, Br J Cancer, Lancet, Subramanian, S. Bull World Health Organ, Tobacco use and stomach cancer in Mizoram, India. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, Population study in the high natural background radiation area in Kerala, India.

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Habits and dietary patterns of cases of carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx. Pakistan med. I have not taken any funding for this article from any other party and its only my work and have not been funded by any third party. This article has been downloaded from WebmedCentral.

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Review of the Manuscript. This is not a review but a policy document. Posted by Dr. Dear Dnyanesh Belekar. Thank you for your feedback and i do agree that the name should be oropharyngeal carcinoma rather than oral cancer and it would sound better. View more Responded by Dr. Thank you Dr. Bhanu P Lyengar for your valuable feedback and kind words Review of an article on overview of oral cancer in Indian Subcontinent Zahid Khan Posted by Dr.

Oral Cancer Awareness

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WebmedCentral Peer Reviewed: No. Table of Contents 1. Head Neck 34, — Ganga, R. Evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy and spectrum of autofluorescence of benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions of the oral cavity using VELscope. Gomez, I. Is diagnostic delay related to advanced-stage oral cancer? A meta-analysis. Oral Sci. Hanken, H. The detection of oral pre- malignant lesions with an autofluorescence based imaging system VELscope - a single blinded clinical evaluation.

Head Face Med. Huang, T. Novel quantitative analysis of autofluorescence images for oral cancer screening. Huber, M. Acetic acid wash and chemiluminescent illumination as an adjunct to conventional oral soft tissue examination for the detection of dysplasia: a pilot study. Quintessence Int. Ibrahim, S. Asian Pac. Cancer Prev. Jane-Salas, E. Autofluorescence and diagnostic accuracy of lesions of oral mucosa: a pilot study. Jayaprakash, V. Autofluorescence-guided surveillance for oral cancer. Kahn, M. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Kammerer, P.

Oral Cancer - An Overview

A chemiluminescent light system in combination with toluidine blue to assess suspicious oral lesions-clinical evaluation and review of the literature. Oral Investig. Kaur, J. Combination of Autofluorescence imaging and salivary protoporphyrin in Oral precancerous and cancerous lesions: Non-invasive tools. Kerr, A. Clinical evaluation of chemiluminescent lighting: an adjunct for oral mucosal examinations. Koch, F. Effectiveness of autofluorescence to identify suspicious oral lesions—a prospective, blinded clinical trial.

Lalla, Y. Oral mucosal disease in an Australian urban Indigenous community using autofluorescence imaging and reflectance spectroscopy. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions with autofluorescence imaging and reflectance spectroscopy. Lane, P. Has fluorescence spectroscopy come of age? A case series of oral precancers and cancers using white light, fluorescent light at nm, and reflected light at nm using the Trimira Identafi Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence.

Google Scholar. Liu, D. Tohoku J. Lucchese, A. The potential role of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy for evaluating oral cavity lesions: a systematic review. Marzouki, H. Use of fluorescent light in detecting malignant and premalignant lesions in the oral cavity: a prospective, single-blind study. Head Neck Surg. McIntosh, L. McNamara, K. The role of direct visual fluorescent examination VELscope in routine screening for potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions. Oral Med. Oral Radiol. Mehrotra, R. A cross-sectional study evaluating chemiluminescence and autofluorescence in the detection of clinically innocuous precancerous and cancerous oral lesions.

Messadi, D. The clinical effectiveness of reflectance optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of oral lesions. Mojsa, I. Moro, A. Results from a multicentre clinical trial. Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Autofluorescence and early detection of mucosal lesions in patients at risk for oral cancer. Nagi, R. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: systematic review.

Bucal 21, e—e Oh, E. Efficacy of the ViziLite system in the identification of oral lesions. Ohnishi, Y. Usefulness of a fluorescence visualization system for the detection of oral precancerous and early cancerous lesions. Paderni, C. Direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence as novel aid for early oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders monitoring. Patton, L. Adjunctive techniques for oral cancer examination and lesion diagnosis: a systematic review of the literature.

Poh, C. Fluorescence visualization detection of field alterations in tumor margins of oral cancer patients. Cancer Res. Rajmohan, M. Assessment of oral mucosa in normal, precancer and cancer using chemiluminescent illumination, toluidine blue supravital staining and oral exfoliative cytology. Ram, S. This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials.

It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website. Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body systemic chemotherapy. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid , an organ , or a body cavity such as the abdomen , the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas regional chemotherapy.

The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy is radiation treatment in which the total dose of radiation is divided into small doses and the treatments are given more than once a day. Hyperthermia therapy is a treatment in which body tissue is heated above normal temperature to damage and kill cancer cells or to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation and certain anticancer drugs. For information about side effects caused by treatment for cancer, see our Side Effects page. For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice.

Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment. Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.

Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.

An Overview of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Status in Oral Cancer

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring coming back or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment. Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country.

Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials. Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.

Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred come back. These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups. For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section. Treatment of stage I lip and oral cavity cancer depends on where cancer is found in the lip and oral cavity. If cancer is in the lip, treatment may include the following:.

If cancer is in the front of the tongue, treatment may include the following:. If cancer is in the buccal mucosa the lining of the inside of the cheeks , treatment may include the following:. If cancer is in the floor bottom of the mouth, treatment may include the following:. If cancer is in the lower gingiva gums , treatment may include the following:.

If cancer is in the retromolar trigone the small area behind the wisdom teeth , treatment may include the following:. If cancer is in the upper gingiva gums or the hard palate the roof of the mouth , treatment is usually surgery wide local excision with or without radiation therapy. Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available. Treatment of stage II lip and oral cavity cancer depends on where cancer is found in the lip and oral cavity.

If cancer is in the upper gingiva gums or the hard palate the roof of the mouth , treatment may include the following:. Treatment of stage III lip and oral cavity cancer depends on where cancer is found in the lip and oral cavity. If cancer is in the upper gingiva gums , treatment may include the following:. If cancer is in the hard palate the roof of the mouth , treatment may include the following:.

For cancer that may have spread to lymph nodes , treatment may include the following:.

Who is at risk for oral cancer?

Treatment of stage IV lip and oral cavity cancer depends on where cancer is found in the lip and oral cavity. If cancer is in the upper gingiva gums or hard palate the roof of the mouth , treatment may include the following:. Treatment of recurrent lip and oral cavity cancer may include the following:. For more information from the National Cancer Institute about lip and oral cavity cancer, see the following:. For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:.

The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.

The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of adult lip and oral cavity cancer. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care.

Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary "Updated" is the date of the most recent change.

The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board. A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory.

Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard. Clinical trials can be found online at NCI's website. PDQ is a registered trademark.

The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. It cannot be given by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the images in this summary, along with many other images related to cancer can be found in Visuals Online. Visuals Online is a collection of more than 3, scientific images. The information in these summaries should not be used to make decisions about insurance reimbursement.

More information on insurance coverage is available on Cancer. More information about contacting us or receiving help with the Cancer. Questions can also be submitted to Cancer. Menu Contact Dictionary Search. What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics. Cancer Disparities. Cancer Causes and Prevention. Risk Factors. Cancer Prevention Overview. Cancer Screening Overview. Screening Tests.

Diagnosis and Staging. Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis. Types of Cancer Treatment. Side Effects of Cancer Treatment. Clinical Trials Information. A to Z List of Cancer Drugs. Questions to Ask about Your Treatment. Feelings and Cancer. Adjusting to Cancer. Support for Caregivers. Questions to Ask About Cancer. Choices for Care. Talking about Your Advanced Cancer.

Planning for Advanced Cancer. Advanced Cancer and Caregivers. Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer. Finding Health Care Services. Advance Directives. Using Trusted Resources. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer. Reports, Research, and Literature. Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment. Pediatric Supportive Care. Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment.


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An Overview on Oral Cancer An Overview on Oral Cancer
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An Overview on Oral Cancer An Overview on Oral Cancer
An Overview on Oral Cancer An Overview on Oral Cancer
An Overview on Oral Cancer An Overview on Oral Cancer
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