The chemical portion is by J. Buchner, E. Casper, J. Berlin, Chevallier, A. Chiaje, Stef. Napoli, Christison, Robert. A third edition appeared in Cornevin, C. Devergie, Alphonse. Dragendorff, Jean Georges. Petersburg, Duflos, A. Eulenberg, Dr. Falck, C. Pathologie u. Therapie red. Virchow, Bd. Erlangen, Falck, Ferd. Flandin, C. Galtier, C. A later edition of the same work. Greene, Will. Guy, W. Harnack, Erich. Hamburg, Hasselt, van, A. Braunschweig, Supplemental vol. Husemann, Berlin, Helwig, A. Hemming, W. Hermann, L. Hoffmann, E. Wien, Husemann and A.
Husemann, Th. Kobert, Rud. Koehler, R. Lesser, Adolf. Loew, Oscar.
Ludwig, E. Mahon, A. Marx, K. Maschka, J. This work is under the editorship of Dr. Mende, Lud. Mohr, Fried. Montgarny, H. Montmahon, E. Mutel, D. Montpellier et Paris, Nacquet, A. Nicolai, Joh. Ogston, F. Orfila, Matthieu Jos. Orfila et Lesueur. Otto, F. Praag van, Leonides , u. Opwyrda, R. Utrecht, Rabuteau, A.
Alexander Wynter Blyth
Reese, John J. Remer, W. Auflage, Helmstadt, Schneider, F. Schneider, P. Selmi, F. Sobernheim, Jos. Simon, J. Sonnenschein, L. A new edition by Dr.
Alexander Wynter Blyth (Author of Poisons )
Tardieu, A. Taylor, Alfred Swaine. Manual, London, Werber, Ant. Wood, Horatio C. Woodmann, W. Bathurst , and Tidy, Ch. Wormley, Theodore G. Wurtz, A. It is therefore evident that, by implication, the English law defines a poison to be a destructive thing administered to, or taken by, a person, and it must necessarily include, not only poisons which act on account of their inherent chemical and other properties after absorption into the blood, but mechanical irritants, and also specifically-tainted fluids.
Should, for example, a person give to another milk, or other fluid, knowing, at the same time, that such fluid is contaminated by the specific poison of scarlet fever, typhoid, or any serious malady capable of being thus conveyed, I believe that such an offence could be brought under the first of the sections quoted. Evidence must, however, be given of guilty intent. There is thus ample provision for all the strange ways by which poison has been introduced into the system, whether it be by the ear, nose,  brain, rectum, vagina, or any other conceivable way, so that, to borrow the words of Mr.
The German statute, as with successive amendments it now stands, enacts as follows:  —. The French law runs thus Art. Scientific Definition of a Poison. Husemann and Kobert are almost the only writers on poisons who have attempted, with more or less success, to define poison by a generalisation, keeping in view the exclusion of the matters enumerated. In the first edition of this work I made an attempt to define a poison thus:— A substance of definite chemical composition, whether mineral or organic, may be called a poison, if it is capable of being taken into any living organism, and causes, by its own inherent chemical nature, impairment or destruction of function.
At some future time, with a more intimate knowledge of the way in which each poison acts upon the various forms of animal and vegetable life, it may be possible to give a truly scientific and philosophical classification of poisons—one based neither upon symptoms, upon local effects, nor upon chemical structure, but upon a collation and comparison of all the properties of a poison, whether chemical, physical, or physiological.
No perfect systematic arrangement is at present attainable: we are either compelled to omit all classification, or else to arrange poisons with a view to practical utility merely. From the latter point of view, an arrangement simply according to the most prominent symptoms is a good one, and, without doubt, an assistance to the medical man summoned in haste to a case of real or suspected poisoning.
Indeed, under such circumstances, a scheme somewhat similar to the following, probably occurs to every one versed in toxicology: —. There are but few poisons which destroy life in a few minutes. Omitting the strong mineral acids, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, with the irrespirable gases,— Prussic acid , the cyanides , oxalic acid , and occasionally strychnine , are the chief poisons coming under this head. Arsenic , antimony , phosphorus , cantharides , savin , ergot , digitalis , colchicum , zinc , mercury , lead , copper , silver , iron , baryta , chrome , yew , laburnum , and putrid animal substances.
To this class more especially belong oxalic acid and the oxalates , with several poisons belonging to the purely narcotic class, but which produce occasionally irritant effects. Narcotics chief symptom insensibility, which may be preceded by more or less cerebral excitement : Opium , Chloral , Chloroform.
Complex Nervous Phenomena : Aconite , digitalis , hemlock , calabar bean , tobacco , lobelia inflata , and curara. Locally irritating organic substances which neither can be classified as corrosive acids nor alkalies, nor as corrosive salts; such are:— cantharidine , phrynine , and others in the animal kingdom, croton oil and savin in the vegetable kingdom.
Locally irritating colours, such as the aniline dyes. Gases and vapours which cause local irritation when breathed, such as ammonia , chlorine , iodine , bromine , and sulphur dioxide. Those which have but little effect locally, but change anatomically other parts of the body; such as lead , phosphorus , and others. Blood poisons interfering with the circulation in a purely physical manner, such as peroxide of hydrogen , ricine , abrine. Poisons which have the property of dissolving the red blood corpuscle, such as the saponins.
Poisons having a peculiar action on the colouring matter of the blood, or on  its decomposition products, such as hydric sulphide , hydric cyanide , and the cyanides and carbon monoxide. Poisons affecting the cerebro-spinal system; such as chloroform , ether , nitrous oxide , alcohol , chloral , cocaine , atropine , morphine , nicotine , coniine , aconitine , strychnine , curarine , and others.
The more important products of tissue change; such as, fatty acids , oxyacids , amido-fatty acids , amines , diamines , and ptomaines. I have preferred an arrangement which, as far as possible, follows the order in which a chemical expert would search for an unknown poison—hence an arrangement partly chemical and partly symptomatic. First the chief gases which figure in the mortality statistics are treated, and then follow in order other poisons. A chemist, given a liquid to examine, would naturally test first its reaction, and, if strongly alkaline or strongly acid, would at once direct his attention to the mineral acids or to the alkalies.
In other cases, he would proceed to separate volatile matters from those that were fixed, lest substances such as prussic acid, chloroform, alcohol, and phosphorus be dissipated or destroyed by his subsequent operations. Distillation over, the alkaloids, glucosides, and their allies would next be naturally sought, since they can be extracted by alcoholic and ethereal solvents in such a manner as in no way to interfere with an after -search for metals.
The metals are last in the list, because by suitable treatment, after all organic substances are destroyed, either by actual fire or powerful chemical agencies, even the volatile metals may be recovered. The metals are arranged very nearly in the same order as that in which they would be separated from a solution—viz. There are a few poisons, of course, such as the oxalates of the alkalies, which might be overlooked, unless sought for specially; but it is hoped that this is no valid objection to the arrangement suggested, which, in greater detail, is as follows: —.
In nearly all cases of death from any of the above, the analyst, from the symptoms observed during life, from the surrounding circumstances, and from the pathological appearances and evident chemical reactions of the fluids submitted, is put at once on the right track, and has no difficulty in obtaining decided results. The volatile alkaloids, which may also be readily distilled by strongly alkalising the fluid, because they admit of a rather different mode of treatment, are not included in this class. There would, perhaps, have been an advantage in arranging several of the individual members somewhat differently— e.
The glucosides, when fairly pure, are easily recognised; they are destitute of nitrogen, neutral in reaction, and split up into sugar and other compounds when submitted to the action of saponifying agents, such as boiling with dilute mineral acids. It is probable that this class will in a few years be extended, for several other organic anitrogenous poisons exist, which, when better known, will most likely prove to be anhydrides. The above division groups together various miscellaneous toxic principles, none of which can at present be satisfactorily classified.
The number of deaths from poison whether accidental, suicidal, or homicidal , as compared with other forms of violent, as well as natural deaths, possesses no small interest; and this is more especially true when the statistics are studied in a comparative manner, and town be compared with town, country with country. The greater the development of commercial industries especially those necessitating the use or manufacture of powerful chemical agencies , the more likely are accidents from poisons to occur.
It may also be stated, further, that the higher the mental development of a nation, the more likely are its homicides to be caused by subtle poison—its suicides by the euthanasia of chloral, morphine, or hemlock. Other influences causing local diversity in the kind and frequency of poisoning, are those of race, of religion, of age and sex, and the mental stress concomitant with sudden political and social changes. In the ten years from , there appear to have died from poison, in England and Wales, persons, as shown in the following tables: —.
Although so large a number of substances destroy life by accident or design, yet there are in the list only about 21 which kill about 2 persons or above each year: the 21 substances arranged in the order of their fatality are as follows: —. In each decade there are changes in the position on the list. The most significant difference between the statistics now given and the statistics for the ten years ending , published in the last edition of this work, is that in the former decade carbolic acid occupied a comparatively insignificant place; whereas in the ten years ending , deaths from carbolic acid poisoning are the most frequent form of fatal poisoning save lead and opiates.
The following table gives some German statistics of poisoning: —.
Poisons, Their Effects and Detection by Alexander Wynter Blyth
Suicidal Poisoning. In the ten years ending , suicidal deaths from vermin-killers, from prussic acid, from cyanide of potassium, and from opiates were all more numerous than deaths from phenol, whereas at present phenol appears to be the poison most likely to be chosen by a suicidal person.
Some useful statistics of criminal poisoning have been given by Tardieu  for the 21 years , which may be summarised as follows: —. It hence may be concluded, according to these statistics of criminal poisoning, that of attempts in France, either to injure or to destroy human life by poison, the following is the most probable selective order: —. This list accounts for poisonings, and the remaining 45 will be distributed among the less used drugs and chemicals. Considerable advance has been made of late years in the study of the connection which exists between the chemical structure of the molecule of organic substances and physiological effect.
The results obtained, though important, are as yet too fragmentary to justify any great generalisation; the problem is a complicated one, and as Lauder Brunton justly observes: —. The occurrence of hydroxyl, whether the substance belong to the simpler chain carbon series or to the aromatic carbon compounds, appears to usually endow the substance with more or less active and frequently poisonous properties, as, for example, in the alcohols, and as in hydroxylamine. It is also found that among the aromatic bodies the toxic action is likely to increase with the number of hydroxyls: thus phenol has one hydroxyl, resorcin two, and phloroglucin three; and the toxic power is strictly in the same order, for, of the three, phenol is least and phloroglucin most poisonous.
Replacing hydrogen by a halogen, especially by chlorine, in the fatty acids mostly produces substances of narcotic properties, as, for instance, monochloracetic acid. In the sulphur compounds, the entrance of chlorine modifies the physiological action and intensifies toxicity: thus ethyl sulphide C 2 H 5 2 S is a weak poison, monochlorethyl sulphide C 2 H 5 C 2 H 4 ClS a strong poison, and dichlorethyl sulphide C 4 H 8 Cl 2 S a very strong poison: the vapour kills rabbits within a short time, and a trace of the oil applied to the ear produces intense inflammation of both the eyes and the ear.
Meyer, Ber. The weight of the molecule has an influence in the alcohols and acids of the fatty series; for instance, ethyl, propyl, butyl, and amyl alcohols show as they increase in carbon a regular increase in toxic power; the narcotic actions of sodium propionate, butyrate, and valerianate also increase with the rising carbon. Nitrogen in the triad condition in the amines is far less poisonous than in the pentad condition. The result of replacing hydrogen by alkyls in aromatic bodies has been studied by Schmiedeberg and others; replacing the hydrogen of the amidogen by ethyl or methyl, usually results in a body having a more or less pronounced narcotic action.
The rule is that methyl is stronger than ethyl, but it does not always hold good; ortho-amido-phenol is not in itself poisonous, but when two hydrogens of the amidogen group are replaced by two methyls thus —. It would naturally be inferred that the replacement of the H in the hydroxyl by a third methyl would increase this narcotic action, but this is not so: on the other hand, if there are three ethyl groups in the same situation a decidedly narcotic body is produced. The influence of position of an alkyl in the aromatic bodies is well shown in ortho-, para- and meta-derivatives.
Thus the author proved some years ago that with regard to disinfecting properties, ortho-cresol  was more powerful than meta-; meta-cresol more powerful than para-; so again ortho-aceto-toluid is poisonous, causing acute nephritis; meta-aceto-toluid has but feeble toxic actions but is useful as an antipyretic; and para-aceto-toluid is inactive. In the trioxybenzenes, in which there are three hydroxyls, the toxic action is greater when the hydroxyls are consecutive, as in pyrogallol, than when they are symmetrical, as in phloroglucin.
The introduction of methyl into the complicated molecule of an alkaloid often gives curious results: thus methyl strychnine and methyl brucine instead of producing tetanus have an action on voluntary muscle like curare. Crum Brown and Fraser  have suggested that there is some relation between toxicity and the saturated or non-saturated condition of the molecule. Hinsberg and Treupel have studied the physiological effect of substituting various alkyls for the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group in para-acetamido-phenol.
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Para-aceto-amido-phenol when given to dogs in doses of 0. The smallest amount of toxicity is in the ethyl substitution; while the maximum antipyretic and antineuralgic action belongs to the methyl substitution.
Next substitution was tried in the Imid group. It was found that substituting ethyl for H in the imid group annihilated the narcotic and antipyretic properties. Lastly, simultaneous substitution of the H of the HO group by ethyl and the substitution of an alkyl for the H in the NH group gave the following results: —.
In men the narcotic action was also more marked as well as the anti-neural action. The stomach and kidneys were also stimulated. In men the antipyretic and anti-neural actions were unaffected. From this latter series the conclusion is drawn that the maximum of narcotic action is obtained by the introduction of methyl and the maximum antipyretic action by the introduction of methyl or ethyl.
The ethyl substitution is, as before, the less toxic. Hinsberg u. Treupel, Archiv f. The effect of the entrance of an alkyl into the molecule of a substance is not constant; sometimes the action of the poison is weakened, sometimes strengthened. On the other hand, the replacement by methyl of an atom of hydrogen in the aromatic oxyacids weakens their action; methyl salicylic acid is weaker than salicylic acid.
In some cases the increase of CO groups weakens the action of a poison; thus, in allantoin there are three carbonyl CO groups; this substance does not produce excitation of the spinal cord, but it heightens muscular irritability and causes, like xanthin, muscular rigidity; alloxantin, with a similar structure but containing six carbonyl groups, does not possess this action. The first mentioned groups are more labile and react in far greater dilution than the latter groups.
Loew considers that all substances which enter into combination with aldehyde or ketone groups must be poisonous to life generally. For instance, hydroxylamine, diamide and its derivatives, phenylhydrazine, free ammonia, phenol, prussic acid, hydric sulphide, sulphur dioxide and the acid sulphites all enter into combination with aldehyde.
Weyl Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie states p. Chemie , has shown that mgrms. Observation has shown that both of these requirements are satisfied; phenylenediamine is more poisonous than aniline; toluylenediamine more poisonous than toluidine. Again, if an atom of hydrogen in the amido NH 2 group in aniline be replaced by an alkyl, e. If an acidyl, as for example the radical of acetic acid, enter into the amido group, then the toxic action is notably weakened; thus, acetanilide is weaker than aniline, and acetylphenylhydrazine is weaker than phenylhydrazine.
If the hydrogen of the imido group be replaced by an alkyl or an acid radical, and therefore tertiary bound nitrogen restored, the poisonous action is also weakened.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
In xanthin there are three imido groups; the hydrogen of two of these groups is replaced by methyl in theobromin; and in caffein the three hydrogens of the three imido groups are replaced by three methyls, thus: —. Loew  makes the following generalisations: —. Entrance of hydroxyl groups in the catalytic poisons of the fatty series weakens toxic character; on the other hand, it exalts the toxicity of the substituting poisons. A substance increases in poisonous character through every influence which increases its power of reaction with aldehyde or amido groups.
Presence of a negative group may modify the action. Entrance of a nitro group strengthens the poisonous character. If a carboxyl or a sulpho group is present in the molecule, or if, in passing through the animal body, negative groups combine with the poison molecule, or carboxyl groups are formed in the said molecule; in such cases the poisonous character of the nitro group may not be apparent. Substances with double carbon linkings are more poisonous than the corresponding saturated substances. Thus neurine with the double linking of the carbon of CH 2 is more poisonous than choline; vinylamine than ethylamine.
Michet  has investigated the comparative toxicity of the metals by experiments on fish, using species of Serranus , Crenolabrus , and Julius.
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A philosophical investigation of poisons demands a complete methodical examination into their action on every life form, from the lowest to the highest. Our knowledge is more definite with regard to the action of poisons on man, dogs, cats, rabbits, and frogs than on any other species. It may be convenient here to make a few general remarks as to the action of poisons on infusoria, the cephalopoda, and insects.
Strong doses of the alkaloids cause a contraction of the cell contents, and somewhat rapid disintegration of the whole body; moderate doses at first quicken the movements, then the body gets perceptibly larger, and finally, as in the first case, there is disintegration of the animal substance.
Rossbach  gives the following intimations of the proportion of the toxic principle necessary to cause death:—Strychnine 1 part dissolved in of water; veratrine 1 in ; quinine 1 in ; atropine 1 in ; the mineral acids 1 in ; salts 1 in Rossbach, Pharm. The extraordinary sensitiveness of the infusoria, and the small amount of material used in such experiments, would be practically useful if there were any decided difference in the symptoms produced by different poisons. But no one could be at all certain of even the class to which  the poison belongs were he to watch, without a previous knowledge of what had been added to the water, the motions of poisoned infusoria.
Hence the fact is more curious than useful. If given in even fifteen times a greater dose than necessary to kill a rabbit, it was not always fatal. Strychnine, dissolved in sea-water, in the proportion of 1 to 30,, causes most marked symptoms. The first sign is relaxation of the chromataphore muscle and the closing of the chromataphores; the animal pales, the respiratory movements become more powerful, and at the end of a notable augmentation in their number, they fall rapidly from the normal number of 25 to 5 a minute.
Then tetanus commences after a time, varying with the dose of the poison; the arm stiffens and extends in fan-like form, the entire body is convulsed, the respiration is in jerks, the animal empties his pouch, and at the end of a few minutes is dead, in a state of great muscular rigidity.
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If at this moment it is opened, the venous heart is found still beating. Nicotine and other poisons were experimented with, and the cephalopoda were found to be generally sensitive to the active alkaloids, and to exhibit more or less marked symptoms. If so, the cheapness and ubiquity of the tiny life during a considerable portion of the year would recommend it for the purpose. Provided two blow-flies are caught and placed beneath glass shades—the one poisoned, the other not—it is surprising what a variety of symptoms can, with a little practice, be distinguished.
Nevertheless, the absence of pupils, and the want of respiratory and cardiac movements, are, in an experimental point of view, defects for which no amount or variety of merely muscular symptoms can compensate. From the nature of the case, we can only distinguish in the poisoned fly dulness or vivacity of movement, loss of power in walking on smooth surfaces, irritation of the integument, disorderly movements of the limbs, protrusion of the fleshy proboscis, and paralysis, whether of legs or wings.
My experiments were chiefly made by smearing the extracts or neutral solutions of poisons on the head of the fly. For the symptoms witnessed after the  application of saponin , digitalin , and aconitine , the reader is referred to the articles on those substances.
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In poisoning by sausages, bad meat, curarine, and in obscure cases generally, in the present state of science, experiments on living animals are absolutely necessary. In this, and in this way only, in very many instances, can the expert prove the presence of zymotic, or show the absence of chemical poison. The Vivisection Act, however, effectually precludes the use of life-tests in England save in licensed institutions. Effect of poisons on the heart of Cold-blooded Animals.
The heart of the frog, of the turtle, of the tortoise, and of the shark will beat regularly for a long time after removal from the body, if supplied with a regular stream of nutrient fluid. The fluids used for this purpose are the blood of the herbivora diluted with common salt solution, or a serum albumin solution, or a 2 per cent. It is also clear that by raising or depressing the bulbs, the circulating fluid can be delivered at any pressure, high or low.
Should a bubble of air get into the tubes, it can be got rid of by removing the cork at S and bringing the fluid up to the level of the top of the aperture. The observation is made by first ascertaining the number and character of the beats when the normal fluid is circulating, and then afterwards when the normal is replaced by the poisoned fluid. Arrest in diastole. The diastole of irritation is produced by a stimulus of the inhibitory ganglia, and only occurs after poisoning by the muscarine group of poisons. This condition may be recognised by the fact that contraction may be excited by mechanical and electrical stimuli or by the application of atropine solution; the latter paralyses the inhibitory nervous centres, and therefore sets the mechanism going again.
The diastole of paralysis is the most frequent form of death. It may readily be distinguished from the muscarine diastole; for, in muscarine diastole, the heart is full of blood and larger than normal; but in the paralytic form the heart is not fully extended, besides which, although, if normal blood replace that which is poisoned, the beats may be restored for a short time, the response is incomplete, and the end is the same; besides which, atropine does not restore the beats.
The diastole of paralysis may depend on paralysis of the so-called excito-motor ganglia as with iodal , or from paralysis of the muscular structure as with copper. The effect of poisons on the iris. The most suitable animal is the cat; the pupil of the cat readily showing either state. Toxic myosis, or toxic contraction of the pupil. In this form, should the poison be applied to the eye itself, no marked contraction follows; the poison must be swallowed or injected subcutaneously to produce an effect.
The contraction remains until death. In the second case the poison, whether applied direct to the eye or entering the circulation by subcutaneous injection, contracts the pupil; the contraction persists if the eye is extirpated, but in all cases the contraction may be changed into dilatation by the use of atropine. An example of this kind of myosis is the action of muscarine. It is dependent on the stimulation of the ends of the nerves which contract the pupil, especially the ends of the nervus oculomotorius supplying the sphincter iridis; this form of myosis is called myosis spastica periphera.
A variety of this form is the myosis spastica muscularis , depending on stimulation of the musc. This causes strong contraction of the pupil when locally applied; the contraction is not influenced by small local applications of atropine, but it may be changed to dilatation by high doses.
Subcutaneous injection of small doses  of physostigmine does not alter the pupil, but large poisonous doses contracts the pupil in a marked manner. Toxic mydriasis, or toxic dilatation of the pupil. Toxic doses taken by the mouth or given by subcutaneous injection give rise to strong dilatation; this vanishes before death, giving place to moderate contraction. This form is due to stimulation of the dilatation centre, later passing into paralysis.
An example is found in the action of aconite. After subcutaneous or local application, a dilatation neutralised by physostigmine in moderate doses. After subcutaneous injection, or if applied locally in very small doses, dilatation occurs persisting to death. Large doses of physostigmine neutralise the dilatation, but it is not influenced by muscarine or pilocarpine: this form is characteristic of atropine, and it has been called mydriasis paralytica periphera.
Arrest in systole. Contraction of this kind is specially to be seen in poisoning by digitalis. In poisoning by digitalis the ventricle is arrested before the auricle; in muscarine poisoning the auricle stops before the ventricle. According to Dogiel, poisons acting like muscarine affect every portion of the heart, and atropine restores the contractile power of every portion. Mineral substances, or liquids containing only inorganic matters, can cause no possible difficulty to any one who is practised in analytical investigation; but the substances which exercise the skill of the expert are organic fluids or solids.
The first thing to be done is to note accurately the manner in which the samples have been packed, whether the seals have been tampered with, whether the vessels or wrappers themselves are likely to have contaminated the articles sent; and then to make a very careful observation of the appearance, smell, colour, and reaction of the matters, not forgetting to take the weight, if solid—the volume, if liquid. All these are obvious precautions, requiring no particular directions. If the object of research is the stomach and its contents, the contents should be carefully transferred to a tall conical glass; the organ cut open, spread out on a sheet of glass, and examined minutely by a lens, picking  out any suspicious-looking substance for closer observation.
The mucous membrane should now be well cleansed by the aid of a wash-bottle, and if there is any necessity for destroying the stomach, it may be essential in important cases to have it photographed. The washings having been added to the contents of the stomach, the sediment is separated and submitted to inspection, for it must be remembered that, irrespective of the discovery of poison, a knowledge of the nature of the food last eaten by the deceased may be of extreme value. If the death has really taken place from disease, and not from poison, or if it has been caused by poison, and yet no definite hint of the particular poison can be obtained either by the symptoms or by the attendant circumstances, the analyst has the difficult task of endeavouring to initiate a process of analysis which will be likely to discover any poison in the animal, vegetable, or mineral kingdom.
For this purpose I have devised the following process, which differs from those that have hitherto been published mainly in the prominence given to operations in a high vacuum, and the utilisation of biological experiment as a matter of routine. Taking one of the most difficult cases that can occur—viz. The greater portion is at once examined for volatile matters, and having been placed in a strong flask, and, if neutral or alkaline, feebly acidulated with tartaric acid, connected with a second or receiving flask by glass tubing and caoutchouc corks.
With a good water-pump having a sufficient length of fall-tube, a vacuum may be also obtained that for practical purposes is as efficient as one caused by  mercury; if the fall-tube delivers outside the laboratory over a drain, no offensive odour is experienced when dealing with putrid, stinking liquids. It will be well to free in this way the substance, as much as possible, from volatile matters and water. When no more will come over, the distillate may be carefully examined by redistillation and the various appropriate tests.
The next step is to dry the sample thoroughly. This is best effected also in a vacuum by the use of the same apparatus, only this time the receiving-flask is to be half filled with strong sulphuric acid. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works. Passar bra ihop. Lectures on Sanitary Law. Alexander Wynter Blyth.
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