This ended up being my least favorite entry in the collection. Into this strange, dark world, a baby boy is born whose rider looks pure and innocent, like a cherub: he is a boy without sins, perfectly innocent and good. How will he survive? This story, a chilling creator myth in which the Supreme Being is a bored little kid with unlimited powers, is the only entry in the collection that I consider a bit of a missed opportunity. As it is, it makes for a surprisingly Gaiman-like ending to the collection. Regardless of length, these are tightly constructed stories that rarely if ever waste a word.
Highly recommended, especially if you like a dark, not to say disturbing edge to your fiction. This review was originally published at Tor. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account.
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You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Error: Please make sure the Twitter account is public. Far Beyond Reality. Skip to content. Home About. The philosophical implications of a physical TOE are frequently debated. For example, if philosophical physicalism is true, a physical TOE will coincide with a philosophical theory of everything. The "system building" style of metaphysics attempts to answer all the important questions in a coherent way, providing a complete picture of the world.
Plato and Aristotle could be said to be early examples of comprehensive systems.
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In the early modern period 17th and 18th centuries , the system-building scope of philosophy is often linked to the rationalist method of philosophy, that is the technique of deducing the nature of the world by pure a priori reason. Hegel 's Absolute idealism and Whitehead 's Process philosophy were later systems.
Other philosophers do not believe its techniques can aim so high. Some scientists think a more mathematical approach than philosophy is needed for a TOE, for instance Stephen Hawking wrote in A Brief History of Time that even if we had a TOE, it would necessarily be a set of equations. He wrote, "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe? On a much broader and more subjective level, [ specify ] private experiences, curiosity, inquiry, and the selectivity involved in personal interpretation of events shapes reality as seen by one and only one individual  and hence is called phenomenological.
While this form of reality might be common to others as well, it could at times also be so unique to oneself as to never be experienced or agreed upon by anyone else. Much of the kind of experience deemed spiritual occurs on this level of reality.
Subsequently, phenomenological themes were taken up by philosophers in France, the United States, and elsewhere, often in contexts far removed from Husserl's work. In Husserl's conception, phenomenology is primarily concerned with making the structures of consciousness , and the phenomena which appear in acts of consciousness, objects of systematic reflection and analysis.
Such reflection was to take place from a highly modified " first person " viewpoint, studying phenomena not as they appear to "my" consciousness, but to any consciousness whatsoever. Husserl believed that phenomenology could thus provide a firm basis for all human knowledge , including scientific knowledge, and could establish philosophy as a "rigorous science". Husserl's conception of phenomenology has been criticised and developed not only by himself, but also by his student and assistant Martin Heidegger , by existentialists , such as Maurice Merleau-Ponty , Jean-Paul Sartre , and by other philosophers, such as Paul Ricoeur , Emmanuel Levinas , and Dietrich von Hildebrand.
Skeptical hypotheses in philosophy suggest that reality is very different from what we think it is; or at least that we cannot prove it is not. Examples include:. Jain philosophy postulates that seven tattva truths or fundamental principles constitute reality. Scientific realism is, at the most general level, the view that the world described by science perhaps ideal science is the real world, as it is, independent of what we might take it to be. Within philosophy of science , it is often framed as an answer to the question "how is the success of science to be explained? Generally, those who are scientific realists state that one can make reliable claims about these entities viz.
The most used and studied scientific theories today state more or less the truth. Realism in the sense used by physicists does not equate to realism in metaphysics. Furthermore, a mind-independent property does not have to be the value of some physical variable such as position or momentum.
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A property can be dispositional or potential , i. Likewise, the mind-independent properties of quantum systems could consist of a tendency to respond to particular measurements with particular values with ascertainable probability. A closely related term is counterfactual definiteness CFD , used to refer to the claim that one can meaningfully speak of the definiteness of results of measurements that have not been performed i. Local realism is a significant feature of classical mechanics, of general relativity , and of electrodynamics ; but quantum mechanics has shown that quantum entanglement is possible.
This was rejected by Einstein, who proposed the EPR paradox , but it was subsequently quantified by Bell's inequalities. The quantum mind—body problem refers to the philosophical discussions of the mind—body problem in the context of quantum mechanics. Since quantum mechanics involves quantum superpositions , which are not perceived by observers , some interpretations of quantum mechanics place conscious observers in a special position. The founders of quantum mechanics debated the role of the observer, and of them, Wolfgang Pauli and Werner Heisenberg believed that it was the observer that produced collapse.
This point of view, which was never fully endorsed by Niels Bohr , was denounced as mystical and anti-scientific by Albert Einstein. Pauli accepted the term, and described quantum mechanics as lucid mysticism. Heisenberg and Bohr always described quantum mechanics in logical positivist terms. Bohr also took an active interest in the philosophical implications of quantum theories such as his complementarity , for example. Bohr never specified a demarcation line above which objects cease to be quantum and become classical.
He believed that it was not a question of physics, but one of philosophy. Commonly known as " consciousness causes collapse ", this interpretation of quantum mechanics states that observation by a conscious observer is what makes the wave function collapse. The multiverse is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes including the historical universe we consistently experience that together comprise everything that exists : the entirety of space , time , matter , and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them.
The term was coined in by the American philosopher and psychologist William James. The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationship between the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiverses have been hypothesized in cosmology , physics , astronomy , religion , philosophy , transpersonal psychology and fiction , particularly in science fiction and fantasy.
In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", "alternative timelines", and "dimensional planes", among others. A theory of everything TOE is a putative theory of theoretical physics that fully explains and links together all known physical phenomena, and predicts the outcome of any experiment that could be carried out in principle.
The theory of everything is also called the final theory.
- George Berkeley.
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The primary problem in producing a TOE is that general relativity and quantum mechanics are hard to unify. This is one of the unsolved problems in physics. Initially, the term "theory of everything" was used with an ironic connotation to refer to various overgeneralized theories.
Physicist John Ellis  claims to have introduced the term into the technical literature in an article in Nature in Current candidates for a theory of everything include string theory , M theory , and loop quantum gravity. Virtual reality VR is a computer-simulated environment that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds.
The Virtuality Continuum is a continuous scale ranging between the completely virtual, a Virtuality , and the completely real: Reality. The reality-virtuality continuum therefore encompasses all possible variations and compositions of real and virtual objects. It has been described as a concept in new media and computer science , but in fact it could be considered a matter of anthropology. The concept was first introduced by Paul Milgram.
The area between the two extremes, where both the real and the virtual are mixed, is the so-called Mixed reality.
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- George Berkeley (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).
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This in turn is said to consist of both Augmented Reality , where the virtual augments the real, and Augmented virtuality , where the real augments the virtual. Cyberspace , the world's computer systems considered as an interconnected whole, can be thought of as a virtual reality; for instance, it is portrayed as such in the cyberpunk fiction of William Gibson and others. Second life and MMORPGs such as World of Warcraft are examples of artificial environments or virtual worlds falling some way short of full virtual reality in cyberspace.
On the Internet, " real life " refers to life in the real world. It generally references life or consensus reality , in contrast to an environment seen as fiction or fantasy , such as virtual reality , lifelike experience , dreams , novels , or movies. Online, the acronym "IRL" stands for "in real life", with the meaning "not on the Internet". For example, one can speak of "meeting in RL" someone whom one has met in a chat or on an Internet forum. It may also be used to express an inability to use the Internet for a time due to "RL problems".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent. For other uses, see Reality disambiguation. Not to be confused with Realty. See also: Truth and Fact. Further information: World view. Main article: Problem of universals. Main article: Philosophy of space and time.
Main article: Theory of everything philosophy. Main article: Tattva Jainism. See also: Quantum decoherence.
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Oxford Dictionaries English. Retrieved International Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Foundations of Physics. Bibcode : FoPh Edmund Husserl's phenomenology 2 ed. Purdue University Press. Husserl, Heidegger, and the space of meaning: paths toward transcendental phenomenology. Northwestern University Press. Jain , p.
European Journal of Physics. Bibcode : EJPh Ethics 6 10 Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a multiverse, as one might call it, and not a universe. Bibcode : Natur. Takemura; A. Utsumi; F. Kishino Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies. Archived from the original PDF on In Leah, Sonia, Lievrouw, and Livingstone eds.
Sage Publications Inc. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link. Reality at Wikipedia's sister projects. Schools of thought. Mazdakism Zoroastrianism Zurvanism. Christian Scholasticism Thomism Renaissance humanism. Kyoto School Objectivism Postcritique Russian cosmism more Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. Consequentialism Deontology Virtue. Atomism Dualism Monism Naturalism.
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