Why in French? Or is it a later version? Did he really draw the artworks in the book? My grandparents went to Vince Italy and saw many cool things that are based off of the many things Marco Polo brought bake to Italy. Your email address will not be published.
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Their theoretical assumption is that. A new critical edition of Parzival will have to come to terms with the abundance of variant readings and the not inconsiderable problems of establishing a text against the methodological background of the polarity of New Philology and New Phylogeny. Perhaps the idea, when it was voiced in , had a Utopian ring.
Today, however, it can be put into practice, step by step, with the aid of computer technology, and at reasonable expense. A critical electronic edition will constitute a work-base that would be an indispensable prerequisite for any new edition of Parzival.
The lower left window accommodates the apparatus of variant readings, while the windows on the right contain the transcriptions and facsimiles of each single witness. All the windows are interconnected by hypertext-links, and permit users an interactive interchange between base-text, apparatus of variants, transcriptions and facsimiles. On the screen, every variant is fully contextualised. The template used in this project is based on a series of click-and-drag resizable windows, 41 which can be activated or deactivated by the user, so that he or she can freely choose the material to view and in which order, according to his or her own interests.
Thus, by clicking on a word in the main window at the top-left of the screen the user can activate other windows, such as, for example, one containing the image of a manuscript, or one providing its transcription see Fig. Its hypertext structure greatly enhances the possibility of deriving information from the data provided, while conforming to a standard for the representation of the apparatus in digital form, in particular the standard developed and maintained by the Text Encoding Initiative TEI consortium that favours—among other things—interoperability and hopefully improves survival over time.
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The apparatus is indeed different from the descriptive lectio variorum one can get by, say, applying any collation software to the transcription of the witnesses. The apparatus is critical—i. If the editor is, instead, more interested in highlighting the linguistic features displayed by a text, or the history of its transmission, he or she might want to include formal variants too, thus accepting for example the lectiones singulares in the apparatus. Generally speaking, even the representation of the palaeographic features of the witnesses in the apparatus module can be quite problematic.
Clearly the time was ripe for a revision that would lead not only to a more economic encoding practice, but also to a practice more respectful of the actual hierarchy of textual content. In an essay devoted to a critical rethinking of the idea of access to data, John Lavagnino argues that editors should represent their work as providing not simply data but rather critical points of view on the texts they are offering.
Each chapter and chapter section of R is accompanied by a philological commentary made accessible through pop-up windows which present the relevant interface to the user. The philological commentary—containing the identified sources and their variant readings against R, the analysis of their manipulation by Ramusio, as well as some informative notes—serves the purpose envisaged by Lavagnino, namely that of filtering the data provided by the editor through the provision of a narrative able to explain and make sense of them, as shown in Fig.
The idea of setting up a shared virtual environment, which would facilitate a dialogue between the editorial team and the critical reader, is indeed tempting. This, in principle, would enhance scholarly debate, promote new research and allow quicker updates of the edition. Should we plan on filtering the information, and how? What can we use to create an accurate model for evaluating socially enhanced editions? With the exception of some essays that focus on the first of these issues i. As shown by the discussion on the apparatus module, the answer seems to be yes, provided that the protocol encompasses the domains in which scholarly digital editions may offer important advantages over paper editions, without being too strict as to orient the editor to follow a specific ecdotic praxis.
The philologist should take full responsibility for his or her choices, which depend both on the theoretical framework to which he or she conforms, and on the peculiarities of the manuscript tradition he or she is dealing with. Nonetheless, the adoption of a shared protocol would have positive repercussions both on the products i. This study has also shown that the critical apparatus is the site where the dynamic nature of a text can be conveyed better by the editor s and grasped more easily by the readers:. Anyone who uses a critical edition should be able to grasp with ease the criteria followed and the decisions made at each level.
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A critical apparatus serves this purpose no less than a detailed introduction. A discussion of this thorny issue, however interesting it may be from the theoretical point of view, is beyond the scope of the present chapter. Bologna: il Mulino, , pp. Speed Hill, Edward M. A diasystem can thus be seen as a sort of compromise between two or more semiotic systems coming into contact with one another.
For a more detailed discussion of the critical nature of the apparatus see below. IV—IX , ed. This is undoubtedly true, but the degree of relationability between the data provided remains quite low. Lewin Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, In , for example, Giorgio Pasquali published a volume titled Storia della tradizione e critica del testo in which he supported the need to integrate the reconstruction of a stemma with the study of the history of tradition, and suggested that certain ambiguities and aporias in the transmission of Latin and vernacular texts could be explained by assuming ab origine the existence of either authorial or scribal changes Giorgio Pasquali, Storia della tradizione e critica del testo Florence: Le Monnier, When needed, further registers may be added.
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