Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British


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The Europeans were fascinated by Pacific Islanders’ comfort in the water

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Lieutenant Phillips also fired and the marines on shore and the sailors in the boats began firing. Cook turned, ordered the boats to cease firing and come in close, and then started toward the water. The Hawaiians carried away the bodies of Cook and the four marines; Cook's body was treated like that of a high chief. Some of the journals of the voyage blame Lieutenant Williamson for not making a vigorous effort to protect the party on shore; and a recent writer, a British naval officer, says flatly that "Cook's death must lie at his [Williamson's] door.

Captain Clerke, who succeeded to the command of the expedition, decided upon a conciliatory policy in the hope of restoring peace and recovering the bodies of the slain Englishmen; most of the Hawaiian priests and a few of the chiefs evidently favored such a policy; but it was a difficult one to carry out. The hot anger on both sides kindled by the tragic affray of February 14 was not easily cooled. During the next few days there was desultory fighting, in which the Hawaiians exhibited great courage and daring in the face of gunfire, a good many of them being killed; a number of houses, behind which the native warriors sheltered themselves, were burned down by the foreigners; a few of the latter indulged in reprisals for which even savages might blush.

Captain James Colnett, who visited the islands in the early part of , met on Kauai a man who claimed that he was the one who gave Cook the fatal dagger blow and had in his possession the shirt worn by Cook on that occasion. A photostat copy of the Hawaiian portion of Colnett's journal is in AH.

Rupert T. Finally, however, after about a week, peace was restored. Part of the bones of Captain Cook were given up by the Hawaiians, and a kapu placed on the bay while the funeral service was held on February On the next day friendly relations were reestablished. Late in the evening of February 22 the Resolution and Discovery weighed anchor and stood out of the bay. They sailed northwesterly past Maui, Lanai, and Molokai, and around the northern side of Oahu; anchored for a few hours off Waimea, Oahu, where Captain Clerke and some other officers made a brief visit on shore; and then crossed over to their former anchorage at Waimea, Kauai.

At this place and off Niihau they remained for two weeks, taking in water and food supplies. In these leeward islands a civil war was in progress, and the goats and probably also the pigs left there by Captain Cook the year before had been killed in the course of the struggle. On March 15, , the English ships took their final departure from the Sandwich Islands in order to continue their explorations in the north along the coasts of America and Asia. After the departure of the Resolution and the Discovery, no foreign ships are known to have visited the islands until It has been suggested by some writers that the death of Captain Cook implanted in the minds of Europeans and Americans a belief that the Sandwich Islanders were fierce and cruel savages and that this belief deterred ships from visiting the islands.

But it is doubtful that such was the case. The simple fact is that for several years there was no occasion for ships to visit Hawaii. It was the development of the fur trade along the north-west coast of America that brought ships of many nations into the north Pacific at the end of the eighteenth century; that trade was a direct consequence of Cook's last voyage, but it required several years for the trade to get under way; when it did get under way the Hawaiian islands very soon became a familiar resort for the fur traders.

Captain Cook killed in Hawaii

In four foreign ships visited the islands. Two of them, commanded by Captains Portlock and Dixon, were connected with an English commercial enterprise; the other two were French naval vessels under command of the celebrated explorer La Perouse. The English ships came twice in and returned again the following year for a short stay. From then on, not a year passed without one or more ships visiting the islands, and in a very short time Hawaii became well established as a port of call and wintering place, not alone for ships engaged in the fur trade but also for those engaged in the more general trade.

It was not long until foreigners of various nations began to see how desirable it would be to get possession of the Sandwich Islands, either for colonization or for the promotion of commerce. In a Spanish naval officer, Ensign E. Martinez, who had been on the Northwest Coast, wrote about the Sandwich Islands and called attention to their fruitfulness and their convenient location; he suggested to the viceroy of New Spain that it would be useful for the Spanish government to make a settlement on the islands for the purpose of conquering the Hawaiians and preventing other nations from using the islands to the disadvantage of Spain.

The viceroy was not convinced of the advisability of attempting such an occupation, but he sent one of his naval officers, Lieutenant Manuel Quimper, in the spring of , to make an exploration, instructing him to collect information about the commerce, situation, and natural products of the islands and to secure the good favor of the inhabitants by kind treatment and by gifts of various kinds. Quimper made the exploration as directed; but Spain was not then in position to undertake such a project as Martinez had proposed.

The ship captains who brought their ships into Hawaiian waters during these early decades were mainly interested in obtaining fresh supplies of meat and vegetables, water, salt, firewood, and rest from the hardships of a sea voyage; but they discovered another valuable com-. To even list the materials dealing with the subject would require many pages. A useful sketch for the early part of the period is the article by W. This is a short digest of the published voyages and Hawaiian sources of information.


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Later research has revealed some errors in this and other early accounts and has added greatly to our knowledge of the period prior to Especially noteworthy contributions have been made by Judge F. Early Relations with England-Russia-France. Quimper's diary of the voyage in which he visited the islands is in the Mexican archives; a copy is in possession of the University of Hawaii. Many years later, Quimper published a pamphlet giving a description of the islands and an account of his visit to them, under the title, Islas de Sandwich.

Madrid, Otto Degener of Honolulu has a copy of this pamphlet and has kindly made it available; translated extracts from it are quoted by Donald Billam-Walker in two articles published in Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Oct. London, , xcv. Ordinarily, the Hawaiians were glad to go, but in at least one case of which we have record, in , several natives were kidnaped for service on a voyage to the Northwest Coast. The British ship Imperial Eagle visited the islands in May, The captain, Charles W. Barkley, was accompanied by his wife and she engaged a young Hawaiian woman to go with her as lady's maid.

Captain Meares, at the islands in August, , stated that numbers "pressed forward, with inexpressible eagerness" to accompany him to "Britannee. The most distinguished of these early Hawaiian tourists was the high chief Kaiana, who went away with Meares in and returned the following year after having visited China and the Northwest Coast.

Until the year , war was the characteristic note in the islands, with various chieftains engaged in a fierce struggle for supremacy. The actual fighting was intermittent, but, until the question of supremacy was settled, the warring chiefs grasped every chance to strengthen their positions. The coming of the foreigners presented a golden opportunity, and foreign men, foreign weapons, and foreign ships were eagerly sought. When Captain Cook was at Kealakekua Bay in January, , King Kalaniopuu seriously asked him to leave Lieutenant King behind, and King, who was very popular with the natives, noted that they urged him to stay with them, promising to hide him in the hills until the ships were gone and to make him a great man.

They were. London, , Portlock, A Voyage Round the World. In view of the strife of contending chieftains it is not strange to find in the contemporary literature of the period repeated references to the efforts of the chiefs to obtain cannons, muskets, and ammunition; the nature of the trade that developed in the north Pacific makes it even less strange that the efforts of the chiefs were in many cases successful. Captain Douglas in the spring of supplied Kamehameha with a quantity of arms and ammunition, including a swivel gun mounted on the platform of a large double canoe. Worse still, the traders had sold the chiefs defective guns, some of which burst on the first discharge, causing bad accidents.

Vancouver himself resolutely refused to have anything to do with the business and condemned it in scathing terms. When Captain Douglas was at Kawaihae in December, , with the Iphigenia and the little sloop North West America, Kamehameha was greatly impressed with the story of the building of the latter vessel at Nootka Sound and "he intreated that a carpenter might be left at Owhyhee" to supervise the building of a similar one for him.

In , when Kamehameha was at Oahu preparing to invade Kauai, foreigners in his service built for him a small sailing vessel of about forty tons. Other journals of the voyage make similar references to the subject. Two of these acts concerned an American trader, Captain Simon Metcalfe, who had two vessels, the Eleanora commanded by himself and a tiny schooner called the Fair American commanded by his son Thomas. They had been on the Northwest Coast in ; the smaller vessel had been seized by the Spaniards and taken to San Blas, but had then been released and sailed to Hawaii, arriving there in the early part of The elder Metcalfe had already gone to the islands with the Eleanora and at the end of January was anchored off Honuaula, Maui, engaged in trading for supplies.

During the night a small boat tied to the stern of the Eleanora was taken away by some natives and a sailor in the boat was killed by them. Metcalfe's retaliation for this deed can hardly be surpassed for downright fiendishness.

Sumner La Croix, University of Hawai’i and East-West Center

He tried unsuccessfully to recover the boat and the sailor, fired some rounds of shot into the village, thereby killing several of the inhabitants, and then, learning that the natives who stole the boat had come from Olowalu, he sailed around to that place. Having found out definitely that the boat had been broken up and the sailor killed, Metcalfe planned his revenge. He first placed all his cannons on the starboard side of the ship and loaded them with musket balls and langrage shot.

He then encouraged the natives to come off in their canoes to trade, but he kapued the larboard side of the ship and thus contrived to get the canoes—scores of them—closely grouped to starboard. Outward appearances were friendly, when suddenly the ship's whole broadside was fired into the canoes. The slaughter was horrible; more than a hundred of the natives were killed and many others wounded. This affair is known in Hawaiian annals as the "Olowalu massacre. About five or six weeks later, the Fair American arrived from San Blas and while making its way down the west side of Hawaii was becalmed near a place in north Kona where the chief Kameeiamoku was residing.

This chief had once committed some petty offense on board the Eleanora for which he had been struck with a rope's end by Captain Simon Metcalfe. Smarting under this affront to his dignity, Kameeiamoku is said to have sworn that he would have revenge on the next.


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  7. James Colnett, who was at the islands in April, , in the Argonaut, obtained from the natives some furs and some bits of information that enabled him to piece together the main facts regarding the Olowalu massacre and the capture of the Fair American. Photostat copy of Colnett's journal in AH. There is another very brief independent account in J. Ingraham, Journal of the Voyage of the Brigantine Hope. Kamakau gives a detailed account in his Ka Moolelo o Kamehameha I, chap. There are some other brief accounts in journals and log books, most or all being based on information furnished by John Young.

    As fate would have it, the next ship was the tiny schooner Fair American, commanded by Metcalfe's son and having a crew of only five men. Kameeiamoku and his followers, after gaining admittance to the vessel by pretence of friendly trade, had little difficulty in throwing the captain and crew overboard, killing all of them except one, and seizing the vessel. The sole survivor, Isaac. Davis, was taken under the protection of Kamehameha, who by this time had become king of the northwestern half of the island of Hawaii and who is said to have rebuked Kameeiamoku for his barbarous deed.

    Kamehameha likewise took possession of the schooner and it became the first foreign style vessel in his war fleet. It may be pointed out that there was no relationship of cause and effect between the Olowalu massacre and the capture of the Fair American the two things having occurred at different islands controlled by rival chieftains.

    While the tragedy of the Fair American was taking place, the Eleanora was at anchor in Kealakekua Bay. On the same or the following day, the boatswain of the ship, an Englishman named John Young, went on shore for a visit. He was detained by the stringent order of Kamehameha, who feared that if Metcalfe learned what had happened he might take some signal revenge. The Eleanora waited several days for Young to return on board and then sailed away without him.

    It is believed that Metcalfe left the islands without learning of the disaster that had overtaken his son. Young he doubtless looked upon as a deserter. They made an unsuccessful attempt to escape, 42 but were treated so well by Kamehameha that they were soon reconciled to spending their remaining days in Hawaii. They were given wives, lands, and servants, and became in effect Hawaiian chiefs. Though of limited education, they were, fortunately, men of excellent character and exerted a wholesome influence upon Kamehameha, to whom they afterwards stood in the relationship of confidential advisers.

    A few years later, the island of Oahu witnessed two outbreaks of violence in the relations between Hawaiians and foreigners.

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    In May, , the British naval storeship Daedalus, belonging to Vancouver's squadron, anchored off the mouth of the Waimea stream for the purpose of taking in water. The commander, Lieutenant Hergest, foolishly went on shore unarmed and accompanied only by the astronomer Gooch and. Roxbury, Mass. It is said that Kamehameha intended to restore the schooner to its owner if he came to claim it. The Hawaiian accounts, in Ka Mooolelo Hawaii, loc. This idea doubtless arose from a confusion of identity. Evidence shows that in there was another John Young residing temporarily in Hawaii: it is believed that this man was an American.

    It is certain, however, that the John Young who became a prominent figure in Hawaii was an Englishman. On this subject, see articles in Haw'n Annual, and , and articles by G. Restarick, in the 22nd, 25th, and 32nd Reports of the Hawaiian Historical Society. Walking a little way up the river, the party was attacked by a crowd of natives and all killed except one of the seamen. Or it may be that it was simply an isolated outrage committed, as Kahekili, king of Maui and Oahu, stated to Vancouver, "by a lawless set of ill-minded men" in the presence of opportunity and in the absence of any chief who could control them; 45 but some of the authorities cited point to Kahekili himself as being, indirectly, the instigator of the outrage.

    On the first day of , two English trading vessels, the Jackall and the Prince Lee Boo, at anchor in Honolulu harbor, were seized by the natives and the two captains killed; an account of this affair and the attendant circumstances will be given in the following chapter. In July, , two marines belonging to the British sloop Providence were killed by natives on the island of Niihau, apparently for the purpose of getting possession of the firearms carried by them.

    As we now take leave of this phase of Hawaii's history, it may be well to say that, in spite of the unfortunate incidents which have been mentioned and of occasional reports of plots by the natives to capture other vessels, the relations between the Hawaiians and the foreigners who came to the islands were as a general thing friendly and agreeable. After peace prevailed and a normal trade slowly developed. Kamehameha, however, had not yet completed the consolidation of the kingdom; Kauai still remained out, and preparations for war went on until , by Kamehameha for the conquest of Kauai, and by Kaumualii for the defence of that island.

    During this time the traffic in arms was controlled by the two rival kings. From about , there grew up, very slowly at first, a foreign population in Hawaii. Many of these early settlers were common sailors, but a few were of higher status. Some left the ships with the permission of their officers; others simply deserted.

    Ulukau: A gazetteer of the territory of Hawaii

    As early as the time of Vancouver it was reliably reported that there were scattered through the group many runaway sailors variously described as "vagabonds" and. I, No. A story somewhat similar to Ingraham's perhaps a garbled version of the same incident was told by John Young many years later. Diary of Andrew Bloxam.

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    Bishop Museum Special Publication Honolulu, , p. Kamakau, loc. The English accounts, however, clearly indicate that the landing party was unarmed. John Young and Isaac Davis and the Spaniard Francisco de Paula Marin, whom the Hawaiians called Manini, were the best known but by no means the only representatives of the latter class. In the early part of , there were eleven foreigners with Kamehameha at Kealakekua; they were of several nationalities, including Chinese.

    Although the great majority had been left by American vessels, not above one third of them belonged to that nation; the rest were almost all English, and of these six or eight were convicts, who had made their escape from New South Wales. Many inducements are held out to sailors to remain here.

    If they conduct themselves with propriety, they rank as chiefs,.

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    The king has a considerable number in his service, chiefly carpenters, joiners, masons, blacksmiths, and bricklayers; these he rewards liberally with grants of land. Most of the whites have married native women, by whom they have families; but they pay little attention either to the education or to the religious instruction of their children.

    By the time of which Campbell writes, Honolulu was becoming a place of some importance commercially. It was situated in a rich and productive island and its protected harbor, the only accessible one in the entire group, caused foreign ships to go there in preference to other places. To the Hawaiians themselves, Honolulu and its snug harbor had been of very little importance compared with the nearby reef-protected romantic beach and town of Waikiki. But the foreigners' rendezvous at Honolulu caused the natives to congregate in that place.

    Campbell describes Honolulu as a village of several hundred houses, well shaded by large coconut trees. The rise of Honolulu at the expense of Waikiki is an illustration of the general disturbance of conditions in Hawaii caused by the coming of the foreigners. The foreign trade was an influence which caused a shift. This trade also had a tendency to increase the burdens of the common people, who now had to supply the needs not only of the local population but of the foreign ships as well.

    The presence of foreigners before long manifested itself in a biological modification of the population, the introduction of new blood and the appearance of a class of part-Hawaiians. The things brought to Hawaii by foreigners were a strange mixture of good and evil. Firearms and gunpowder, cloth and clothing, furniture and household utensils, iron tools and a thousand small manufactured articles were introduced by the early traders and explorers.

    By the same means were introduced plants of various kinds, fruit trees, and garden vegetables. Among the importations were some not intended and certainly not desired, such as fleas, mosquitoes, centipedes, and scorpions. The coming of the new plants and animals, while beneficial in many respects, caused some unforeseen and unfortunate results by upsetting nature's balance in the islands.

    Besides their other gifts to the Hawaiians, the foreigners initiated them into the use of alcoholic liquors and tobacco, taught them the art of distillation, engrafted upon the primitive social order some of their own vicious habits, and were the means of bringing in diseases which started the Hawaiian people on a toboggan slide down the slope of depopulation. In the realm of ideas, the new concepts and different ways of interpreting the phenomena of nature, new points of view in regard to the relationship between social classes and in regard to the position of women, and the new economic practices inevitably raised questions and generated a skeptical attitude which weakened the foundation of the old system and prepared the way for its collapse.

    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British
    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British
    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British
    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British
    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British
    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British
    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British
    Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British Hawaii Discoveries 1 Spanish vs British

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