Anthonis Mor, Philip II, c.
Sofonisba Anguissola, Philip II, 12b. Sofonisba Anguissola, Anne of Austria, c. Tintoretto evoked the royal entry into Mantua fig. From America to Europe The international spread of Spanish black found its best ally in a large-scale mercantile phenomenon — the introduction to Europe of dyes from the New World.
Cochineal Dactylopius coccus , The new dyestuffs solved two major challenges posed to master dye makers for some time: first, how to produce a fiery red, which was made possible by the cochineal beetle the Spaniards discovered in Mexico and very soon began to exploit, calling it by the name grana or cochinilla fig. Imports of these bugs exceeded those of all other colorants brought from the New World, as cochineal dye was highly appreciated for the intense luminosity and slightly orangey hue of its reds. Another means of achieving black was through the successive super- imposition of primary colours, but even then this painstaking process did not guarantee a deep black.
Both methods were often combined, but the fabrics ended up smelling so foul that they then needed to be boiled with soap and left to soak with aromatic herbs for twenty-four hours. Too many complications for a result that was unsatisfactory and further- more expensive, making black the colour of wealthy people and, accordingly, a mark of social distinction. Known as palo campeche, this red wood was found in Campeche bay in Mexico and its discovery and dissemination throughout Europe via the Iberian Peninsula can be described as revolutionary.
Obtained by boiling chips of this wood and allowing them to reach fermentation point, the new dye began to be applied to fabrics in a process which, although lasting five or six days, hugely simplified the previous distill- ing and ineffective methods and resulted in a deep, lustrous jet-black that was called ala de cuervo lit. It was adopted as a sort of uniform by the European princes raised at the Madrid court, such as Ferdinand I of Habsburg, of whom there is a suit in Prague Castle fig. Artist from Le Marche Italy , In his opinion, the moral authority and austere style of the great reformers had repercussions on the civilian dress of the period, which embodied the severe and combative spirit of its chiefs.
As the ground we are now treading is explored by other authors in this book, let us now return to the Iberian Peninsula to continue studying the survival of black at the Habsburg court during the seventeenth century. It is foreign more than national observers who give us a better idea of the idiosyncratic nature of the Spanish way of dressing in that period. It is not surprising to learn that black was predominant in this careful observation, either alone or combined with brighter colours.
Knowing that the king insisted on being represented in a lifelike manner — even if it meant showing his facial flaws59 — we may conclude from this iconography that he wore black from the start to the finish of his long reign —65; fig. He therefore carried on an iconographic tradition that was part of the legacy of his blood- line, which had made black a visual metaphor of Habsburg greatness. John Closterman, Alexander Stanhope, —99, oil on canvas, x cm, peace with Europe. As such, it often Kent, The Administrative Trustees received high-ranking diplomatic missions of the Chevening Estate and was the starting point for strategic marriage alliances with other crowns.
To put it in a way relevant to this study: before its hegemony in the international order declined permanently, illustrious inter- national visitors still regarded the prestige of its court etiquette and ceremonial as a component of Spanish power, once again in accordance with the rule that makes any political decision-making centre a source of prestige.
In this case the equation is illus- trated by a few examples of how foreigners perceived and practised the distinction of the Spanish court. The representatives of the European royal dynasties interpreted black dress for audiences with the king as an unwritten rule. The choreography of the meeting is known from a magnificent tapestry from the Gobelins manufactory fig. The rivalry between them was even evident in the preparations and staging of the events that sealed the new power relations in Europe. However, it would be a mistake to reduce the vision of Spain in French litera- ture of the day to a mere denigration of the enemy.
These ambivalent feelings explain — returning to the Isle of Pheasants — the mixture of crit- icism and praise the costume of the in- fanta and her ladies and the severe costume of the gentlemen of her entourage sparked in the French;80 according to more kindly observers, such clothing lent its wearers an ascetic air, but these courtiers displeased many with their Sympathy prevailed when judging the conduct and image of the King of Spain on the Isle of Pheasants: according to the witnesses to the meeting, Philip IV adopted the same grave and hieratic attitude that had made him famous in diplomatic relations,82 avoiding showing any emotion on being separated from his daughter Maria Teresa and on being reunited with his sister Anne, whom he had not seen for 45 years since she married the King of France in The French expressed their admiration for this stoic rigour that was in keeping with the idea of a distant and restrained majesty embraced by the Spanish monarchy since the reign of Charles V.
In the tapestry, however, the Spanish monarch is dressed in a lighter colour, and this apparently caught the attention of Louis XIV, who reproached the artist for erring against historical fact and sacrificing Spanish gravity to French civility. If true, the words uttered at the sight of the symbolic representation of his victory reveal his admiration for the dignity of the vanquished party, exteriorized in a manner of dress that was completely opposite to the style he would make fashionable throughout Europe at the time.
Once again, judging by the comments of foreign observers, the court of Charles II was an apotheosis of black. Even at the beginning of the eighteenth century, this first Bourbon king made a gesture of historical continuity to his subjects by being portrayed dressed in black by Rigaud see Descalzo fig. The Habsburg organization of the royal household continued during his reign, but once it had adapted to its new nationality, the colours and fashions of his court were marked by French tastes.
Translated by Jenny Dodman 1 J. V, pp. GAGE, Color y cultura. The liturgical dimen- leur, Paris, Miller in this book, even in numerous copies exist in other Spanish and Henry Peacham proposed Charles as a model European documentary holdings. It was the basis of frugality and moderation in The Compleat of the repertoire of A. I, Madrid, , pp. I, chap. Armando Rodriguez, Dr. Henry J. Armando Ayala. Richard Valencia. Old tongue returns. There were 7!! Green Flag of Texas. The Sneeze. I've included one of my own memories in this issue, under Cuentos. Hope you enjoy the issue.
Thank you all for your involvement in sharing your family histories, insight, suggestions, happenings, and concerns. Be sure and look at Celebrating Hispanic Heritage Month. Jose Manuel de la Rosa and the Paul L.
Fun tidbits of Information. Spain was there from the beginning. New things happening, I will just share just a few: At the request of a reader, I have started a new section, Books. Please feel invited to send information on books, new and your favorite. In preparation for Hispanic Heritage Month, new resources have been developed: Dan Arellano has prepared a very moving 4-minute video on Hispanics in the Army. Tony Santiago has shared two studies which can be downloaded, Hispanics in the Marines and Hispanics in the Navy.
For Indigenous researchers, John P. Please share with family and co-workers, and have a great 4th of July celebration. Kennedy, Jr. Wood, S. Gonzales, U. Hope you are all enjoying a fun summer, visiting family and relaxing. The August issue is filled with so much information, I know you will all be touched by one or more of the articles included. What Latinos want from their president The American G. Forum: through the Glory Years Hector P. Garcia Jr. Business Gen. The Col. Bondadoso es el sol Meditations in Preparation for the Summer Solstice. Dear Primos and Friends:.
It is so much fun to gain historical knowledge from those selections. Garcia, In this issue there is information about Sgt. Rafael Peralta. Garcia's birthday Honored by U. In this issue, under the section of Southwest, you'll find a series of family history stories published by our local newspaper, the Orange County Register. The stories are wonderful. May I suggest that you consider contacting your local newspaper with the concept for next year. May you be guided with wisdom in your decisions. We should have the needed changes in place by mid-November.
Senate and House elected Latinos, Mr. Quinoa: A Sacred, Super Crop.
Culture Mary J. A seeks to become a city of its own. African-American Boricuas vs. Cortina, November 23, Miscellaneous Guardian Angels The Year Please feel particularly invited to start out the new year by sending Somos Primos a family photo or message to Somos Primos readers. Our readership is international. The Kenneth A. Picerne Foundation. Archaeology Namibia: Race against time to save ancient Portuguese shipwreck. Miscellaneous Es Muy Bueno. The effort continues. This issue is really full. There are a few suggestions for contacting your local PBS stations, that might be fun and a valuable contribution to our heritage.
Christine Ortiz, Ph. B Bombardier Sgt. Cuentos My blog: memoriasymemories. Indigenous Unveiling of the U. God Bless America. Estolano Remembering Dr. Thank you all for sharing thoughts, facts, and happenings. I am amazed at what is developing across the nation, supportive of our Hispanic roots and history. Please feel personally invited to submit articles, written or found. It is the blending and combination of all of our lives stories which will untangle the truth of who we are as Hispanic Americans.
Comments by Eva Maria Guerrero and Dr. La Nueva Raza Issue 10 — Spring has just been released! What's in a name? Book Texas Clotilde P. Area Lingo a way of life for some, Confusing to others. East of Mississippi Louisiana Division. Find music of the s- s by song title or artist. Click here: Somos Primos. Many wonderful happenings promoting our heritage. Warmest regards, Mimi. Fleming and Border by C. Francisco G.
Dream Act: The Time is Now!
- Hispania. Volume 77, Number 3, September | Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.
- Lucena Burning (Lucenas Fire Book 2).
- Michelangelo (Best Of Collection)!
I Hope you all celebrate your heritage with joy and understanding. He is featured in this our May issue. Journey of the Plumed Serpent. Please note that we have a new topic area, Witness to Heritage. It is an amazing, multi-faceted center, meeting the varied needs of all ages. Next month, Gloria O. Thank you for sharing your stories and concerns.
- Shell Afghan Vintage Crochet Pattern.
- La Guerre de la Faille - LIntégrale (French Edition)?
- King Lear: Study Guide.
- Summing up!
Number of illegal immigrants' children soars Arrests of illegal immigrants trying to cross U. Recommended website: www. Tomo I. Today's OC headline read: "1 in 5 kids in U. We owe it to the leaders and laborers of tomorrow to understand the historical connections that have existed between the United States and all Spanish heritage US citizens. May we all be part of the solution for a unified, strong nation. You are wonderful. I am really grateful to all of you. Table of Contents, June Griswold del Castillo and Richard A.
David M. Just be sure to include the location, and the names of the people in the photo. Please remember, it was our Spanish heritage forefathers that helped win the American Revolution. Many historians are now concluding, without the Spanish forces, the revolution would have failed. This is a good time to start thinking of what you can do, as an individual, to promote Hispanic Heritage Month. Some simple suggestions are included in the issue. July Table of Contents United States. Chicago High School named after Dr. Garcia A Message from Dr. National Issues Immigration files offer hidden history of America.
Lawmakers want Medal of Honor for Mexican native Experts untie the immigrations and unemployment knot. Synopsis of Mendez v. Westminster, et al. Those assigned books for review will receive a stylesheet and a statement of editorial policy. The author carefully guides us through a labyrinth of quotes and an inexhaustible supply of well-documented references before leading us to the highly original studies, the essence of her work, which become progressively more convincing as one goes from analysis to analysis.
For that reason, nearly all the quotes are given, first, in English translation, followed by the original Spanish text, when required. This leads to, at times, rather tedious readings, as one tends to verify the translation before proceeding to the next point. Who is the hero?
consulta a los angeles celestiales spanish edition Manual
If by hero we mean the man who examines his conscience but still makes the wrong choice If any character indisputably changes for the better in this play, it is don Fadrique, the Comendador, who, comprehending his trespass, not only rejects revenge, but forgives the man who has just wounded him mortally.
The treatment given Pedro Crespo, the Alcalde de Zalamea, is equally forceful, if less iconoclastic. This book reminds us of the need to adjust all critical statements to the temper of the times; there are no absolutes that cannot be challenged. Tucson, AZ . En todos ellos se desenvuelve con destreza y soltura. Most grand, unifying schemes are bright ideas stretched to the breaking point, but Michalski builds a rational case for alchemy as the controlling context for this puzzling work.
The science of the elements and their mutability was indeed a major preoccupation of medieval research, and its hermetic discourse reveled in cryptic symbols and allusions. Previous attempts to unify these two poems, as the libidinous meanderings of a dream sequence or the marvels of a visionary garden, are only partially on target, according to Michalski, because they miss the narrator's active collaboration in penetrating the mechanics of the universe.
Through impressive collateral documentation, Michalski succeeds in making the entire text intelligible as a celebration of the magical arts. The cups hanging from the trees are glass laboratory vessels, manufactured in Lombardy v. Even her veil and gloves refer obliquely to the cap for trapping distillations and protective gear for handling hot beakers.
The constituent arguments in the book are carefully developed, and accompanied by a dense scholarly apparatus and a creditable new edition of the poem. Corfis; Madison, Wisconsin: Hispanic Seminary, ; pp. The author provides many highly novel and undoubtedly useful insights on this complex text, and manages to give a plausible explanation in alchemical terms for nearly all the debated features of the poem, but some assertions will give literary historian's pause.
The great bulk of medieval scientific and even literary works cited originated outside of Spain or only survives on foreign soil; those that did circulate in Iberia are almost exclusively from much later periods. The undeniably jovial quality of the debate section of the poem is still at odds with the rapturous union of the first part, and even more so with the proposed seriousness with which medieval alchemists understood themselves and their professional calling.
Finally there is not enough linguistic or codicological data to make the Lupus de Moros of the explicit more than a copyist, or to locate the original site or language of the composition. Despite these reservations, Michalski's brilliant synoptic interpretation of the poem will be a point of departure for all future work.
Both Miller and Toscano Uria write about the socio-political foundations of the last half of the nineteenth century, that inform, according to their investigations, the arguments for the socio-mimetic nature of literature. Because the authorial treatment of the topic differs significantly, the works will be treated separately. Stephen Miller's text consists of an introduction, five chapters, and a conclusion, followed by works cited and a content containing both chapter titles and divisions within each chapter.
In order to establish a foundation for the chapters which follow, Miller addresses the ongoing polemic concerning the value of literature to a society; he includes in this introductory chapter numerous opposing opinions relating to the purpose of literature and explains how this philosophical controversy affects the literary movements indicated in the book's title realism, naturalism, and modernism.
The most rewarding feature of Miller's careful research is not its treatment of realism, naturalism, or modernism, per se. That subject has been adequately explicated in countless literary histories. Each chapter approaches the differing philosophies of the previously mentioned Spaniards from a different view. Chapter 1 looks at the literary style -specially figurative language- as well as the effect of the diverse aesthetic elements.
Chapter 2 is dedicated to the lexicon of the three essays in question in order to confirm the socio-linguistic connection. By organizing the lexicon of the essays into the religious and the socio-political, Toscano Liria emphasizes the important relationship between rhetoric and society. Chapter 3 draws attention to the manner  in which classic oratory is reflected in the nineteenth-century essays, while Chapter 4 isolates the dramatic elements. Included in the end material are notes for each chapter and a brief considering the volumes of Galdosian criticism bibliography.
The value of this study may best be seen in the careful rhetorical analysis of the essays of these well-known figures. The quincentennial of Columbus's arrival in the Americas has stimulated new interest in texts related to European interactions with the New World. The first drama, Todo es dar en una cosa, offers Tirso's version of Francisco Pizarro's early life: conventional comedia intrigues and rivalries surrounding his illegitimate conception and birth; his precocious childhood, complete with omens and foreshadowings of an illustrious destiny; his first military successes in the Spanish war against Portugal; and his determination to seek fame and fortune in the New World.
Amazonas en las Indias, the second installment, takes place in Peru and focuses on Gonzalo Pizarro's adventures there. This play combines the historical events of the Conquest -including Francisco's assassination while serving as imperial governor, the power struggle which followed and Gonzalo's own ultimate death- with a mythoromantic depiction of the Spaniards' encounters with South America's legendary female warriors. The hero of the final drama, La lealtad contra la envidia, is Fernando Pizarro.
Here Tirso once again mixes conventional comedia devices with history, romanticizing Pizarro's relationship with Isabel Mercado while recounting his renowned deeds in the subjugation of Peru and his nobility in the face of unjust imprisonment. The trilogy ends with Fernando's vindication and with the celebration of multiple marriages.
This edition presents each comedia in a separate volume, along with an opening volume of critical commentary on the trilogy's history, evolution and dynamics. Zugasti's presentation of these plays is exemplary in virtually every way. Zugasti's edition thus restores missing verses and corrects Cotarelo's other deviations from the princeps. Zugasti furnishes a list of textual variations in previous editions as an appendix to each comedia. Also provided are extensive but never excessive notes that cross-reference and illuminate these sometimes-challenging texts in a variety of ways.
Often citing Covarrubias, the Diccionario de Autoridades and similar sources, Zugasti clarifies obscure vocabulary, idiomatic expressions and allusions for the reader; he further complements this information with precise intertextual references to other Golden Age works employing the same phraseology or verbal devices. Moreover, Zugasti's notes contextualize the action chronologically, geographically and historically, even specifying the sources from which the playwright derived his version of events.
Each work is accompanied by a plot summary, structural and mathematical breakdowns of the metrical forms employed, a bibliography, and two indexes, one of all footnoted material and one of all proper names appearing in the text and notes. These textual supplements increase the plays' accessibility and will certainly facilitate scholars' research. Zugasti's five-chapter introductory volume is equally useful. The editor believes Tirso's direct knowledge of the New World to have influenced his writing of the trilogy, but attributes  the actual genesis of the texts to the playwright's tenure as Comendador of the Trujillo chapter house, which the Pizarro family had helped to establish financially.
They remained important patrons of the order and induced Tirso to participate in their campaign to recover the family's lost marquisate, awarded to Francisco by Carlos V but then revoked after Gonzalo's alleged rebellion against the crown. This line of investigation also leads Zugasti to his most provocative hypothesis: that the Mercedarian did not set out to write a trilogy. This theory, which Zugasti supports with corroborating evidence, explains the trilogy's otherwise-confusing internal dynamics.
Zugasti's second chapter addresses an inevitable, fundamental question in the consideration of historical drama: the reconciliation of dramatic imperatives with fidelity to history. On the primary level, Zugasti explores the characterization of the Pizarro brothers, their supporters and their enemies, paying special attention to the epic and mythic parallels through which the playwright glorifies his protagonists. The editor next explores the trilogy's linguistic features toward that same end, even providing a useful list of the most significant rhetorical devices with definitions and examples.
The trilogy's secondary actions, including the love intrigues and the scenes involving rustics and graciosos , are the subject of a similar analysis. Finally, Zugasti concludes this critical volume with two brief chapters.
Finding Newspaper Articles from Spain, Portugal, and Latin America
Chapter IV studies the various metrical forms employed by Tirso and the situations in which the most common ones occur; this chapter also assembles and combines the individual metrical tables included with each play. Chapter V details the Trilogia 's textual history from the publication of the princeps to the present day, evaluating the various editions and explaining the process by which Zugasti has derived his own. This volume also includes an extensive bibliography and a helpful index. Edited and with an introduction by Enrique Pupo-Walker.
The Naufragios , a valuable document for students of Latin American history and ethnography, and a seminal text in the development of Spanish American narrative tradition, has long needed an adequate English translation. Prior to , readers of the Naufragios had to rely on three English translations which, for various reasons, were unsatisfactory. Thomas Buckingham Smith's translation of revised , is based on the Spanish edition and has the convoluted style in vogue in nineteenth century English.
Fanny Bandelier's translation of renders too literally and, in places, paraphrases the Spanish edition. Cyclone Covey's version of , based on a collation of the three Spanish sources of the text -the Joint Report , the and 's editions- relied greatly on Smith's translation. Even less reliable as a source of Cabeza de Vaca's text are several older paraphrases, for  example, Cleve Hallenbeck's of Stimulated by the commemoration of the Quinto Centenario, new translations of the Naufragios have begun to appear.
This version was chosen because unlike the edition, it was produced with Cabeza de Vaca's intervention. Black and white illustrations depict events during the expedition. The Introduction offers a summary of Cabeza de Vaca's eight year expedition in North America and of his later adventures in South America recorded in the Commentaries. More analysis of the Naufragios as literary discourse than that given would have been appreciated especially by readers unfamiliar with Spanish and, thus, unable to consult the introduction to Pupo-Walker's Spanish critical edition.
An annotated translation by Marting A. This translation succeeds in capturing in modern English idiom the qualities of oral storytelling found in Spanish. The translators take special pride, and rightly so, in their annotations of geographical, environmental and personal references. A very complete bibliography of secondary works completes the volume. These new translations of the Naufragios go a long way to meet the need for an accurate English version that reads well and contains informative notes and bibliography. The scholars involved in both editions are to be congratulated.
The Learned King is the history of a king and his reign; but since his reign was devoted so much to literature and the fine arts, as well as the sciences, history and the law, this study is of exceptional value to Hispanists. Such scholars, as they research Alfonso's literature, language and other matters pertaining to culture will find O'Callaghan's a valuable reference when they need to cite the Learned King's activities.
His book is a reliable account, and the fact that it is written in English and that it is available, while the great old Spanish histories are difficult to find, lend it special attractiveness. The author is one of America's two outstanding historians of Medieval Spain, the other being Robert I. Burns, S. O'Callaghan's deep interest and expertise in the reign of Alfonso never allows him to be adulatory. He writes in a clear and straightforward style which makes his work exceptionally readable. The reviewer has concentrated upon the book's contribution to Hispanism, but even so, some overview of the topics treated by the author should be offered through the listing of the titles of the chapters: 1.
The King and His Kingdoms; 2. The Ideology of Government; 3. The Tools of Government; 4. The Church; 5. The Nobility; 6. The Municipalities; 7. Religious Minorities; 8. The Economy; 9. Literature and Learning; The Peninsular Christian States; The African Crusade; The Quest for Empire; The Revolt of the Nobles; The Benemarines and the Succession; The End of the Reign; The Learned King.
Each chapter is divided into often numerous subheadings, providing reference to detailed accounts. All of this scholarly activity will benefit from O'Callaghan's book, since it provides information needed often as a reliable basis for Alfonsine research. The same may be said with regard to the scientific works, since O'Callaghan treats not only the well-known treatises but even some with which few Hispanists are familiar. He also studies the rise of history and Alfonso's important contributions to it. His remarks about the little-known Libro de las cruces , to the effect that it may have been intended by Alfonso as a popular astrology book for all classes, shed new light on still another facet of the king's thinking.
He points out the many miracle-stories which deal with the lives of members of Alfonso's family, of other historical figures, and even of his own life. Some Cantigas provide historical information found nowhere else. Footnotes are copious and the Bibliography is unusually comprehensive. There are ten illustrations in black-and-white reproduction from the manuscripts of the Cantigas , three maps, and a genealogical table of Alfonso's line from the twelfth century.
It includes his legitimate heirs and also the illegitimate, one of whom, Beatriz, married King Alfonso of Portugal, and was the mother of the well-known King Dinis. Rather than a single handbook as the title suggests, this well-documented and informative reference set comprises thirteen volumes Volume I appeared in with ten more volumes published to date; volumes XII and XIII are forthcoming.
While this review concentrates upon the recently published Volume XI, this reviewer has examined the complete collection. Format, approach and quality are uniform throughout. The compilation offers a new and relatively objective method of reading and analyzing original texts without slighting historical and theoretical consideration of the literary movements, works and authors throughout the history of Spanish Literature. Distribution of topics in divisions and subdivisions facilitates locating specific subjects of interest to the reader s.
Abbreviated bibliographical references appear in each section and, at the end of every chapter, in alphabetical order, complete primary and secondary references for the authors cited and studied. Editors of the reference series have opted not to limit it to authors of the first rank, but to include considerable amounts of information concerning writers not always considered important.
Relevant data on secondary figures is provided without sacrificing the detail on canonical writers and works. The first volume deals with the Edad Media ; the second studies the Renacimiento ; the third treats the Barroco starting with an introduction and then examines the prose and poetry of the period, while the fourth covers Baroque theater. The fifth volume delves into the maligned and neglected XVIII Century; the sixth comprises the Romantic period; and the seventh volume deals with Realism. The compilers have opted not to divide '98 and modernismo , thereby incorporating recent critical postures recognizing the connection of both with European Modernism; another volume the ninth investigates prose writers of the end of the century generation.
Volume ten, one of two allotted to Novecentismo y Vanguardia , contains an introduction and an examination of the period's prose writers and dramatists, while the eleventh in the collection continues with the famed lyricists of novecentismo y vanguardia. Still to be published, the remaining volumes in the collection, i. The copious bibliographies alone constitute remarkable assets seldom found in manuales of this sort. The compilers should be commended for their dedication and their penchant for detail which will make their work extremely valuable to Hispanists and hispanophiles for generations hence.
Valencia has published a substantial number of works and is among the few women winners of the Premio Planeta, she has attracted surprisingly little critical attention, even among feminist scholars. He does not intend to provide an exhaustive analysis but rather an introduction that will encourage future research. Feminist theories of Annis Pratt and Julia Kristeva are used persuasively to clarify such aspects as the presence of a green world archetype and the sexual identity problems faced by the female adolescent.
One might quibble on minor points. There is a certain repetitiveness built into the structure of free-standing chapters. Surely this fine introduction will meet its goal of inspiring more research on an unjustly neglected author. By making available in English the work of four of these poets, Kay Pritchett's volume fills an important need. The volume is preceded by a short six pages historically-focused introduction, which accurately situates these poets against the literary climate that preceded them and calls attention to their innovative stance, and to the polemics it triggered.
It also reports on the most important anthologies and critical studies of these poets, which should be most helpful for Spanish-speaking readers who wish to pursue the topic further. The selections from each poet's work are preceded by brief but very telling critical introductions. I found particularly useful Pritchett's way of highlighting key stylistic traits of each poet's work and relating them, specifically, to some of the texts included. Written with the English-speaking general reader in mind, these introductions avoid the tangential biographical material that so often dominates other anthologies, and concentrate on telling us what we need to know in order to read perceptively the poems included.
Written with clarity and elegance, they are a pleasure to read. This excellent format will allow the reader who controls some Spanish to get a sense of the originals. The selections, in my mind, represent the poets' work about as well as can be done in this amount of space, while also containing a good number of their best-known texts this is especially true of Carnero. The translations are on the whole extremely successful, a most difficult task given the nature of these works on the one hand, and their recondite allusiveness on the other.
Pritchett's English versions are both faithful and real poetry; the teacher of a course in translation should be able to use this volume with confidence. In three books and numerous essays, Malcolm K. Read has shown impressive critical skills and a range that is nothing short of remarkable. Juan Huarte de San Juan offers a superb introduction to this complex and influential writer, physician, and precocious psychologist -and, interestingly, to Read's later projects.
The Birth and Death of Language focuses on the interrelation of literary text and linguistic theory in Spain between and Visions in Exile brings psychoanalysis and, as would follow, the body into a study of Spanish literature and linguistics during the period of to Needless to say, the enterprise is difficult, for reasons both historical and methodological. The three guiding figures -metonyms, one might say- of Language, Text, and Subtext are, arguably, Alexander A. For Read, Hispanism in Britain has been ruled by a neo-Thomist school whose proponents foreground Golden Age texts and deal in a brand of moralistic interpretation that fosters its own esthetic norms and, less conspicuously, a socio-political agenda that does not seek to challenge the status quo.
Derrida leads the way to dazzling critical performances rather than to a  radical change in the order of things. The historicizing process outlined by Read encompasses the institution of Hispanism as well as texts, and Kristeva's examination of signifying practice provides a model from which to survey the concept of the subject within the two domains. Read is a most subtle and perceptive reader, whose commentaries are uniformly engaging but, perhaps appropriately, resistant to framing.
Because Kristeva's work and Read's metacommentary are so dependent on figurative language and on theoretical formulations, the search for the subject -a search that involves the linking of literature, linguistics, psychoanalysis, politics, and the gender issues that inform each of these categories- forces us to confront layer upon layer of abstraction.
Marxist esthetics, a juxtaposition that some would view as oxymoronic and others would acknowledge as more oriented toward ideology than to art, might be easier to defend as a metadiscursive tool than as a critical model. While I cannot help but admire the nobility of purpose along with the critique -the critical history- of British Hispanism, and while I agree in general with the assessment of the past, I am not fully convinced that Read is not trading one predetermined notion of relevance for another.
As is understandable, his subject in every sense of the term is elusive and made more so by what may be designated as interdisciplinary, or interdiscursive, shifts. This is not to say, of course, that the individual parts of the study and the movement through time are other than rich and suggestive. Language, Text, Subtext gives us a strong sense of the circumstances under which literature is created, contextualized, politicized, and evaluated. This is a book that I plan to reread, to discuss with colleagues and students, and to attempt to penetrate. I suspect that its author would believe that I have misread the projection of the subject; this may be true, but the questions raised have inspired me to revise my readings of the texts under scrutiny and to review the broader bases of Hispanism.
That this may be a lemma for our historical moment and for the foreseeable future seems likely and, in its own way, comforting. From its appearance as a metaphor for civility in the ancient Hellenic world to its shifting significance among the Church Fathers and their concerns with secular and religious antagonisms, the city was often paired with the countryside as convenient symbols of conflicting values.
Visor de obras.
Sharpe points out that the urbs-rus polarity extends well into the nineteenth century, though it does not necessarily connote a neat division between virtue and vice. With respect to its function as theme and setting in literature, the city has occasioned a variety of developments such as multiple points of view, the emergence of new characters like the bureaucrat and the sophisticated woman, and the topics of anonymity, alienation, and social role-playing.
All the more remarkable then, are his achievements as he transformed ambiguity and disorder into striking portrayals of character and setting that continue to delight and enlighten. Perhaps the most graphic example of social disorder is found in O Crime do Padre Amaro , the subject of the second chapter, where the very embodiment of the celestial city, the clergy, subvert their role in a pursuit of power, pleasure, and profit.
In her often provocative analysis of an important writer, Peggy Sharpe shares her considerable insight and the results of wide reading in her generous bibliography. The inevitable? Este es el realismo que Villanueva subscribe. Daniel Balderston's new book on Borges opens repeating the widely held belief that Borges' work is abstract and devoid of any relationship to history, politics, and society, especially in Latin America. The results are impressive and offer a new perspective on the stories of Ficciones and El Aleph.
In the story Menard, it will be remembered, manages to create fragments of three chapters 9, 22, and 38 of the Quijote. Chapter 9 is the most memorable for the reader because of the mirth produced when Borges' narrator quotes from it and then compares it to the identical passage in Cervantes. Who but Menard would have had the bravura to cast the question in those terms? Ironically, this is precisely the method that Menard first considers, then rejects. The results are no less interesting and significant than in the chapter on Menard. The thoroughness and sheer effort involved in this impressive book cannot but leave the reader with a certain sense of inadequacy.
It is a daunting challenge, no doubt and one that Balderston himself fulfills admirably. Yet, for all its thoroughness, for all the wealth of detail, there is something missing here. Would these not provide a context for the stories every bit as important as the historical personages and events that are explicated?
It might be argued that this work purposely chooses to limit itself to external historical and political references. But the discussion stops there. But Out of Context does not attempt to show that that these political views are present in the stories or form part of their background and context.
Despite this lacuna, Out of Context is an important contribution to the large and growing bibliography on Borges. Daniel Balderston puts to rest once and for all the myth that Borges was a writer of fantastic literature who was out of touch with the world around him. Out of Context will no doubt prove to be a work of lasting importance.
Until recently no book-length study existed of the drama by Rodolfo Usigli , Mexico's foremost XXth century playwright. In spite of the fact that his work had attracted significant but isolated critical attention, reflected mostly in doctoral dissertations and journal articles, a good deal of his work had not been studied or had received only marginal treatment.
Rodolfo Usigli and the Mexican Stage constitute a good start in the development of a body of criticism covering the artistic contribution made by this important Mexican playwright. Of the four titles, A Theatre for Cannibals is likely to remain as the most accessible and comprehensive study of Usigli's work. The result is a very thorough and carefully thought out analysis of Usigli's central works. The book is divided into eight chapters, each containing detailed commentary on the socio-historical relevance and the thematic, structural and symbolic aspects of representative plays.
The first and the last chapters are of a more general nature covering Usigli's dramatic theories and his preoccupation with universal themes, while the other six are dedicated to the close examination of about one third of Usigli's total dramatic production. The next four chapters are organized thematically according to Usigli's interest in social and political issues while the next two deal with his treatment of psychological and historical subjects.
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