Vergewaltigt (German Edition)


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KÄTHE KOLLWITZ

In Dortmund, at least two complaints of sexual assaults were made by 11 January, but the police stated that there are probably more victims. Witnesses told the media of two groups of men, within Dortmund main station , — outside. One witness described the group in the station as "strangely silent". Another witness stated that the men outside were "aggressive". The victims were then sexually assaulted by smaller groups of men of Arabic or southern origin near the station.

Around men tried to force their access into the building, [28] but were successfully premised with help of the police. By 20 January, the number of all reported offenses rose to 18, with 22 victims in total. There were complaints of nearly 1, crimes with a total of 1, victims from the four cities alone. In addition, similar assaults in Austria , Finland , Switzerland , and Sweden were reported. However, due to the darkness and the number of people involved, police chief Wolfgang Albers conceded that their efforts were not effective.

Also, the number of policemen at the station was reduced later that night, as there were further police operations in the city. A police spokesman said that the corrected number had been transmitted to the Parliamentary Committee of the Interior on 11 January.

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However, he could not explain why it hadn't been published earlier. Cologne police came under criticism for their handling of the situation, as their initial press release described the New Year's Eve celebrations as "playful". Days later, the German Federal Criminal Police Office said the incidents were, "A phenomenon known in some Arab countries as taharrush jamai " translated as "group sexual harassment".

One victim who was robbed and assaulted was told to report the incident elsewhere by the police. On 7 January, the police acknowledged an information blackout until the interior committee of the parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia discussed the events on 11 January. That same day, a report by a leading police officer in Cologne on New Year's Eve was cited in several newspapers, including criticism that the number of police officers was too small to deal with the events. You have to treat me friendly. Mrs Merkel has invited me! Tomorrow I will go and get new papers.

The German Federal Criminal Police Office Bundeskriminalamt, BKA stated on 9 January that the incidents of collective sexual harassment were a phenomenon known in Arab countries as " taharrush gamea " "communal sexual harassment". The BKA announced their intention to investigate the facts about such incidents in all German federal states and learn how to combat them.

On 15 January, the Cologne police offered a reward of 10, euro for relevant information leading to the identification of an offender. The posters were hung up near airports, railway stations, and refugees' residences. In reaction to the events at Cologne, the North Rhine-Westfalia police conducted several raids in refugee accommodations all over its territory in the following days to increase pressure on criminal migrants. Among others, raids were conducted in Recklinghausen , where the perpetrator of a January attempted attack at a police station in Paris lived before committing that crime.

Further raids were reported from Kalk, Cologne ; and Ahlen. In Ahlen, only of registered persons were found during the raid; the others had fled. Around 50 percent of those present lived under false identities. The police opened 86 criminal proceedings for illegal residence, drug crimes, abuse of social benefits, and personal injury. Cologne police stepped up police presence at Cologne Carnival in reaction to the incidents.

More than 2, security forces were deployed, more than three times the amount of forces utilized in the previous year. There were conflicting reports about the number of detainees. According to initial reports by the BBC , eight suspects, all asylum seekers, were detained in Cologne, though no official statement on their involvement was made. As of 7 January, the police of Cologne only officially confirmed there were 16 suspects. On 8 January, Cologne Police announced the arrest of two suspects in connection with the attacks. They were identified—in keeping with German privacy law—as Issam D.

Both were said to be asylum seekers. The police reported that they found video footage of assaults on New Year's Eve on their mobile phones. The suspects were also found in possession of a piece of paper with Arabic-German translations of derogatory sexual terms and phrases including "I want sex with you" and "I will kill you". As of 8 January, federal police had identified 31 suspects, among whom were 18 identified asylum seekers. Of these, 17 were said by the Interior Ministry to be from Algeria or Morocco.

Two Germans and one U. Of the 19 suspects identified on 11 January, 14 were men from Morocco and Algeria. Ten of the 19 were asylum seekers, nine of whom had arrived in Germany after September ; the other nine suspects may have been residing in the country illegally.

The department of public prosecution opened criminal proceedings against 13 people, five of whom were in detention at that time. On 19 January, it was reported that there was a first arrest because of allegations of sexual offences. The detainee was a year old Algerian who was living in an refugee camp in Kerpen.

He was arrested on the last weekend along with a fellow countryman who was accused of theft. Fifteen of the 30 were asylum seekers, two underage unaccompanied refugees. Eight people were in investigative custody. On 29 January, it was reported that a further suspect, a man from Algeria, was arrested due to property offence and resistance against enforcement officers. Criminal investigations in Cologne were conducted against 44 people, North Africans by majority, ten of whom were in investigative custody as of 29 January.

Sixty-eight persons were asylum seekers; 18 were residing in Germany illegally, and the legal status of 47 persons was unclear. Four persons were underage, unaccompanied refugees. On 24 February, a first suspect, a year-old Moroccan was sentenced to a penalty of six months on probation for stealing a cellphone from a woman as she was taking a picture of the Cologne Cathedral on New Year's Eve and also for carrying a small amount of drugs. Criminal proceedings were also taking place against two other men from Tunisia and Algeria. Another suspect in Cologne, identified only as Mehdi E.

Along with seven alleged accomplices, he was accused of sexual assaulting the victims out of a group. When the police attempted to detain the men, conducting raids in Cologne, Hamm , Troisdorf , and Bornheim on 18 February, they had already fled. Mehdi E. The janitor of the migrant's residence said he had "stolen like a raven". In one residence, 20 cellphones were found, one of which had been stolen on New Year's Eve. Otman K. On 8 March, for the first time, Cologne police published photos of wanted men who are suspected in the New Year's Eve assaults.

The photos were partly taken from victims who managed to take pictures of their assailants. In total, the police evaluated 1, hours of video footage taken from CCTV cameras and witnesses. A police spokesman explained that the sophisticated work that it took to link the men in the footage to specific crimes was a reason behind the late publishing. The next day, two of the wanted men were put under investigative custody. A year-old man was arrested in Kerpen , while a year-old man from Algeria turned himself in to the police in Hamm. On March 9, police released further photos, one showing a man firing a weapon into the air; officials clarified that no one was injured by the gunshot.

On 28 April, a year-old Moroccan and a year-old person were arrested in northern Switzerland. The Moroccan was one of the suspects in the Cologne assaults, and had applied for asylum in Switzerland. On 25 November, it was reported that in of the crime cases, which were sexually motivated, no perpetrators could be identified. The prosecutor's office could initiate 58 criminal investigations against 83 persons.

Only 6 were convicted so far. The highest sentence was 1 year and 9 month due to sexual assault and robbery. The investigators failed to convict more of the perpetrators because the vicinity of the station was "dark and overcrowded" and the CCTV recordings were of "miserable" quality. Criminal proceedings against two further men are in progress.

Eight people were named as suspects in Hamburg , all of them migrants and some of them refugees. He was recognised by a security guard of a refugee reception center in Hamburg. A second suspected migrant was freed shortly after his arrest due to a lack of adequate suspicion. In Stuttgart , a year-old asylum seeker from Iraq was detained for sexually assaulting two girls while acting out of a group. They are trying to determine if these men were involved in the sexual assaults.

One of the suspects is in investigative custody. Reinhard Merkel , a law professor from Hamburg, said that convicting the suspects, especially for sexual offences, will be difficult because an unequivocal identification by the victims is needed, which is often not the case. Furthermore, policemen stated that the video footage of the cameras within and outside the Cologne main station is partly unusable.

While certain news outlets and campaigners considered only the arrested suspects coming from Syria or Iraq as " refugees ", they had concluded that only three of the 58 arrested suspects were "refugees". At Karneval der Kulturen Carnival of Cultures festival in Kreuzberg , Berlin , on Pentecost weekend, twelve similar crimes were reported, eight of which were sexual assaults. Seven men of Tunisian, Moroccan, Libyan, and Algerian origin were arrested on charges of theft.

Four further men were arrested under allegations of sexual assault. The press reported the case of two teenage girls, ages 17 and 18, who were encircled and molested by a group of ten young men. According to the police, the suspects of these sexual assaults had a Turkish and Lebanese "migration background". In addition, a year-old girl and a year-old woman were sexually assaulted. In the case of the year-old victim, a year-old man from Turkey was arrested as a suspect.

Like the Karneval der Kulturen case, women were encircled by groups of young men. Three suspected asylum seekers, ages 28 to 31, were arrested, and additional suspects are being sought by the police. Further sexual assaults by migrants were reported from public festivals in Wolfhagen and Herborn. On 28 October, similar sexual assaults by asylum seekers from Gambia were reported in the city of Freiburg. A passerby intervened, but was attacked by the group. The police arrested three main suspects, all ages 17, 19, and The victims identified them unequivocally.

Initially, refugees were allowed to enter the center on a low price, but after several cases of sexual assaults were reported by women, the integration project was stopped and a registration by e-mail is now necessary for migrants to enter. At least three rapes were reported at the Cologne Carnival. A year-old asylum seeker from Afghanistan was suspected of raping a year-old woman and a teenager was subsequently arrested at a residence for refugees. A year-old asylum seeker from Nigeria was strongly suspected to have raped a year-old woman and was arrested. A total of complaints were made to the police so far in Cologne.


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They consisted mostly of personal injuries, but also included 22 sexual offences. The police had to deploy additional forces on 7 February, and the security situation at Carnival was tense. While covering the Cologne Carnival live for Belgian television, reporter Esmeralda Labye was groped by attackers, who were apparently of European origin and whom Labye described as speaking German. However, he denied that his actions were sexually motivated. Some remarks given by Cologne Mayor Henriette Reker during a press conference were interpreted as a call for women to follow a "code of conduct", including staying at "arm's length" from strangers.

He also spoke against anti-immigrant groups, saying, "What happens on the right-wing platforms and in chat rooms is at least as awful as the acts of those assaulting the women This is poisoning the climate of our society. The same wave of migration was used in a poster by the leave campaign in the UK EU membership referendum and has been credited as a crucial factor behind their win. North Rhine-Westphalia's Head of State, Hannelore Kraft , stated that police and courts should and will act consequently against this new dimension of violence and sexual assaults by men.

She expressed her hope that as many offenders as possible are identified and punished, which had to happen regardless of background. If the requirements were met, according to her, perpetrators should also be deported. Even if the requirements were met, the identified perpetrators who hailed from Algeria and Morocco could not be deported as those countries would likely simply refuse to accept them back. In the following days, Reker faced allegations that she had been well-informed by the Cologne police earlier on New Year's Eve than she previously claimed, which contradicted her own statements.

The Trout Gallery

In reaction, the state government published a timeline of its communication with the police authorities. According to Cologne's Express newspaper, a police memo was leaked. From March to November the parliamentary inquiry committee held 53 sessions in the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia and heard more than witnesses. A reported is to be filed until the end of As a result, it was stated by the SPD representative in the committee that it was confirmed by the evidence that "the deployment of the security forces went wrong with graving consequences for the women affected".

On 5 January, between and women protested outside the Cologne Cathedral , demanding respect for women and action from Chancellor Angela Merkel. Many Germans reacted with concern and anger. The phrase "Rapefugees not welcome" was coined by right wing demonstrators as a slogan following the events in Cologne. On 10 January, eleven people were beaten in Cologne, specifically in an area located close to where the sexual assaults occurred. The victims included six Pakistanis, three Guineans, and two Syrians. Merkel and Justice Minister Heiko Maas condemned the assaults. Maas described the assaults as a "completely new dimension of organized criminality.

She also accused an Internet-"organised mob" of "calling for a hunt on non-white people and taking revenge". He said, "Cologne has changed everything. People are now doubting. Random police checks were also included, as well as quicker deportations of criminal migrants even if they were only sentenced to imprisonment on probation. To date, acceptance for asylum seekers can only be denied if they were sentenced to a three-year imprisonment at least, with a deportation below this degree of penalty possible but not mandatory.

According to his statement, the public mood has shifted after the events of Cologne, which "manifested a partial failure of the state as a guarantor of freedom and safety of its citizens. Weil stated that the events of Cologne were "a low blow in every sense", and that Merkel's decision to open the borders "fatally permanently led to a special role of Germany in Europe".

He insisted that only securing the EU external borders was the solution to the migrant crisis. On 16—19 January , several politicians demanded alterations to Merkel's migration policies in reaction to the events, including Horst Seehofer , Prime Minister of Bavaria , his predecessor Edmund Stoiber , and German Minister of Transportation Alexander Dobrindt.

All of them are members of the Bavarian CSU party, which is in the federal government but opposes Merkel's actions during the migration crisis. During the press conference, Merkel tied the electoral success of the AfD among others to the Cologne sexual assaults. BBC correspondent Gavin Hewitt describes the attacks as having "a profound impact on the rest of Europe. Certainly the boldness of the assaults and the sense of a powerless state will haunt the victims, but what has also been lost is trust — the essential glue in any society.

A Cologne-based imam , Sami Abu-Yusuf, controversially said in an interview with the Russian television channel REN TV that the women in Cologne were responsible for the incidents, because they were "running around half naked It's not surprising that the men attacked them. Dressing up like that is like pouring oil into the fire. ZDF later called the delay in reporting a "clear misjudgment", and said since then, it has been "over-whelmed with hate and anger". The delay in reporting on the assaults in the media lead to accusations that the authorities and the media attempted to ignore or cover up the attacks to avoid criticism against the current asylum and migration policy of the government.

Al Jazeera published articles on 9 January claiming that the response of German society thus far had "little to do with protecting women and more to do with scapegoating the Middle Eastern or North African ' other ' entering Germany. Ross Douthat , a conservative columnist for The New York Times , warned of the transformative consequences of rapid, unchecked mass immigration, especially of young men.

In his opinion, not only Germany has to close the borders and expel refugees who are in good health, but Merkel also has to step down, "so that her country, and the continent it bestrides, can avoid paying too high a price for her high-minded folly. In Russia , the state-run Rossiyskaya Gazeta stated that after the "Night of the Long Fingers" a play on words that compares the event to the Nazis ' Night of the Long Knives , German media refused "to illuminate the extent of raids, plundering and rapes committed by refugees".

The economic professor Hans-Werner Sinn stated on 1 February, "The events of the New Year's night in Cologne are harbingers of massive social conflicts in the coming years and decades. With the chaotic, uncontrolled immigration from backward countries, the Federal Republic of Germany faces a heap of trouble. After the assailants were described by police and victims as young foreign men who spoke neither German nor English, a debate ensued as to how to deal with a large influx of young, mostly Muslim men from cultures where women lack the freedoms and protections they enjoy in the West.

Far-right and anti-immigrant groups cited the attacks as evidence of dangers related to accepting huge numbers of migrants, but similar concerns were also expressed by mainstream elements within German society. German feminists signed a petition opposing sexualised violence and racism, stating that it "is wrong to highlight sexualised violence only when the perpetrators are allegedly" perceived as "others" and ignore all other sexual violence, pointing to German Federal Police statistics that show there are more than 7, reported rapes and sexual assaults in Germany every year and "the many more that are never reported.

In it, she characterized the perpetrators as "not any Muslims. The Muslim next door does not automatically grope women. It was the kind of men, for whom the Sharia is above the law and the woman below the man. Jakob Augstein criticised what he considered racism in responses to the assaults and German rape laws, stating sardonically that "we rather abuse "our" women ourselves. After the attacks, a January edition of French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo included a cartoon by Riss about Alan Kurdi , a three-year-old Syrian refugee who drowned as his family tried to reach Europe.

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In a controversial act, the cartoon satirised fickle and reactionary sentiment towards refugees by including a caption questioning whether the boy would have grown up to be an "ass groper in Germany". A viral video was made, containing the personal details of one of the victims and accusing her of making false allegations to spread anti-Muslim propaganda. The video circulated among German Islamic extremists, including Pierre Vogel.

The victim, fearing reprisals, managed to get the video removed by telling its creator that she was prepared for legal action. There were reports of tourists cancelling trips to Cologne in the aftermath of the attacks, including one tour group calling off their entire summer schedule in the city. Belgium 's immigration minister ordered migrants to participate in "respect for women" courses in order to calm public opinion over the sex attacks. Pope Francis acknowledged that Europeans had the right to be concerned over terrorism and changes to "cultural and social structures" via immigration, but stated that Europe "has the means to defend the centrality of the human person and to find the right balance between its twofold moral responsibility to protect the rights of its citizens and to ensure assistance and acceptance to migrants".

Waszczykowski criticized the German authorities for their handling of the situation. He also stated that it is likely that the German government tried to conceal the events and ban people from telling others about these events.

The Trout Gallery

Waszczykowski added that, in his view, the migration wave to Europe which he linked to the events was used by the Islamic State or other terrorist organizations. Prime Minister of Slovakia Robert Fico called for an emergency summit of EU in the wake of the attacks, and declared he will act to stop Muslim refugees from entering the country. Fico stated, "We don't want something like what happened in Germany taking place in Slovakia. The sexual assaults in Cologne on New Year's Eve nevertheless ended the atmosphere of euphoria earlier in the year when hundreds of thousands of migrants had arrived in Germany.

The sexual assaults were compared by several newspapers and authorities like German Federal Criminal Police Office BKA with attacks on women reported after the Arab Spring in numerous public places in Cairo , especially Tahrir Square , the most prominent victim of which was television journalist and correspondent Lara Logan. Egyptian women and, in some cases, foreign journalists were surrounded by groups of young men, often having been touched with sexual intent and partly undressed, or stripped naked and gang-raped.

It was reported that "[t]he BKA knew from some Arab countries the phenomenon of jointly committed sexual harassment of women in public.

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This type of crime was called there 'taharrush gamea' 'communal sexual harassment'. Some women said that the events should not become a "political football" or allow a focus only on non-German suspects, since German women had been fighting against sexual harassment at such celebrations and elsewhere for many years. Some of them said there: 'We go to Cologne, there will be a big party. It is rather the case that the phenomenon of such sexual assaults out of groups is a massive problem in Cairo for example. Ask your regional or national authority for details on support for Passive Houses in your area.

More information on aid programmes can be found under the Support section of this website. Passive House occupants may open windows whenever they want. The beauty of Passive House design, however, is that they won't have to. A Passive House is continuously supplied with fresh air via the ventilation system, which does a far better job of consistently bringing fresh air in than simply opening the windows ever could.

This has advantages: unlike just opening the windows, fine filters in the ventilation system keep dirt and pollen out- a blessing for those who suffer from allergies and respiratory problems. People often express reservations about the need for a ventilation system: are there problems with bacteria, noise and drafts? The ventilation system in a Passive House is a fresh air supply system, not an air conditioning system that recirculates inside air. Bacterial growth is only a problem in poorly maintained recirculating air systems.

The fan and valve noises resulting from the ventilation system are almost completely eliminated by sound control measures such as vibration isolation mounts, low air speed and acoustic lining in ducts. Jet nozzles guide incoming air along the ceiling, where it uniformly diffuses throughout the room at velocities that are barely perceptible. How does Passivhaus construction prevent moisture damage?

Airtight construction also prevents leaks through which moist air can enter the building envelope. Not at all!

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More than anything, a Passive House utilises higher quality versions of the same building concepts and components that are utilised in typical buildings. The ventilation system, not common in conventional buildings, is user-friendly and easy to operate with fewer controls than a normal television. Passive House technology is so simple, there's no need to hire someone to perform annual air filter changes; you can do it yourself. How can I change the information in my Member Profile and on the member search?

Here you can also add description of what you do, a company logo if you have an organisational membership, and add users in accordance with the number of access keys that come with your membership. Once logged in, you can change your password and user name in your member profile, along with your other profile information. My company is listed as an iPHA member. Those with an organisational iPHA membership can add users in accordance with the number of access keys that come with their membership.

The administrator of each account can easily delete users and reassign them. The difference between Passive House Institute certified Designers and Consultants depends on your background. Designers come from highly relevant fields and must somehow show proof of their previous knowledge through their degree etc, in order to get the Designer label. Click here for a list of typical professions. Consultants, on the other hand, can come from any background. Please refer to our education section for more information.

See list of PHI accredited examination bodies. Course providers worldwide may choose to use any materials they like in preparing their students for the international Passive House Designer exam and indeed, those wishing to take the exam may prepare themselves through self-study.

For interested course providers, however, PHI offers its Passive House Designer course material , available in a variety of languages. This material is based on the CEPH course materials, which resulted from an EU-funded project by the same name involving several partners. For more information, see the education section. Go back to FAQ index. Do all the PHI accredited examination bodies offer the same course and how do I know which ones offer the best quality training?

Not all course providers listed as such use the same course or course materials to prepare their students for the Passive House Designer exam. While we can vouch for the quality of our material, we do not know what individual course providers who use it make of it. We therefore recommend that you ask the course providers the following questions:. Instead, iPHA is collecting the most important articles and excerpts, updating and adapting them as required, and then making them available through Passipedia. Of course, this can't happen over night, but we are working hard and Passipedia is continuously growing.

The most significant findings from this series are currently being posted on Passipedia. See list of all Conference Proceedings. Even if you didn't buy your copy of the PHPP directly from the Passive House Institute, all you need to do to register for updates is fill out the registration form at the front of the PHPP handbook and fax it in. Can you also use PHPP for calculating existing buildings that consume a lot of energy? Yes, you can. On that case two things are important: the frequency of overheating result is incorrect and the heating load result is incorrect both work only for very low energy buildings.

The calculations carried out by other bodies are often based on different methods and thus lead to different results. Generally, one has to be careful with simulations as they are only as accurate as the data you use to begin with, leaving a lot of room for error. The seemingly exact results they give can be misleading and the PHPP is certainly more fool-proof in this sense. In terms of hygrothermal simulations, once proven build-ups for any particular climate are known, such simulations are typically unnecessary and don't need to be done for each repeated use of the same construction type.

For overheating, cooling, and dehumidification - areas that play a role in your locale, PHPP Version 8 has been calibrated using dynamic simulations. If, in the end, you want to use dynamic simulations, there are a variety of programs from which to choose from on the market, although they are all far more expensive than the PHPP. These building certifiers are authorised to freely certify anywhere in the world according to Passive House Intitute standards.

This excel based tool is perhaps the most accurate energy balance design tool on the market and study upon study has shown it's results to be very much in line with both incredibly tedious dynamic simulations and with actual monitoring results see Passipedia for more information. For certification, the building plans, regional climate data set for the building's location, and performance values of the components used windows, ventilation, etc must be entered into the PHPP.

The certifier then checks this completed PHPP for correctness. If data is missing or cannot be supported with evidence, the certifier is obligated to request this information. With the PHPP, the certifier can see if the building, as planned and with the values provided, is a certifiable Passive House. If not, the certifier may offer suggestions for how to improve the design while still in the planning phase, which is a great advantage - both heightening quality assurance and helping to avoid costly errors.

The only aspect of certification that must actually be done on-site is the airtightness test, but this must be carried out by an independent third party not the certifier. When all is said and done, the construction site manager must sign that the building was built exactly as entered into the PHPP before any certification is awarded. If the building was not built as planned and there were anomalies during construction, this must be disclosed and the certifier will then take this into account in the certification calculations.

Passive House IS a public good. You do not need any certificate to build one. Yet for those who would like to make use of the service, PHI, also through its accredited Building Certifiers worldwide, offers to check your plans to see whether they meet the Passive House Standard. This is not mandatory, but it may make for a more trusting relationship between you and your client.

This also explains why there are some 30, built Passive House Buildings in Europe, of which some 1, are certified. That is a huge number - and it's sufficient proof that the concept is working. A paper issued by the Passivhaus Trust in the UK highlights this nicely. The Standard, open to all, is well defined; if your project fails to live up to your claims, you may find yourself in a difficult situation. Certification thus helps the designer to avoid this predicament and stands as a recognizable symbol of quality for all others.

What products can be used under the footings when insulating under the concrete floor slab? Is this even necessary? Ideally, a continuous thermal envelope should be created. Therefore, under the footings an insulation material should be used. There are several systems certified by PHI.


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However, the ideal solution thermal bridge free would be a foundation slab, without the need of strip foundations. Is it best to use rigid or flexible ducting within a heat recovery and ventilation system? Rigid ducting is preferable and recommended as it is easier to clean if needed and does not result in the unfavorable pressure losses that flexible ducting produces. Rigid ducting, where possible, is therefore best. If climate data for your locations are included in the PHPP, you should use these. For all other locations you can use the climate data tool on www. Before renovation work starts you should contact a Passive House Certifier in order to receive validated climate data for your location.

The data must be representative of the typical conditions over the entire year for the location at which the Passive House building will be built. Monthly climate data is available for most locations as it is recorded at local weather stations or via satellites. There are different ways of accessing this information and converting it into the format required for the PHPP. One example is the climate database Meteonorm. Generating heating and cooling load data is much more complex as they must take the dynamics of Passive Houses into account.

The current PHPP assumes that solar radiation is coming from the south. What must be included in the volume measurement for calculating airtightness to PH certification Standard? Must volumes in areas that are within the thermal envelope yet above or below an un-insulated and not necessarily airtight ceiling or floor be included? Generally this means that if a volume above a hung ceiling or below a floor will not be visible in the building's final state, it should not be included in any measurement of airtightness. Who is qualified to perform air pressure tests for Passive House buildings?

Is there a thrid party certification system for such experts? The person performing the air pressure test should have sufficient expertise and the measurement must be carried out in accordance with ISO EN in Europe. Similar associations exist in various countries worldwide. However, there is, as of today, no global certification system for airtightness experts. OSB boards are often used as an airtight layer, generally with more or less acceptable results.

The quality of different boards from different manufacturers differs greatly, however, meaning that some are more airtight than others see this PHI study. Generally, q50 values of 0. What kind of door can be used to achieve an airtight connection from an unheated garage or cellar to a heated living area?

The best way is to use a Passive House suitable entry door. The criteria for non residential buildings come with a special note on the first page that makes an allowance of sorts for such cases. Indeed, in certain cases, where the building's usage implies high internal heat loads, the primary energy limits may be exceeded after consultation with the Passive House Institute.

For buildings with special uses such as hospitals and wellness spas, the Passive House Institute is currently in the process of defining sensible criteria. Beware though, as this is NOT a free pass to ignore the primary energy demand: should you wish to get such a building certified, the certifier on the project must discuss your exceeding of the limits directly with Passive House Institute and it must be proven that electric energy was used as efficiently as possible.

What do I need to look for in a Passive House suitable pellet stove? The stove has to be airtight and the supplier needs to confirm that the stove is suitable for Passive Houses. For safety reasons, we recommend a CO2 sensor and control to be installed in addition so that, should high CO2 concentrations arise, the stove or the ventilation unit is then automatically switched off. We suggest working with a Certified Passive House Designer for assistance. What are the advantages and disadvantages of underfloor heating in a Passive House?

Usually, underfloor heating is implemented because people desire the comfort of warm feet. In the Passive House however, this is achieved in any case due to the excellent insulation. User experiences confirm this: An underfloor heating system will have relatively little effect in the Passive House in terms of increased comfort.

However, if at all, this temperature will only occur as a maximum winter temperature, i. An advantage of underfloor heating is that it requires very low flow temperatures, therefore in the Passive House, such heated surfaces can be successfully coupled with systems that provide low flow temperatures e. A disadvantage is that such a system is not a cost-effective supply variant for a Passive House. In the Passive House, it does not matter how and where the small amount of residual heat is supplied.

For achieving this cost-effectively, it is possible to use the ventilation system, which is essential in any case, for heating as well. Nevertheless, various Passive Houses with underfloor heating systems have been realised. How can I balance ventilation ducts? Especially if you want to balance the fans with the help of individually measured values, you'll need a precise measurement of air flow rates.

We recommend the use of a device called a flow finder, which tends to be far more accurate than an anemometer, as it is equipped with an auxiliary fan that compensates the additional pressure difference of the hood. Read more in Passipedia. A ventilation system, that is designed and executed with care will not be audible in standard operation mode. Most ventilation units should be installed in a utility room or another area not too close to the bedroom. Ducting systems needs to be fitted with silencers. The home will also be better protected against noise from outside. Using windows for ventilation can help reduce pollutants in the indoor air but it is not suitable for energy efficient building renovation.

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