From the fact that kings were the nursing fathers, and Queens the nursing mothers of the British Church, namely, Bran, Caradoc, Claudia, Cyllinus, Lucius, it was distinguished among churches as " Reyia Domius. The monasteries of the church were on a scalo not since rivalled. Bangor was earlier founded than any monastery in Europe, or Asia, by above a century. Sir W. Churchill says, " I take Bangor, endowed by King Lucius, j.
Its destruction by the Saxons, A. In , Britain finally separated from Rome; elected Constantine the Great, son of Helen, for its sovereign. Pope Gregory sent Augustine to assert his supremacy; the conference was held with the British Bishops, under the protection of Brochwel, Prince of Powys. The Papal proposition was rejected in the following dignified terms: u Deference we can pay to the Bishop of Rome, as to any other christian, but in all other respects our deference is dae to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Caerleon, who alone, under God, is our ruler to keep us right in the way of salvation.
At his instigation Ethelbert persuaded Edelfrid, pagan King of Northum- bria, to invade tho domains of Brochwel. Edelfrid's army was fifty thousand j. We find Llcw light naming Lleurwg ab Coel, ab Cyllyn ; also called Llewfer Mawr, the gTeat light correctly translated Lucius, the King who is said to have sent messengers to Rome to bring home Christianity.
Digitized by Google Digitized by Google 7 mou. Brochwel mot him at Chester. On an eminence near the battle field were twelve hundred British priests of the University of Bangor praying for the success of the christian arms. Edelfrid asked who those in white were, and why, instead of fighting, they were on their knees ; on hearing they were christians praying to their God, he directed his forces against them, massacred them all, and advancing to Bangor, put all the priests and students to the sword, and burnt the halls, colleges, and churches.
After a few days Edelfrid was repulsed by Brochwel, with the loss of ten thousand men; and peace was concluded on Edelfrid acknowledging the Pendragon's sovereignty over the island. The British army on returning halted at Bangor, the ashes of the noble monastery were smoking; its libraries, the collection of ages, were consumed, half- ruined walls, gates, and rubbish, marked alone the sito of those magnificent edifices. Not far from Chepstow, is said to mark the resting place of that noblest amongst heroes, Caradoc ap Bran.
It is the only cromlech in Monmouthshire, the upper stone is twelvo feet by three and a half feet ; the uprights from four to five feet. It seems to have been surrounded by a trench and a bank ; it has now boon broken down, and had it not been for timely interposition of the antiquary it would, liko Glastonbury Abbey, have been, ero this, made use of to mend the roads. There are drawings of it extant taken before its desecration, it having been reverently left standing for eighteen hundred years. It stands on a hill northwards from the town of Caerwent, about four miles.
Morgan, 8vo. Clarke Ruthin. Brutus landed at Totness, planting his foot upon the rock now known as "Brutus' Stone. Henceforward called "Brut-tan," or the "land of Brutus.
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The antiquity of their literature and genealogies has given rise to the clever saying, that, in Welsh pedigrees, Adam is placed about the middle. On it the British Kings were sworn to observe the usuages of Britain. It is now known as 'London Stone,' and is embedded in another stone on the south side of St. Saviour's Church, Cannon Street. This princess caused Sabrina, the daughter of her rival Estrildis, to be drowned in the river, now called after her, Sabrina, or Severne; in Welsh, Hafren. His son, Membricius Membyr , who transferred the colleges, erected by Dares Phrygius, from Cirencester to its present site, Oxford.
This prince perished by wolves at Wolverstone, Pont Bleiddan, near Oxford. Ho overran Franco and Central Europe. His date is B. Bleddyn, or Bladud, builder of CaerBadon, Bath, and of a magnifi- cent circular temple there. There is much of historic truth in the two plays Shakspeare has founded upon the history of this prince, and upon the history of his ancestor Brutus. Digitized by Google 11 After an interregnum passed in settling the claims to succession, Dyvnwal Moelmud, hereditary dnke of Cornwall, and representative paternally aud maternally of the younger branch of Brutus' line, o.
After a memorable reign of forty years, he was buried at the "White Tower in Caer Troia. His widow Corwenna, afterwards saved tho island from civil war between her two sons, Bolinus and Brenus. Digitized by LiOOQle 12 ''There are three things free to a country; the river; the road; and the temple; these are under the protection of God, whoever in them draws weapon, is a capital criminal. After reconciliation with his brother Brennus, at the mediation of their mother, the two armies, numbering ,, over-ran Celtica, and joined by the Ligurians, crossed the Alps; their prowess is narrated by Plutarch; and tho list of cities founded by Brennus in Italy, preserved by Pliny and Justin.
Belinus, marching northward, subjugated Germany, and employed the end of his reign in buildings at home. Belins Castle, Billings-gate, and the stupendous embankment of the Thames, were begun and completed under this monarch. He died aged Gwrgant, the Peaceful; in his reign Denmark Dacia was reduced to its former state of annexation.
Beli reigned forty years. He had three sons Lud, Caswallon, Cassivelaun and Nennius. Lud succeeded him. He rebuilt the walls of Caer Troia, with seven principal towers and gates ; one of these, Ludgate, retains his name. He issued an edict commanding that the city be called Lud-din Londinium instead of Caer Troia ; an insurrection of the people, under Nennius, caused him to abandon this project, which, however, was at last carried out by his son, Androgeus. He was buried in the vault under his tower at Ludgate. He left two sons, Androgeus, Avarwy and Tenuantius minors : their uncle Cassivelaun was proclaimed regent, and ultimately Pendragon.
At this time the religion was Druidic : concerning which it is sufficient here to quote Caesar's remarkable words, "The Druids hold that by no other way than the ransoming of man's life by the life of man is reconciliation with the Divine justice of the immortal Gods possible. Evroc Caer York. Leon Caer Caerleon. Municip Caer A 11 ht. Odor Caer. Sallwg Caer. Old Sarum. Lear Caer Caer Leil Leyn Caer Caer Grawnt Glou Caer Meini Caer Gwrthegion Caer Ceri Caer Urnach Caer Dwr Caer Coel Caer Gorangon Caer Caer Seiont Segontium Caernarvon.
Caerleon ar Dwy Caer Wysc. Peris Caer Caer Badon Don Caer Doncaster. The revolution of years has not sufficed to altogether change the original names of these cities. The students at the colleges numbered at times 00,, these included the young nobility of Britain and Gaul. The Druids exercised the magisterial office. The canonicals of the Arch-Druids were extremely gorgeous : the Druids' vestments were white : the Bards' blue. Lucan, and Valerius Maximus both testify to the Druidic faith in the immortality of the soul.
On the invasion of Britain by Julius Csesar, the excuse he held was, that they had first aggressed. This is borne out by the historic 'Triads' which give a full account of the landing at Brest, B. Flur was brought home to Caer Troia, which act caused the invasion of Caesar. At Canterbury, Cassivelaun defeated Caisar who fled; nor did he escape the accusation at Rome of cowardice.
They generally held two, but sometimes four combatants. They were drawn by two horses abreast, so thoroughly broken in to their work, that Ciesar declares in descending a hill full speed they would, on a motion of the charioteer, wheel round and retrace their course, scarcely slackening their spec'.
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They drove standing ; from the axle trees of the wheels, keen falchions of great brr projected, rendering it a matter of no small peril to attack the chariot on the Morgan's- Cambria, page Avarwy having throughout acted the part of a traitor, sometimes too successfully, fled the country, and, after the death of Cassivelaun, Tenuantius reigned in peace with Rome; he left two sons, Cynvelin, and Llyr, father of Bran, Prince of Cambria. To him succeeded his son Cynvelin Cymbeline , educated by Cnesar Augustus in his own palace.
After 85 years reign, his eldest son, Gwyddyr, Guiderius succeeded ; the younger son Arviragus, receiving the dukedom of Cornwall, and at the samo time Caradoc ap Bran succeeded, on the resignation of his father Bran, to the princedom of Cambria; his residence was on the site of the present Dunraven Castle, in the centre of his mother's estates of Siluria. He was followed by his only son Llwryg, Lucius who ascended the throne, A. Ho married Gwladys grand- daughter of Marius.
This prince established Christianity, endowing Winchester, Llandaff, St. Peter's, Cornhill, and Canterbury. On his death, A. Helen was married to Constantius in 20 1 ; aud her brothers, r. But he never quitted Britain ; he died at York in , and by his own desire was intorred at Caer Seiont. He stayed the tenth persecution against the Christians, of Diocletian, at the risk of Civil War ; but not before the Archbishop of York, and the two Archbishops of London, the Bishops of Glasgow, and Caer-leil, and Alban of Veralam and others had perished.
Maximus, A. In , Britain, throwing off the Roman yoke, elected Constantine, grandson of Conan, king. He was the third British Sovereign who crossed the Channel and reigned at Paris, master of the whole West. He and his eldest son Julian were murdered November 11th, His second son Cons tans succeeded A. Vortigern ascended the throne; he was deposed by his son Vortimer, in On Vortimor's death in , Vortigern was restored, but combining with Hengist in treachery and murder was nationally deposed.
The Saxon chronicle which has hitherto formed tho text for our historians, has been unablo to bear tho test of modern criticism, it is rejected, as Q. Sec Pedigrees in Appendix. Of these, Cenaw ap Coel, brother to the Empress, carries on the unbroken male line of descent to Caradoc Vraich Vras, for which, sec the ancient Welch pedigrees passim. The line was now restored in the person of TJthyr, younger son of Constantine.
He reigned as Pendragon, until his death at London, in , in his 90th year. He had married Eigra, of the Venedotian Royal Family. David, at Caerleon; crowned by St. Some genuine works of his celebrated men have reached us, namely of Llywarch, Merlin, Taliesin, and Aneurin, the 4 British History,' and ' Life of Arthur," of the latter, however, are lost. Constantine succeeded Arthur, A.
Aurelius Conan succeeded Constantine, A. Rhun succeeded his father Maelgwn, A. The 4 Cambrian Journal ' places the battle of Cattraeth in this reign, A. Beli succeeded Rhun, A. Iago succeeded Beli, A. Cadvan succeeded Iago, A. Digitized by 17 Cadwallo, succeeded his father Cadvan, A. Cadwallo refused, stating that the usages of Britain had never permitted but one 1 Diadema Britannise ' to be worn in the island; war arising, Cadwallo was dofoatod, and driven to Ireland. At the intercession of Penda's sister, Elditha, Penda was released; ho married Elditha ; he died November 15th, , aged Their son, Cadwaladr, last Pendragon, and sole monarch of Britain of the British dynasty ; heir of Cambria through his father, and of Mercia and Wesscx through his mother; succeeded A.
In his reign the country was visited by the ' black plague ' Dial Duw A. Companies of men and women, states 1 Henry of Huntingdon,' fifty and sixty in number, crawled to the cliiTs and there joining hands precipitated themselves into the sea. The birds also perished in countless numbers.
All distinction between Briton and Saxon was lost in this appalling state of things. Cadwaladr abdicating the throno, and retiring to Rome, died there, and was interred at St. Peters, 18th May, Idwal Iwrch, his son, was now crowned Prince of Cambria, at Carnarvon. From A. The Kymry retained tho country west of the Severn. These, and the Princes of Powys were subordinate although independent to the Prince of Venedotia, who still held the titlo of lord of all Cambria. In his custody remained the regalia of Constantine the Great, Arthur, and Cadwallo.
He defeated Ethelard, successor of Ivor, at Heilyu, in Cornwall, in , and again at Garth-Maelog, in Venedotia, in ; a third time at Pen-y-coed, Glamorgan, in Rhodri died Conan succeeded. The boundary between Wales and Llcegria, the southern counties known as Offa's dyke Watt's dyke , was attempted to be shifted four miles further west by OfTa ; the Kyniry razed all the forts erected, arid defeated Offa ; who, collecting tho Anglo-Saxon Kings, encountered Princa Caradoc of Powys at Rhuddlan, A. Essyllt, or Isola sole daughter of Conan, succeeded, A. At this date the inhabitants of the Llcegrian district took tho name of Angles.
The Kymry still called them 4 4 Saeson. Rhodri Mawr, Roderick the Great succeeded his father Mervyn. He fell by the Danes on the Menai ; and "at his death," says 4 Caradoc of Lancarven,' 44 Roderick divided his kingdom between his three sons, who were called the three crowned heads, by reason that each did wear a coronet of gold, set with precious stones upon his helmet. Roderick changed tho seat of government from Carnarvon to Aberffraw.
The country of Wales was divided into three kingdoms between the three sons of Rodri ; Cadell, the eldest son had Ceredigion and Dyved ; Anarawd, the second, had Gwynnedd ; and Mervyn, the third maternal grandfather of the Princess Chrisly, ap Meyric , had Powys; leaving the district, between the Severn and the Wy, to the descendants of Caradoc Vreichvras ; and Morjanwg, and Gwent to tho descendants of Morgan the Courteous : so that Wales, and the nation of the Cymry, came under five Royal Tribes.
See Pe l. He also defeated the Danes Idwal Voel, his eldest son and successor, was slain, with his brother Elis, against the Danes, A. His son, Meyric, ap Idwal, v. He was succeeded by Howel Del a, ho codified the British laws, the greatest literary work of Europe, during these dark ages. He died, A. He left a daughter, Angharad.
The Mistress of Prichard's Ridge
Iago and Ieuav, Ievan sons of Idwal, received tho kingdom from him ; their reign of twenty years was war. Howel, ap Ieuav, succeeded, A. Idwal, or Edward, ap Meyric, his successor, fell like him, nobly in the field against Sweyne, the Dane. See ' the Genealogy. Iago, ap Idwal occupied the throne until A. Conan, ap Iago, his son, according to Caradoc, recovered the king- dom, and was succeeded by his son Gruflydd, ap Conan, A. See below. Gruirydd, ap Llewelyn harrassed the English in no less than one hundred and ten expeditions ; he razed Hereford, " and returned," says Caradoc of Lancarvan, " with great spoil to his kingdom.
He died A. Gruffydd's only daughter, Nesta, married Traherne, ap Caradoc, w. His son, Walter Ddu, is the founder of the Stewart dynasty. The Princess, Nest a, ap Traherne, w. Their only daughter and heiress, Sybil, married Fitz- Walter Milo, w. Earl of Hereford ; the first Earldom by letters patent of the Empress Maud. Milo Fitz-Walter, Earl of Hereford. Cross or. Drue de Baladun, by Emma, heiress. Bernard Newmarch, Baron of Normandy.
Vert, a Lion ramp. Traherne, ap Caradoc, King of North Wales. Quarterly or. Wilis , gjft. Sldiii Owen Ionian. Which descents from the Kings of North Wales, and the last Prince of South Wales, are made clear by the accompanying scheme, which scheme also shows the rightful succession to the thrones of North and South Wales.
In carrying on the descent, it is preferable to givo the following account of Cadell, Howel Dha, and Rhys, ap Tewdwr, in full. Beginning once more at the reign of Rodri Mawr, and premising that the view here taken, that Cadell was the eldest son, and Anarawd the second, at variance with Morgan's Cambria, is not supportod by Caradoc, Abbot of Lancarvan, the ancient historian of Wales ; also that Aberfraw, which was the seat of government of tho King of Wales being within Anarawd's appointed dominion, seems to point to Caradoc's history as correct.
Rhodri Mawr, the great King of all Wales. This Prince, to whom the Welsh historians give great commendation, attacked the King of Mercia with great success. Gwennydd, he gave to Anarawd, who held his court at Aberfrau, in Anglesea. Powys he gave to Mervyn, and ho held his court at Mathravel. The eldest was toi butary to the King of London, and received tributo from the other two. They were styled tho three diademed Princes ; to the eldest Rhodri gave the sovereignty, enjoining them to defend the country, and nation of the Cymry against the assaults of the enemies, and against anarchy.
Jevan Brechva from Giraldiut. Thus to tho descendants of Caradoc Vraich Vras did Rhodri Mawr secure that independent princedom which they had held. It greatly exceeded the others in extent, yet it was less desirable from the number of noble chiefs or Uchelwyr, who held territories therein. Cadell, on tho death of his brothers, obtained the entire dominion of Wales, and it was occupied by his descendants till Theodor, whose descendants, Rhys, son of Theodor ; Grufiydd, son of Rhys; and Rhys, son of Gruffydd; enjoyed only South Wales.
Of the three royal palaces, built by Rhodri for his sons, Dinevawr alone remains. Hywcl Dda, or Howcl the Good, born about the close of the 9th century. His father was Cadell, eldest son of Rodri Maur, and he to whom that prince on his death allotted Dinevawr; giving Anarawd and Mervyn, Aberfraw and Powys. Upon the death of Cadell, in , Hywel succeeded to his patrimonial territory in South Wales, as well as Powys in North Wales, of which Cadell had dispossessed his brother Mervyn, in Six years later, Anarawd, prince of Aberfraw, died, and Hywel succeeded to tho nominal sovereignty of all Wales; assuming at the same time the guardianship of the sons of Anarawd, Edwal Vocl, and Elis.
Twenty-seven years later, in , Edwal Voel died; and Hywel actually enjoyed the full dominion of the principality. Howel was succeeded on the throne by Iago, and Ieuav, the sons of Idwal Voel, nephew to King Ilowel, and to whom the king had acted as guardian; See Pages 19 and Digitized by Google 23 In , Hywel accompanied by three bishops, went to Rome. On bin return he summoned a national council at the White House, on Tav.
It con- sisted of six of the most discreet and wiso men out of every comoto in Wales ; ecclesiastics of various degrees; together with the chiefs of tribes, and persons of rank in Wales. It was at the beginning of Lent that Hywel convoked this council, and ho remained throughout the holy season with tho whole assembly in prayer and fasting, "craving," according to one of the Welsh historians, "the assistance and direction of God's Holy Spirit, that he might reform tho laws and customs of the country of Wales, to tho honour of God, and tho quiet government of the people.
At the close of Lent, Hywel directed that twelve of tho most experienced of those present should be set apart to revise tho ancient laws of Wales ; that such laws only should bo retained as were conducive to good government, and applicable to the character of the times. After a careful research they concurred in selecting the laws of Dyvnwal Moelinud, m above page 11 as the foundation of tho new code.
Thoso were reduced to a systematic form and finally adopted. The new laws received tho sanction of Hywel ; who, in order that tho occasion might not want its full measure of ceremonial solemnity, directed that " the malediction of God, of that assembly, and of all Wales, should bo invoked against all such as should violate them, as well as against those by whom they might be corruptly administered.
Thus were these famous institutes established by the national vote, with the consent of the Sovereign, according to tho anciont usages of Wales. In , these laws were finally proclaimed throughout Wales ; and were the only law of the country till the reign of Edward 1st. Three copies were made, and deposited in the three royal palaces of Wales ; one is in the Cotton MSS. The laws and ordinances of Howel Dda observes the Hon. But though many are dictated by wisdom and sound policy, yet it is impossible to peruse some without a smile, and some without a censure.
By the law of gavel-kind, all the sons, legitimate or not, alike wero Digitized by LiOOQle 24 admitted to a division of the patrimony, to the exclusion of tho daughters. Hywell married Sian, Jane , daughter of the Earl of Cornwall. He left issue Owen, and Meredith, and Angharad. Hywel died, Parry s Cambrian Plutarch. Eineon, ap Owen, his son by his first wife , married Nesta, daughter of the Earl of Devonshire, their daughter Gwenllian, married Elystan Glodrydd. Tewdwr, son of Eineon ap Owen the grandson of Hywel Dda, on whom the epithet Mawr was, for some unrecorded reason, bestowed, fell a victim in , to the calamitous wars of the times, leaving two infant sons, Rhys and Rhydderch ; and a daughter Elinor, who married Bleddyn, ap Macnarch, last Prince of Brecon.
See the Genealogy and Ped. Rhys, ab Tewdwr, Prince of Deheu South Wales , was forced by the troubles of the times, and the loss of his hereditary- dominions, to seek an asylum among the Britons of Armorica, in Gaul. He continued an exile between fifty- and sixty years ; and during this interval, history has left no record of his conduct or actions. In , on the death of Rhys, ab Owain, who had usurped the sovereignty of South Wales, he returned from Brittany, and made his claim as legitimate heir ; The manifest justice of his pretentions, aided by his reputation for wisdom and integrity, prevented opposition ; and he was fully invested with tho power enjoyed by his ancestors.
He must, at this time, have been above eighty years of age. The law of gavel-kind greatly accounts for the confusion of Princes ; and Sub-princes, the position of the younger sons, which is rendered still more confounded by the constant reliellion of aspirants to the thrones of North, and South Wales, and by the different names under which the same persons must be recognised, as Vortigern, under Gwythcrn ; and Ambrosius, under Emrys Wlcdig ; moreover, in the MSS. Digitized by Google 25 The throne of North Wales was now held by Trahearne, ab Caradoc, a usurper, see above ; it belonged by right to Gruffydd, ab Cynan, the lineal descendant of Anarawd.
The establishment, of Rhys, ap Tewdur, seemed to present to Gruffydd a favourable opportunity to advance his own claims ; and having raised a considerable force, he marched into South Wales to solicit the alliance of Rhys ; it was obtained, and the two chieftains mado preparation for giving battle to the usurper. Both armies met on the mountains of Carno. And after an obstinate and sanguinary conflict, victory remained with Rhys, and Graflydd.
Trahearno, his two kinsmen, and the greater part of his army were left dead on the field. Shortly after, Jestyn, ab Gwrgant, lord of Glamorgan, whose family had, during the exile of Rhys, aspired to the sovereignty of South Wales, reared the standard of revolt. He was firmly met by Rhys, who marched at once into Jestyn's territory, laid waste the country, and destroyed his three principal castles of Llanilltyd, Dindryvan, and Dinas Powys. Jestyn, in return, entered the dominions of Rhys, and ravaged the land of Brychciniog and Ystrad Tyrir.
This predatory warfare was carried on some years, when Cadwgan, Madog, and Rhiryd, sons of Bleddjn, ap Cynvyn, collected a large force in , made an attack on Rhys, and compelled him to abandon his native land. He fled to Ireland, raised a numerous body of Irish auxiliaries, and returned to his territories in South Wales. Immediately on his return being known, his ranks were crowded by those of his adherents who remained true to his cause.
He met the rebels at Lechryd, on the borders of Pembrokeshire, and defeated them. Madog, and Rhiryd fell, and the other leaders fled. After this signal triumph, Rhys dismissed the Irish, with a liberal acknowledgement of their important services, and resumed his sovereignty. About , Llewellyn and Einion, sons of Cedivor, ap Collwyn, Lord of Dyved, with Einion, brother of Cedivor, and a feudal chieftain, Gruffydd, ap Meredydd rebelled against Rhys ; they met at Llandudoch and were defeated, the two sons of Cedivor were slain, Gruffydd was taken prisoner and executed as a traitor.
Einion, brother of Cedivor, sought protection with Jestyn, ab Gwrgant: unitedly, these made many efforts against Rhys ; but were always triumphantly repulsed. Einion and Jestyn sought alliance with the Norman Knights, and in , the Norman auxiliaries landed in Glamorgan ; they wero Robert Fitzhamon and twelve others. They invadod the dominions of Rhys with a formidable force. They met on the Black Mountain, near Brecon, at a place called Hirwaen Wrgant, after a fierce struggle Rhys was compelled to fly; he was pursued and overtaken at Glyn Rhoddnai.
Here, when more than 90 years of age, he was slain. Digitized by Google 20 Rhys marriod Gwlaclys, daughter of Rhywallon, ap Cynvyn, Prince of Powys, brother of Bleddyn, which brothers, conjointly succeeded Gruffydd, ap Llewolyn, ap Sissylt, on the throne of Wales, until tho death of Bleddyn in They left issue, besides Gronow, slain soon after his father, And Cynan, drowned in the lake Cremlin hence called the lake of Cynan , when flying from his foes, Another son, namely Gruffydd ap Rhys, who owed his safety to his youth.
See the Genealogy. He attacked and took the castle of Kidwelly, built by William de Londres, and held by that Norman Lord, who had assisted Fitzhamon and his twelve knights in his conquest of Glamorgan ; he enriched himself with valuable booty. Rhys, ap Gruffydd, his son, last Prince of South Wales, succeeded him.
In , this prince built a castle, north-west of the town of Rhaiadr, to check the incursions of tho Nomians. In , after winning the castles of Abercorran Lanyharne , S. Clears, and in Llanstephan, on the Tywi. See Plate. Several of the apart- ments aro entire, with their arched roofs unimpaired by time ; some of the stair- cases also are yet in tolerable condition. The principal entrance was from the z. Morgan's Cambria, page Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google 27 West, whero a magnificent gateway between two lofty round towers is still standing in good preservation, a.
Rhys was in surprised in one of his castles Rhaiadr , and taken prisoner by his own sons. He was buried in S. David's Cathedral, where his monument is still to be seen; it is toward the middle of the chancel, under a plain recess, backed by a beautiful wood-work screen. The effigy is in freestone, spiritedly sculptured, near to that of Rhys, ap Tudor.
He left, with several sons, two daughters, Elinor, and Gwenllian, who married Gilbert Talbot, governor of Gromond Castle. Of these Princes, Dryffyn, Prince of Brecon, was one who complied. Gwaethvoed however refused, saying, 'Ofncr na Ofne angau', " Fear him who fears not death," which motto is preserved in his descendant's family, Lewis of Greenmeadaw to this day. Princes of South Wales. It remains but to notice tho last royal ancestor of this family on the throne of North Wales, the father of tho Princess Gwenllian, wife to Gruffydd, ap Rhys, see scheme at Page 21 namely, Gruffydd, ap Cynan, ap Iago, ap Idwal, King of North Wales, after the death of Traherne, ap Caradoc, , Page Wales Illustrated.
Caradoc of Lancarvan. But Morgan gives no explanation as to Llowelyn's right to tho throne. As to Howel Dha, he appears to have been in right of his father, Cadell, the second son of Rhodri Mawr , Prince of South Wales, which he handed down to his descendants; which is, perhaps, what 'Giraldus' means; See page 22 and to have held tho kingdom of North Wales for his cousin Edwal's sons, Iago, probably the Jonafal of Caradoc, even as Edwal is the Edward of Caradoc , and Ieuav, Ievan and to have delivered it to them, passing over his own sons, Owen and Meredith ; Owen, as we have seen, succeeding to South Wales.
Thus far the history of ancestors, lineal and collateral, has been tho history of the island. It is beyond our province to enter minutely any further into tho story of the conflicts between the Kymry, and the Normans who ceaselessly endeavoured to enthral them, except so far as such eminent men as are mentioned in tho skeleton pedigrees of tho Appendix took part in the same.
We havo now arrived at what is known as 4 the Augustan age 1 of Wales ; during tho reign of Owen Gwynnedd the middle of the 12th century , the age of Owain, Cyveilioc, Giraldus, and Hool. Bishop Percy bears tho same testimony, adding that neither France, Italy, nor England had as yet produced compositions worthy to be named with the masterly lyric effusions poured forth by the free harp of the principality. Richly did they merit the designation freely given to them by their gallant opponents, ' the bravest of mankind,' their long struggle for the preservation of their liberties, with no human aid but their own solitary brotherhood in arms to support them, no other guerdon than the free lay of the bard to reward them, presents us with a study unparalleled for its staunchness and nobility of principle in the annals of the world, far superior to anything in Greek and Roman history.
Their dream was realised when Harry Tudor mounted the English throne, being also tho rightful heir to the throne of Wales. Then, and not till then, were the Kymry content. And it is, in right of her descent from Margaret, the grand daughter of Harry Tudor, that Her Majesty the Queen occupies the thrones of England and Wales.
After frequent repulse, and endless bloodshed, Edward I. Tho 1 Diadema BritanniaV the crown of the monarch of all Britain, which none had presumed to wear since the death of Cadwaladr. John, the Cambrian Kings were sworn at their coronation. Morgan's Cambria. The globe, and cross. The sceptre of mercy, and sword of justice of King Arthur. The model, in solid gold, of ' the Round Table,'; with the Knights' names engraved thereon.
Henry IV. Bolingkoke being upon the throne of England. The head of one, Thomas, ap Gwilym, Ped. Between them they could raise 40, men. Breconshiro was chiefly held by the powerful family of David, ap Llewelyn, commonly from a cast in his eye known as Sir David Gam.
Our Lady of the Ridge Church
All these branches of the Urien lineage, when united, were sufficient to turn the scale of fortune in any civil contest in the kingdom. But the great preponderance of the Urien influence declared in favour of Glyndore. Owen died in peace, Prince of Wales, 20th Sept. A glance at Ped. Which was exactly what happened. The glorious melee at the end of tho battle, when Sir David fell in victory, is thus described in Morgan's Cambria.
Eighteen French cavaliers of the greatest prowess, headed by the Lord of Croye, bound themselves, by the sacrifice of the mass, to strike these off, or to perish in the attempt. They constituted part of the followers of tho fiery Duke of Alencon, who, leading them and his company on, cut his way to the royal standard of England ; the Duke of Clarence was beaten down ; the Duke of York slain. Henry quitting the standard, defended the prostrate body of his relative, and, in this position, was assailed by Alencon and his cavaliers.
The fray was desperate; a stroke from Aloncon's battle-axe shore away part of Henry's crown, and brought him on his knees; a score of weapons were aimed at his life, any one of which might have finished his career and decided the fortune of the day ; but at this instant Sir David Gam, with his son-in-law, Sir Roger Vaughan, and his grandson, Sir Roger, a stripling of sixteen, of Tretower, and Sir William, ap Thomas, charged the French phalanx with such fury that Alencon and the eighteen cavaliers were slain to a man.
The French gave way in all directions ; the King, recovering from Alcncon's blow, pressed his success upon the flying French. Returning to the battle field amidst the dying, he found Sir David and the two Vaughans breathing their last in the arms of their comrades. Henry knighted his three deliverers where they lay, with a sword crimsoned with French blood, and never was knighthood more richly merited, more royally conferred, or carried to the grave from a nobler field.
I wish I could say better, for such a stately old place deserves to be thoroughly restored and made again into the residence of an important family. Sir Walter Raleigh has an eulogium upon Sir David's exploits and bravery at Agincourt, in which he prefers his greatness of soul to that of Mago ; and E.
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Rawlinson MSS. Bodleian Library, Oxon. See the Scheme Page On the death of Hen. He married Margaret Beaufort, heiress of the house of Lancaster. Therefore, upon the death of Hen. At this time the Herberts seem to have favoured both York and Lancaster. Where also, a few years subsequently, young Henry Tudor received all tho literary advantages that the kindness of the noble hearted woman, the Lady Anne Herbert, and the resources of the splendid Kymric library of the ap Gwilyms could communicate.
It is an incident no less rare than gratifying to find three rival sovereigns nurtured in their youth under the same roof, and with playmates of same family. The allegiance of the powerful chiefs of Wales to the Kings of England w. The judge was arrested, his credentials taken away, and his life spared only on condition that he would change his robes, for Sir Griffith's livery, and, thus attired, return to his master as ' Sir Griffith's Man.
Exit, Stage Lower East Side
Digitized by Google 83 Owen Tudor, who refused to retreat a step before the victorious Edward of York, was captured, and beheaded next morning at Hereford. Aged J " Richard, summoning his best men around him, charged a third time, Bhouting his war cry " S. George, S. Goorgo " into tho melee crowded round the ' Red Dragon of Wales,' beneath which standard Henry Tudor of Richmond had taken his position: Sir William Brandon, and Lord Strafford fell by his hand; and he had grasped the staff of tho standard, and was about to close with Richmond ; when ho was struck to the ground by the battle axe of Sir Rhys, ap Thomas, and, before he could recover the effects of the blow, dispatched with countless wounds.
His helm-crown was immediately picked up from the bush into which it had fallen, and placed, by the same hand, on Henry Tudor's head. Thus, on Bosworth Field, the thirteenth and the last of the battles of the rival Roses, the Norman Crown of England was transfered, by Kymric hands, to the Tudor dynasty ; and the supreme sovereignty of Britain, the 4 Un-benaeth Pridain,' restored to the ancient British race.
Morgan's Cambria, page, CParaUoc Urate! Caer Gloyw, the fortified town of Prince Gloyw. The ancestry of Caradoc, in the male line, will be found in the Appendix No. See Page Besides their daughter, the Empress Helen, these left two sons, Cenen or Cenaw, and Llewelyn a ; who, as has been said, abdicated in favour of their sister.
Born in Texas, Ramsey moved to Ardmore as a small child and grew up on a ranch. Like many other successful oil pioneers, he had no formal training in geology and petroleum engineering and, indeed, never attended college. A brief period of study at a private business school in Ardmore prepared him as a bookkeeper. He went to work for a bank in Oklahoma City and succeeded well enough that within five years he had bought his own bank.
By day, he worked in the bank; by night, he was a newspaper reporter; and on the weekend, he devoted himself to the real estate business. By , he was in the oil business, playing an important role in the development of the Healdton Field and the Cement Field in Oklahoma. Along with his brother, W. After the Mary Sudik No. Lev H. His farm chores left him time only to attend school for four months a year. He then earned his law degree from Millsaps College in Jackson, Mississippi. He came to Oklahoma in , and his legal work led him into the oil business, first in the oil brokerage business and then as an independent operator.
His first partner was another Oklahoma oil pioneer, W. In , Prichard went into partnership with J. Steve Anderson. The Anderson-Prichard Oil Corporation Apco Oil Corporation survived multiple bankruptcies and became a major force in the petroleum industry for over 50 years. Prichard himself was one of the most influential Oklahoma oilmen of his day. Active in civic and club life, he was a member of the American Petroleum Institute and a director of Liberty National Bank.
A dapper dresser, he carried a gold-tipped walking stick and always wore a rose in his lapel. Waite Phillips Waite Phillips began his career in the oil business working for his brother Frank in the oil fields of Bartlesville. Striking out on his own, Waite became known as one of the most capable and shrewd oilmen of his day.
These companies, together with investments in real estate and banking, made him one of the wealthiest men in America. His gift of his home in Tulsa created Philbrook Museum of Art, a lasting testimony to his love and knowledge of fine art. Lee E. Phillips L. Phillips was one of five Phillips brothers who became prominent oilmen. Their father was a Union veteran of the Civil War, a small farmer and carpenter. After a brief stint as a schoolteacher, L. On September 6, , the Anna Anderson well No.
In , Frank and L. He became one of the most distinguished bankers in the Middle West, serving as a director of the Federal Reserve Bank for District 10 Kansas City from until his death in A staunch Republican, a prominent civic leader, and a superb public speaker, L. Frank and L. Phillips we number among them. Frank Phillips Frank Phillips grew up on a farm in Iowa and earned his first pay digging potatoes at 10 cents a day. He left school at 14 to become a barber and soon owned every barbershop in town.
As bankers, he and his brother L. After two dry wells, on borrowed money but with unshakable optimism, the Phillips brothers brought in 81 straight gushers. In , they founded Phillips Petroleum Company, which continues today the tradition of technological innovation and civic spirit. Phillips funded pioneering work in aviation, and the Phillips laboratories have produced scientific discoveries with applications far beyond the petroleum industry. Phillips built his corporation on an ethic of hard work and company loyalty, and his own reputation for fairness in dealing with the Osages led them to make him a chief of their tribe, the only white man ever so honored.
The Woolaroc Museum, near Bartlesville, remains as a legacy of his love of Oklahoma and its citizens. William T. As an oil pioneer, he played a major role in developing the method of extracting oil from Mississippi Limestone and, thereby, opened important new areas of oil production in Oklahoma. In , he was named Outstanding Oklahoma Oil Man.
Active in national and state petroleum associations and a civic leader and philanthropist, Payne served as Chairman of the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education. He received numerous awards for outstanding service. Especially meaningful to him was the Horatio Alger Award, which he won in Presented annually by the American Schools and Colleges Association, the award honors an American who has risen from modest means to the top of his field.
William Osborn, Sr. Osborn learned self-reliance and initiative from his upbringing on the family farm. With an eighth-grade education, he came to Sasakwa in Seminole County, Oklahoma, and found work in a bank. He rose to become the bank manager and a well-known and trusted member of the community. Based in Ada, his company, Fleetborn Oil, was a pioneer in the discovery of the Fitts Field in Pontotoc County, Oklahoma, and an important participant in other oil and gas fields in Oklahoma and Texas.
However, with a sixth sense for productive oil lands, he was soon back in the oil business. Driving down a Texas highway, he stopped to observe a drilling rig and promptly bought acres of what turned out to be highly productive leases. Successive generations have followed in his footsteps in the oil and gas business. An innovative and highly successful pioneer of the oil industry, Noble left an enduring legacy of philanthropic activity and service to his state and country. In , he established the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, a charitable trust, which is now one of the top 50 philanthropic foundations in the U.
Noble served two terms as an OU Regent and is widely considered to be one of the most effective and far-sighted regents in the history of the University. In , he was inducted into the National Petroleum Hall of Fame. Daniel J. Moran President of Conoco from , Dan Moran might have been typecast by Hollywood as the model of the hard-driving and hard-boiled business executive.
After acquiring Marland Oil, J. Morgan appointed Moran as President. Under his leadership, Conoco became a pioneer in offshore drilling, continental pipelines, petrochemicals, and aviation fuel. His unannounced inspection trips were intended to keep every employee working at full efficiency. Ineffectual district managers might be fired on the spot and tossed off the bus in the middle of a Kansas cornfield. Moran was equally concerned to reward efficient and capable employees, devising stock option plans, insurance programs, and a wide range of bonuses and other incentives.
Victor E. Monnett Dr.
Victor Elvert Monnett was a distinguished geologist and university administrator, who played a major role in elevating the University of Oklahoma School of Geology to a leading position in the nation. Born in Hale, Missouri, he went to high school in Purcell, Oklahoma, and graduated from the University of Oklahoma in He took his Ph. From until his retirement in , he served on the faculty of the University of Oklahoma. Monnett was a remarkably gifted teacher.
His knowledge, wit, and rapport with students made subjects like petroleum and structural geology come alive. His concern for students went well beyond the classroom. He was a true mentor to his students, helping them find jobs and following their careers with great interest. He was equally gifted as an administrator. For 31 years, he was head of the School of Geology, a period marked by innovation in curriculum, increased enrollments, new physical facilities and research that brought international distinction to the University.
Hugh D. Miser Hugh Dinsmore Miser was an outstanding geologist, who played an important role in producing the first geological map of the state of Oklahoma. He joined the U. Geological Survey in Miser was the author of numerous scientific articles and reports, dealing with the geology of Oklahoma and Arkansas. He had a special interest in quartz veins in the Ouachita Mountains, and he gave one of his collections of quartz crystals to the University of Oklahoma, where it is now in the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. Miser had a long and productive relationship with OU and its School of Geology.
He worked closely with the faculty and graduate students in producing a new Geologic Map of Oklahoma, published in In , H. Miser was made an honorary member of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Ward S. Born in Randolph, New York, he moved to Chicago in He served with distinction in World War I.
His family had been in the oil business almost since the inception of the industry in America; and in , he joined his parents in Ardmore. He knew every aspect of the oil business, from working as a roustabout to holding high office in the Independent Petroleum Association of America and Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association. He established the Merrick Foundation and served as first chairman of the trustees of the University of Oklahoma Foundation Inc. His philanthropic works in health care, education, and other areas enriched the lives of people throughout Oklahoma and the nation.
Like many successful practical businessmen, Merrick understood the importance of history. Dean A. He joined with Robert S. A superb field geologist and author of numerous technical papers, McGee was a pioneer of offshore drilling techniques. He is credited with the first offshore oil well in America. Erected 10 miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico in , the well produced 1.
Dean McGee was the recipient of the first Petroleum Distinguished Service Award, and his service to petroleum engineering and the oil industry was recognized by many of the highest distinctions in the field. The Dean A. McGee Eye Institute is one of the many legacies of this oil pioneer to the people of Oklahoma and the nation. Robert McFarlin Robert McFarlin knew the challenge of hard times, and he responded to that challenge with optimism, tenacity, and dynamic energy. Raised on a farm in a Texas ravaged by the Civil War, he came to Oklahoma in When business ventures in Norman and Holdenville failed to pay off, he mortgaged his home and gambled on oil holdings which ultimately made him one of the richest men in America.
Public-spirited, McFarlin was a major figure in the civic life of Tulsa, serving as president of the Tulsa Chamber of Commerce. The McFarlin Memorial United Methodist Church in Norman is one of the many legacies of his philanthropic activities in religion, education, and other areas. Thomas H. Howard McCasland graduated in from the University of Oklahoma, where he excelled in athletics and won a Letzeiser Award.
After serving in World War I, he returned to Duncan about the time the Empire Field discovery well was drilled in late Recognizing opportunity, McCasland opened a real estate and oil-lease brokerage office and later acquired a small rotary oil rig, which he used in the search for oil and gas. He organized Mack Oil Co. A pioneer in the discovery of major oil and gas fields in southern Oklahoma, he was active in petroleum and industry affairs.
He also was a strong supporter and pivotal alumni leader of OU, serving as a trustee of the University of Oklahoma Foundation from to and chairman of the Board of Trustees from to He was committed to his hometown and Oklahoma and, through the McCasland Foundation of Duncan, contributed to churches, orphanages, libraries, hospitals, parks, and educational and recreational programs.
Ernest W. Marland knew that thrill. He discovered some of the richest oil producing areas in Oklahoma, including the Ponca, Burbank and Tonkawa Fields. An innovator in oil exploration techniques, Marland was no less a pioneer in benefits and social and health programs for the employees of Marland Oil Company.
His lavish life style was matched by his civic generosity towards his home town of Ponca City, where his gifts included the Pioneer Woman statue. He also provided substantial funding to the University of Oklahoma for the Memorial Union and the football stadium. Marland embodied the spirit of optimism and refusal to quit which has made Oklahoma great. After his company acquired by Conoco in and he himself went into bankruptcy, Marland entered politics. Always the innovator, Governor Marland established the Oklahoma highway patrol, the state license bureau, and the Oklahoma Planning and Resources board.
John E. He came to Oklahoma in to homestead acres in the southwestern part of the state. He took his earnings from livestock dealing and invested them in oil drilling and related activities. His oil companies included Mabee Consolidated Corp. Mabee is a classic model of an important type of Oklahoma oil pioneer. Denied educational opportunities, he was self-educated and acquired remarkable skill in oil drilling, finance, and business management.
Hard work was the catalyst that made all this possible. Mabee was determined to give back to his state for the opportunities petroleum had made available to him. In , he and his wife, Lottie, established the Tulsa-based J. Mabee Foundation to support Christian religious organizations and educational and charitable institutions. Arville I. Levorsen At the height of the Great Depression in , A. Levorsen was unemployed, living in Tulsa with a family to feed.
Imagination is what it takes. He went on to become a pioneering and formative thinker in oil exploration theory. Professor of Geology and Dean of the School of Mineral Sciences at Stanford University, Levorsen was the author of widely used textbooks in petroleum geology and a consultant for petroleum companies and governments around the world. Philip C. Lauinger P.
Lauinger was a pioneer in making Oklahoma an international center for information about the oil industry. A graduate of Georgetown University, Lauinger became president of Petroleum Publishing Company in and guided it for nearly 60 years. Prominent in civic affairs, Lauinger was a lay leader in the Catholic Church and was invested as a Knight of Malta. In , he was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame.
James Kessler James Kessler was a pioneer in the development of the Oklahoma City oil field. Born in Kentucky, he moved with his family to Oklahoma in He worked as a soda jerk at a drug store in Oklahoma City. Within two years, he saved enough to become a partner in a pharmacy in Edmond. Click here for more information. Meditate, read, pray, or simply sit with Jesus. See Calendar Notables for special holiday hours.
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