Reactivation will enable you to use the vocabulary trainer and any other programs. Show summary of all matches. British English American English chill out slow down. British English American English slow down! Are you missing a word, phrase or translation? Submit a new entry. Compile a new entry. Mach die Bewegungen langsam und konzentriert. Lieber korrekt und weniger als viele schlampige.
The workouts must be done slowly and with concentration. It is better to do fewer correct repetitions than many untidy ones. Ich mach mich langsam an www. Better to do quick short jumps than slow far jumps. Also wanderte ich die Oranienstrasse hoch in Richtung Cake, wo ich auf auf ein paar weitere Cocktails ein kehrte, bis ebendieses Cake gegen 5 ebenfalls dicht machte und ich wieder einmal vor dem Gedanken stand, nach Hause zu gehen oder eben nicht ….
So I walked up the street toward Orange Cake, wo ich auf auf ein paar weitere Cocktails ein kehrte, to give this cake to 5 also made tight and I was once again at the thought, to go home or not …. In the terrain was designated as the site of the Universal Exhibition, giving a boost to the development of the park. Dies bedeutet , dass die Verhandlungen sehr langsam gemacht werden und daher teuer werden. This means that negotiations can be made very slow and therefore expensive. Therefore, we will analyze the case of Chinese firms Haier, Galanz, Huawei, Cosco, Lenovo, SAIC, Founder, Chinalco, Sinochem …, allowing us to better understand the organizational Culture of Chinese companies and the influence of Confucian values in the management of these corporations.
Spr 14,29 www. Take it easy take it easy Better slow down girl That's no way to go Does your mother know? Lack of young trainees is slowly becoming apparent. Sarepta has active sisters and retired sisters in Nach der Krise von ging die madagassische Wirtschaft schrittweise aufrecht , denn Ende machten die Freihandelszonen langsam wieder auf. After , restrictions were lifted, and the natural riches of the area were gradually opened up and tourism developed there. Altitude makes itself felt, but the weather noticeably improves now. We even can see our destination.
Today also makes it slow higher-income groups, the district court and shall once again a new face, at least in terms of population. The many extensive renovations pushed the rents drastically in the amount, which forced many former residents of Prenzlauer Berg to move. This made the costing process enormously tedious and error-prone. Als ich dann einen Flow fand, war er schon weg. By the time I got into a flow he was already gone.
Second, the choice of Psalm 51 is encouraged by the thought that this number had had a long tradition in the history of music, both in the context of a larger cycle of the seven penitential psalms and as an independent setting. Psalm 51 is one of the most frequent set psalm texts that can be found in Catholic, Lutheran, as well as in Calvinistic contexts. The polyphonic psalm composition cannot be categorized as a musical genre because it defines itself alone after the psalm text.
The chronological limits of this study hardly need any special defense. The Baroque era is demarcated as beginning in and extending to applying to Italy or in to applying to northern countries by musicologists. Methods and expected result I will examine the musical settings of Psalm 51 in Germany c. What can be said as being inherited from Luther or Calvin and what is considered as progressive development in those thoughts?
In answering the first two questions, I will use the first chapter of this study to include some research reports on the music theology of Luther and Calvin. In the second chapter, I will treat the Psalm 51 under the following points of view: - What were the sources for the genesis of the text set to music by various composers treated in this study? In case they are not related, what could be the reason for the division of the Psalm verses made by the composers? For the second purpose, the psalms commentaries are of particular importance here.
Finally, the last third chapter will deal with the historical developments of the musical settings of Psalm Following questions will be considered: - How far has the biographical context of the composers played a role in their understanding of church music? The prefaces and dedicatory epistles of the collection will be explained to find out the backgrounds of the psalm settings. The following questions, though not as principal as the above listed questions will also be considered: For which context were musical settings of Psalm 51 written to? Which reasons and causes are there for their origins?
Do causes, performance places and way of performance have effects on the writing? How is each vocal part treated? The goal of this study is to represent the music historical development primarily, in which it analyzes and connects the theological aesthetic flux and historical changes in the psalm compositions. I will argue that the development of the musical settings of Psalm 51 corresponds with the development of reformational music aesthetics in Germany, so that we can view the Psalm settings not only from the perspectives of, but also within the limits of reformational music aesthetics alone.
The selected composers We cannot examine all composers who set Psalm 51 from to in Germany. It is rather here a choice of composers who were more or less decisive for the development of Psalm 51 musical settings. Of course, one can still question about the choice and argue about it, why this composer is selected and not the other one.
I am fully aware of such methodological difficulties. The start with Praetorius can be understood from a consequence of the chronological limits of this study. His musical setting of Psalm 51 is published in the collection of Musae Sioniae V appeared in Besides, Praetorius is a composer who also wrote extensively on the idea of music in his three volumes Syntagma Musicum. Hammerschmidt is in so far important because his musical compositions reflected a kind of a via media between the controversies of theology of music in his time.
Kuhnau is another composer who also wrote some thoughts on music aesthetics in his Preface to his Biblische Historien. A setting of an anonym composer probably Telemann and another setting by Telemann are selected to show the continuation of aesthetic flux in sacred music composition. However, I hope that they could be considered as representing the history of music in Protestant Germany. Thus, the following list below includes the names of the composers who were found to be authors of Psalm 51 settings. Hammerschmidt, A. Both reformers know how to value the special strength of music.
In the next two sections, I will treat in two parts at first the general view of Luther and Calvin about music, afterwards especially their understanding on psalm singing, which takes a unique position for Luther as well as for Calvin. Besides, however, some common traits can also be found in both of their thoughts. Senfl on 4 October Thomas in Leipzig.
He had contributed a mass for twelve voices for the opening of the disputation between Luther and Eck in Soon after that, he became a supporter of Luther. In , he moved to Wittenberg and opened a printing firm that produced volumes of liturgical music for the Lutheran church service. The title Encomion musices comes apparently later from Michael Praetorius. For him, music is a divine and excellent gift donum divinum et excellentissimum , that the diversity and magnitude of its virtue and benefits can not be praised completely.
However, music of the living things Musica in animantibus , particularly of the birds, is more wonderful than sounding matter. Although philosophers have tried to explain the human voice, finally they have to acknowledge their inability in explaining the original components of human voice such as laughter and weeping. Many things are waiting to be explored. Its power is not only to govern but also to overwhelm human beings. Therefore, music deserves the complete repertory of masses, vespers, antiphons, responsories, and hymns, in both Latin and German and by the best composers of his day.
The Symphoniae iucundae contained fifty-two motets for the Sundays of the church year. Mezger, Rezension von H. Moser, Die ev. Ulrich S. Leupold [Philadelphia: Fortress Press, ], p. Through music the gift of the Holy Spirit, namely, the inclination to all virtues, were instilled in the prophets, such as in case of Elisha II Kings In this respect, music is closely associated with the Word of God verbo Dei nihil [ Therefore, Luther hardly judges the instrumental music to be more highly than the song of the birds.
Only in connection with the words can music attest praising God. But any who remain unaffected are unmusical indeed and deserve to hear a certain filth poet or the music of the pigs. For him the word finds his intrinsic situation in the conversation. The written words are motionless, while the spoken words move the listener. Verba mentalia and verba scripta are soundless.
Verba vocalia on the other hand are sounding. Therefore, Christ has written nothing but spoken everything; the apostles have written little but spoken very much. Therefore it must be strived to increase more speakers than good authors in the church. Singing thus makes the text lively.
It is the Holy Spirit however and not a human being who first gives the living power to the Word of God. For Luther, music in the service of the Gospel has to be understood pneumatologically. The singing as reformational concern is for him almost as important as the sermon. Ideo enim Christus nihil scripsit, sed omnia dixit, Apostoli pauca scripserunt, sed plurima dixerunt. Unde magis conandum, ut multi sint concionatores quam boni scriptores in Ecclesia. Music as language of the gospel and faith For Luther music is part of the nature of human being created by God and therefore it can inform us about essential thing of human being while on the other hand it has something to say about that essential thing.
Musikwissenschaftliches Institut [Berlin, Ost], Leipzig , p. Edwards, Carl Braaten as well as with Michael Heymel. Music also can awake the prayer with a special fervor. Music ranks between mathematics and rhetoric now. Hans J. Hillerbrand [Philadelphia: Fortress Press, ], p. Michael Hatwell, London: Macmillan, , pp.
One finds in it words for all living conditions, thus suitably, as if they were spoken for my sake. Thus, we can see into the ground and the spring of their words and works, that is their heart: what kind of thought they have had as their heart has positioned itself and has held in all kinds of things, need and danger However, the Psalter gives this to us most splendidly to the saint, that we can be certain how their heart confessed and their words have been before God and everybody.
Since a human heart is like a ship on a wild sea which the gales of four directions of the world drive. Here fear and worry bumps here before future misfortune, there grieve goes and sadness from present evil.
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Here hope and presumption from future fortune, there security and joy blow in present goods. However, such gales teach to talk with seriousness and open the heart and to tip out the ground. Since who is in fear and need, talks quite differently from the misfortune than he who floats in joys.
And he, who floats in joys, talks and sings quite differently about joys than he who is in fear. It goes not from the heart, one says, if a sad should laugh or a happy cry, that is, the ground of his heart is not open and is not out. Hence, also comes that the Psalter is book of all saints and each in whatever circumstances he is also , finds psalms and words inside, which rhyme with his things and are suitable for him, thus as if they were so spoken only for his sake, that he also even can not speak nor find, nor may wish them better.
This is good then also to the fact, that if one likes such words and rhymes with him, he becomes certain that he is in the community of the saints and it has gone 40 Heymel, p. Aber wenn die Stimme hinzukommt, wird es zum Gesang, der die Stimme des Affektes ist. Denn ein menschlich Herz ist wie ein Schiff auf einem wilden Meer, welches die Sturmwinde von den vier Himmelsrichtungen der Welt her treiben. Und wer in Freuden schwebt, redet und singt ganz anders von Freuden, als der in Furcht steckt.
Das ist denn auch dazu gut, dass, wenn einem solche Worte gefallen und sich auf ihn reimen, er gewiss wird, er sei in der Gemeinschaft der Heiligen und es sei allen Heiligen gegangen, wie es ihm gehet, weil sie ein Liedlein alle mit ihm zusammen singen On one hand, one can express himself through music, on the other hand, through the same means he may expect that the similar impression can be aroused in the soul of the audience. For Luther, it is not only all about an abstract understanding of the text, but rather that the word is heard and received personally by human being.
Aristotle, Metaphysics b In this mood, the safer way seemed to me the one I remember was once related to me concerning Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, who required the readers of the psalm to use so slight an inflection of the voice that it was more like speaking than singing. However, when I call to mind the tears I shed at the songs of thy Church at the outset of my recovered faith, and how even now I am moved, not by the singing but by what is sung when they are sung with a clear and skillfully modulated voice , I then come to acknowledge the great utility of this custom.
Verum tamen cum reminiscor lacrimas meas, quas fudi ad cantus ecclesiae in primordiis recuperatae fidei meae, et nunc ipsum quod moveor non cantu, sed rebus quae cantantur, cum liquida voce et convenientissima modulatione cantantur, magnam instituti huius utilitatem rursus agnosco. Joseph Bernhart, Frankfurt , p. Albert C. Hence, we see that an image is said to be beautiful, if it perfectly represents even an ugly thing.
Alternatively, differently stated: Can the content also be explained from the perspectives of the formal structures of music? We should get back to this later. Unde quae habent colorem nitidum, pulchra esse dicuntur. Drioux, Parisiis , p. One is made with simple word, the other with singing. And it is not a thing invented lately. Because from the first origin of the Church it was there, as it appears from the history clearly. And even St. Paul speaks not only to pray with the mouth, but also to sing 1. Corinthians There, it is said that it is an exceedingly useful thing for the edification of the church to sing some psalms as a public prayer and to direct requests to God or to praise him in singing.
It shows rather how high Calvin values the church singing, because for him the prayer is the center of the Christian life. Les unes se font par simple parole, les autres avec chant. Scholl, Neukirchen-Vluyn , p. Scheuner, 5. Paul says, that the spiritual songs can be sung correctly only with the heart Eph.
And the heart requires understanding. And in it said St. Augustine lies the difference between the singing of men, and that of the birds. Because a linnet, a nightingale, a parrot will sing well, but it will be without understanding. And the special gift of man is to sing by knowing what he says. Afterwards the heart and the affection must follow the understanding, what is not possible, however, if we have not printed the song in our memory, for never to cease singing. Many of his statements were not rare in his time; other religious and ideological groups also represented such views.
Car une linotte, un rossignol, un perroquet chanteront bien, mais ce sera sans entendre. And indeed, we experiment that it has a secret and almost unbelievable power to move hearts in a kind or another. Humanistic music theorist like Gioseffo Zarlino has stressed that the vocal music enjoys precedence towards the instrumental. Therefore, it was nothing special in that time that Calvin preferred vocal music.
It was important to the humanists, that the music must match the text. The melodic ornaments shall be reduced so that the melody can more strongly be adapted to the syllables. Ambivalent view on music Augustine in his Confessiones shows an ambivalent attitude towards music. But the pleasures of my flesh — to which the mind ought never to be surrendered nor by them enervated — often beguile me while physical sense does not attend on reason, to follow her patiently, but having once gained entry to help the reason, it strives to run on before her and be 76 Zarlino, Institutioni harmoniche II, xii.
Fubini, Music Aesthetics, p. Thus in these things I sin unknowingly, but I come to know it afterward. I am inclined — though I pronounce no irrevocable opinion on the subject — to approve of the use of singing in the church, so that by the delights of the ear the weaker minds may be stimulated to a devotional mood.
Yet when it happens that I am more moved by the singing than by what is sung, I confess myself to have sinned wickedly, and then I would rather not have heard the singing. The first one, according to Augustine, is that a good and healthy aesthetic experience should include reason to be the leader of the physical sense and not otherwise.
Here, we see that Calvin was indebted to Augustine in his emphasis on understanding. The difference between them remains that for Augustine physical sense should follow the reason, while for Calvin things that must follow the understanding are the heart and the affection. Sed delectatio carnis meae, cui mentem enervandam non oportet dari, saepe me fallit, dum rationi sensus non ita comitatur, ut patienter sit posterior, sed tantum, quia propter illam meruit admitti, etiam praecurrere ac ducere conatur.
Bernhart, p. The telos of the journey is God himself. If a man only seeks his own pleasure instead of having a clear vision of the end during his journey, then what should be a means becomes the end. Both Calvin and Augustine were afraid of the emotional ability of music. When there would be no other consideration than this only one, it must definitely move us to moderate the usage of music, to make it serve in any fairness; so that it gives no opportunity to give us free rein in dissolution, 85 Cf.
Bernhard Dombart, Lipsiae , p. Marcus Dods. Populus inquit iste appropinquat mihi ore suo, et labiis suis me honorat: cor autem eorum longe est a me: et timuerunt me mandato et doctrina hominum [Iesa. The glory of God ought to shine in the various parts of our bodies, especially in the tongue, which serves as the instrument for common prayer of men to God.
The glorification is closely connected with self- forgetfulness. The pastoral aspect in the psalm singing consists that the singing can serve as a spiritual exercise to cure a self-centered life. Higman, Art. According to Marti however, it is not about a quantitative restriction of the music even not with the regulation, that in the service should be sung exclusively monophonic and without instruments , nor it is about a half-hearted compromise for the permission of music, but about its qualitative regulation.
Scholl, Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, , pp. Garside, pp. However, Calvin gives his opinion a touch of theological argument. Then he discerns the intention of the Jews and the Chaldeans in using the musical instruments. Here too, musical instruments are understood as means of arousing and stimulating the believers from their sluggishness for dullness is an obstacle to the healthy growth in piety.
James Anderson. Theological writings and commentaries The first theological writing, which we are dealing with for the search of the continuation of reformational music aesthetics, is late 16th century writing by Peter Martyr Vermigli Here, it should be noted that the idea of affections relates more to the mind rather than to the heart. The subordination of the affections to the understanding belongs to one of the central tenets in the theological thought of Reformed Orthodoxy within the humanistic milieu.
Music stands between the pleasure of the senses and the reason. However, the last sentence of his treatment on music contains a strong warning against the attractive power of music that can distract the congregation from the Word. There, he treated the last nine chapters of the Book Ezekiel. The work appeared in under the title Templum Ezechielis. In his comparison of music and rhetoric, Hafenraffer understands music as eloquence that comes to life vivificata Vermigli, Loci III,13,26, p. Another continuation of reformational music aesthetics is to be found in the pre-Pietism devotional writer Johann Arndt By which I would not be understood, to mean nothing but bare Words, and empty Sounds, void of Faith and Devotion ; but such a vigorous Faith, such an ardent Devotion, as may break forth into holy Hymns and spiritual Songs, singing and making Melody from the Heart unto the Lord.
Here we find that Arndt develops his understanding of singing within a new climate in the Lutheran theology. To which St. Paul alludes, Col. By which expression, we are by no means forbidden, either in Publick or Private, to Praise God with Voices or Instruments of Musick ; but that all this ought to be done with a lively Devotion, in the Spirit, and from the Heart ; left Religion should be thought to consist in empty Sounds, and external Pomp of Divine Service. Finally, Arndt categorizes the Psalms as supplicatory, consolatory, penitential, doctrinal, and prophetical.
We should move now to a person who has recommended highly the writings of Johann Arndt in his reform program writing: Philipp Jakob Compare J. Calvin, FP, CS 2, p. Daher S. First, Spener was simply reporting the current condition of services during his ministry. Second, he did not say that figural music is useless and unedifying in itself, but only certain cultural elites can understand it. The majority of the simpler worshippers, since they cannot follow or digest the beauty of such music, wander away in their minds. Thus instead of being a spiritual preparation for hearing the sermon, the music has played a competitive role to preaching.
Sermons The delivery of music sermons belongs to another source for tracing the tradition of the Lutheran theology of music in Germany at that time. The sermons were usually held for the common people and afterwards given to be printed. Renate Steiger, Heidelberg: Manutius, , p. Martin Schmidt, Art. Jahr in der Kirch zu vnser L. With musical terms, he explains the works of the Holy Spirit and the important elements of piety. In Tractatio allegorica, the Holy Spirit is described as a Kapellmeister.
First, he composes. This creative act of the Holy Spirit is to be found in creation Gen 1 , in the regeneration in baptism Joh 3 and in the new creation of human being Rom 5. The revealed Word of God is understood both as the means through which we receive the Holy Spirit and as the rule.
The Ulm Superintendent Cunrad Dieterich publishes another famous sermon, which deals with the understanding of church music. This special sermon was delivered on the church inauguration feast. Every year he planned for the church inauguration different piece of the church about which he preached: the font, the pulpit, the bells or also the church singing and the organ. Kings , stimulate human mind and arouse devotion, drive all mourning and melancholy thoughts and arouse joy and bliss in Christian hearts, to drive the restless furious spirit and to bring open and joyful spirit, and finally to cheer up, refresh and strengthen human memory.
It is enough to know that instrumental music was already composed also for the glory of God. Within this context, Dieterich reminds the use of musical instruments in the long tradition of church practice, so that their abolition from the church would only be harmful and cause outrage. Karlstadt in Wittenberg. He describes a Christian as a living organ and makes a parallel between human body and the body of an organ, the mouth and the pipe, the keyboard and pedal and the hearts, etc.
Theological polemic writings The age of confessionalism was characterized by many polemical writings by each denomination. The stylistic change from Italian influence was certainly not the first cause of the debate on musical aesthetics or theology of music within the Lutheran and Calvinistic confession, it rather sharpens the pre- existing confessional debates.
The polemic had a devastating impact on the position of music in the service. However, some theologians who wanted to revitalize religion to a deeper piety saw their calling to respond to that present situation. Far from Dieterich, Ulmische OrgelPredigt, p. In this kind of music aesthetics, music serves more as an anticipation of something good that is to come.
The preface was dated on 21 September V, vs. In the middle, King David dances with the harp before the Ark of the Covenant, which is carried by two priests, accompanied by musicians, who play on string and wind instruments, psalter, timpanis and bells. Under the Ark of the Covenant, the verses 1, 3, 4, and 5 of the th psalm are registered on a panel. In the lower half of the copperplate, earthly music is represented in a place of worship. Because of the nearness of this copperplate with the performance of a richly arranged works for several choirs in a Protestant service, Blankenburg had took this part of copperplate as a clear example for the performance practice of church music with several choirs in MGG A big organ can be seen high above in the middle.
All translations throughout the Psalmodia Christiana are taken from Irwin. For Ameln, this copperplate is unique because the praise of God on earth is represented in two pictures, so that the Jewish music of the old covenant appears as the seed and link to the Christian music of the new covenant. In this way a sweet, glorious, and beautiful loveliness, charm, and harmony or concord is heard. In the spirit of Lutheran theology, Mithobius argues that the treatment of music should be understood in the context of Christian freedom.
Mithobius, Psalmodia Christiana, p. Music treatises Music treatises are the next category for tracing the continuation of reformational music aesthetics in Germany. Unlike prefaces to music printings and hymnbooks, music treatises are capable to offer a more systematic and comprehensive treatments on music. Positively, it can be said that his music aesthetics shows balance criticism on both the positive and negative power of music.
Prefaces to music printings and hymnbooks Although the continuation of Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinistic theology in the age of confessionalism is characterized by many polemic writings, there were still common similarities between them. One among those is their spirituality, which is found in hymnbooks used for singing and praying. The size of the hymnbooks at that time grows drastically. The Dresden hymnbook of for instance contained songs, in the year it had already songs and in , it reached no less than We can assume that from those hymnbooks we can get a clear picture of the common piety ruled among the people, because the church authorities gave little influence only in few cases at its origin.
The book appeared in It contains 50 sacred songs and psalms set in four voices. Paulus Col. God to certain extent has pictured the Holy Trinity in the music, in which no more than three harmonious voices can be invented or thought of. For better accessibility, he transfers the choral melody from the tenor into the descant, so that the congregation could recognize the psalm and sing it.
Finally, about the performance practice Osiander recommended that especially the alto and tenor should not be sung too loud, so that the choral melody had the primacy over all other voices, and was heard at least twice stronger than the other voices. It should be context sensible and adapted to the custom of each local congregation. His fifty sacred songs and psalms show his sensibility to this reformational vision.
Praetorius is fully aware of the potential difficulties in performing music written in ornamented concertizing style. Therefore, he decides to write simpler setting so that in smaller particular schools the little boys can manage to perform them. Friedrich Blume, Vol. Literary testimonials The last category for tracing the continuation of reformational music aesthetics in Germany is literary testimonial. Here, we will analyze Christianopolis by Johann Valentin Andreae published in Edward H. Thompson, Dordrecht etc. Such theology of music best reflects the Andreae, Christianopolis, p.
The diversity was not regarded as being polemical in nature but as a complementary potential. Methodological questions The previous chapter has dealt with the main tenets of the reformational music aesthetics both of Luther and of Calvin and the continuation of their theology of music in the age of confessionalism.
In fact, it should be noted that several positions and various argumentations flowed together as an intermixing of different lines of argumentation. The orthodox and the pietistic school of thoughts on music aesthetics cannot be separated by drawing a clear line, but rather they interact with one another to form a plurality of unique and personal opinions on the idea of music. However, it is still possible to view the continuation of later music aesthetics in Germany as diversity within the reformational theology of music. Just as the diversity of music aesthetics concepts in the age after Luther and Calvin in Germany can be viewed within the reformational theology of music, the musical settings of Psalm 51 treated in this study can also be viewed not only from but also within the reformational music aesthetics.
In the second and third chapter, I will examine on whether the historical development of Psalm 51 musical settings in Germany corresponds to the music aesthetic flux of the later reformational theology of music in the age of confessionalism. Before doing so, I will first dedicate the second chapter for the analysis of Psalm One will find that theological approach and examination are necessary before analyzing the musical settings of various composers selected in this study. The music aesthetic flux within the reformational theology of music in Protestant Germany should be the reason for the explanation of the wide range of compositional variety of Psalm 51 settings from Praetorius to Bach.
Moreover, one can thus view the historical development of musical settings of Psalm 51 in Germany from Praetorius to Bach as reflection of the historical development of the reformational music aesthetics in Germany. In this respect, one can view the musical settings of Psalm 51 in Germany c. Moments of suffering was naturally understood as moments for self-introspection. Therefore, many songs of lamentation such as taken from Psalm 51 are at the same time an expression of suffering in time of difficulties.
Before examining and comparing the various musical compositions in the next chapter, it is necessary to examine the most similar elements in those compositions, namely the text to be set. The compositions extend from c. Although Wolfram Steude has already pointed out that the Psalm texts differs little in the Bible editions of the 17th century, however, as Lauterwasser rightly stated, we should not underestimate the fact that the graphic reproduction of the text version alone could have an effect on the musical composition.
In , the first complete Bible translation was available. Further editions followed in , , , , two editions and Vnd vbel fur dir gethan. Geist nicht von mir. Vnd brand opffer gefallen dir geben, Vnd Brandopffer gefallen dir nicht. The results of this collective work took effect in the Bible edition of Despite this tendency, the approach for the Christological interpretation remains unchanged.
The Bible revision of for instance remained strongly at the old Luther-German. Therefore, a selection of Luther Bible- and Psalm printings will be compared. Since the newer reprints did not immediately find a large distribution in the market, it can be assumed that Bible printings were often still used for a long time after its first launching. Martin Luthers Werke, Vol. There are some significant revisions from the version to the later translations. However, one can note the potential of division possibility in the version.
Hegenwaldt divided his rhymed song in five verses: V. Between V. The next division between V. The last division between V. Although at first glance the versions of and look almost the same, a deeper examination shows that there are some significant differences between them. Some differences can be found for instance in V. In Bible edition, the division features of the Psalm text can be recognized more clearly through the emphasis of the first words in V.
The division in V. In particular, the last division from V. The division of V. However, the most important contribution of the later Bible edition is perhaps the division from V. It was already mentioned that Hegenwaldt separated V. In the Bible edition on the contrary, Luther divides V. It should be noted that there is a larger modification between the and edition.
Upon a closer look, not all modifications have considerable impacts on the musical settings of Psalm 51, unless none of the nine composers treated in this study used the Bible edition. Some changes include for instance V. However, certain influences may be found on some musical compositions from the modification done in V.
This gradual or progressive revelation is certainly a reason to ask God boldly for forgiveness of sins V. Making a new move in setting this ninth verse seems more appropriate, even most fitting. This ninth verse is also characterized by its parallelismus membrorum, namely a synonymous parallelism.
Another parallelism can be found in V. The text versions In this section, the works by all nine composers are examined.
Five different text versions are discussed. The second is a rhymed paraphrase by E. Hegenwaldt which appeared for the first time in The fourth is taken from the Vulgate translation. Finally, the last version used by Bach is also a paraphrase of an anonymous work. For comparison, the text variants of the Psalm settings of this kind are listed on the following pages after the next page. For text comparison, I select the Biblia of , that is, two years before Praetorius published the 5th part of his Musae Sioniae. The first one is an exact copy of the Vulgate version, while the last, since it is a free paraphrase, will not be compared with the Bible translation but with the original text of Stabat mater in Chapter 3.
Ten editions are selected for this purpose: three Psalter printings and seven Bible editions. In the Psalter Deutsch, Leipzig, , we do not notice any clear feature of the text division. The placement of the text in different pages does not seem to have intended meaning for the division of the Psalm text. Although this placement is not to be understood as an intended division of the Psalm text, one can see that some impacts were manifested on the musical compositions. This could form the basis for the setting of Schaffe in mir, Gott, ein reines Herz that starts with the very verse.
Such a division in the printing was certainly made accidentally. The verses which are grouped together are: V. In the Biblia, Franckfort am Mayn, , one finds a rather confusing text division near the beginning of the Psalm. So for instance, the first three numberings of the division 1, 3, and 4 correspond to the verse numbering.
This confusion continues to the rest numberings: in the division we read 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 18; while it actually refers to V. Now if we convert the numbering of verses in this Bible edition to the edition we have grouping in 15 parts: V. Like in the Bible edition, the Biblia, Newstadt an der Hardt, begins also with division of the Psalm text. These three parts are again subdivided into V. What we have here is that the text from V. This placement is again not to be understood as an intended division of the Psalm text.
It is difficult to speculate the text division in this Bible edition so that we should leave it opens. In the commentary on V. In the Biblia, Franckfurt , no division by the two capital letters at the beginning of the verses could be found. The whole texts are divided into two columns: V. However, the same hints for more detailed division of the text can be found at the beginning of this Psalm.
Much clearer is the division in the Biblia, Wittenberg, Schrifft, ed. If we summarize the different text division in the Bible- and Psalter printings analyzed in this study, one will have a diagram as followed: Text version: Wittenberg 3 GOtt sey mir gnedig I. Martin Luthers, Wittenberg: Wust, Though the division from V. It did not escape his eyes that not a crumb was wasted in the house, nor that the wine they drank was made from the second pressing; a multitude of small things, which it is useless to speak of in detail here, made him burn to distinguish himself, and his ambition to succeed increased tenfold.
So also sah es Ende November in der Familienpension aus. Um die verlorene Zeit wieder einzubringen, hatte der tapfere Student sich vorgenommen, bis zum Morgen durchzuarbeiten. Das sollte die erste Nacht sein, die er hier im stillen Stadtviertel durchwachte. Wer in diese goldenen Salons zugelassen war, den hatte man in den hohen Adel aufgenommen. Der Marquis von Ronquerolles nannte sie ein Vollblutpferd.
He meant, like all great souls, that his success should be owing entirely to his merits; but his was pre-eminently a southern temperament, the execution of his plans was sure to be marred by the vertigo that seizes on youth when youth sees itself alone in a wide sea, uncertain how to spend its energies, whither to steer its course, how to adapt its sails to the winds. At first he determined to fling himself heart and soul into his work, but he was diverted from this purpose by the need of society and connections; then he saw how great an influence women exert in social life, and suddenly made up his mind to go out into this world to seek a protectress there.
Surely a clever and high-spirited young man, whose wit and courage were set off to advantage by a graceful figure and the vigorous kind of beauty that readily strikes a woman's imagination, need not despair of finding a protectress. These ideas occurred to him in his country walks with his sisters, whom he had once joined so gaily.
The girls thought him very much changed. His aunt, Mme. Suddenly the young man's ambition discerned in those recollections of hers, which had been like nursery fairy tales to her nephews and nieces, the elements of a social success at least as important as the success which he had achieved at the Ecole de Droit.
He began to ask his aunt about those relations; some of the old ties might still hold good. After much shaking of the branches of the family tree, the old lady came to the conclusion that of all persons who could be useful to her nephew among the selfish genus of rich relations, the Vicomtesse de Beauseant was the least likely to refuse. To this lady, therefore, she wrote in the old-fashioned style, recommending Eugene to her; pointing out to her nephew that if he succeeded in pleasing Mme.
A few days after his return to Paris, therefore, Rastignac sent his aunt's letter to Mme. The Vicomtesse replied by an invitation to a ball for the following evening. This was the position of affairs at the Maison Vauquer at the end of November A few days later, after Mme. The persevering student meant to make up for the lost time by working until daylight.
It was the first time that he had attempted to spend the night in this way in that silent quarter. The spell of a factitious energy was upon him; he had beheld the pomp and splendor of the world. He had not dined at the Maison Vauquer; the boarders probably would think that he would walk home at daybreak from the dance, as he had done sometimes on former occasions, after a fete at the Prado, or a ball at the Odeon, splashing his silk stockings thereby, and ruining his pumps.
Welch ein Mann! Er tat seine Arbeit mit staunenswerter Leichtigkeit. It so happened that Christophe took a look into the street before drawing the bolts of the door; and Rastignac, coming in at that moment, could go up to his room without making any noise, followed by Christophe, who made a great deal.
Eugene exchanged his dress suit for a shabby overcoat and slippers, kindled a fire with some blocks of patent fuel, and prepared for his night's work in such a sort that the faint sounds he made were drowned by Christophe's heavy tramp on the stairs. Eugene sat absorbed in thought for a few moments before plunging into his law books. He had just become aware of the fact that the Vicomtesse de Beauseant was one of the queens of fashion, that her house was thought to be the pleasantest in the Faubourg Saint-Germain.
And not only so, she was, by right of her fortune, and the name she bore, one of the most conspicuous figures in that aristocratic world. Thanks to the aunt, thanks to Mme. It was almost like a patent of nobility to be admitted to those gilded salons; he had appeared in the most exclusive circle in Paris, and now all doors were open for him. Eugene had been dazzled at first by the brilliant assembly, and had scarcely exchanged a few words with the Vicomtesse; he had been content to single out a goddess among this throng of Parisian divinities, one of those women who are sure to attract a young man's fancy.
The Comtesse Anastasie de Restaud was tall and gracefully made; she had one of the prettiest figures in Paris. Imagine a pair of great dark eyes, a magnificently moulded hand, a shapely foot. There was a fiery energy in her movements; the Marquis de Ronquerolles had called her "a thoroughbred," "a pure pedigree," these figures of speech have replaced the "heavenly angel" and Ossianic nomenclature; the old mythology of love is extinct, doomed to perish by modern dandyism.
But for Rastignac, Mme. Anastasie de Restaud was the woman for whom he had sighed.
He had contrived to write his name twice upon the list of partners upon her fan, and had snatched a few words with her during the first quadrille. With the impetuosity of his adventurous southern temper, he did all he could to cultivate an acquaintance with this lovely countess, making the best of his opportunities in the quadrille and during a waltz that she gave him. When he told her that he was a cousin of Mme. He was so lucky as to light upon some one who did not laugh at his ignorance, a fatal defect among the gilded and insolent youth of that period; the coterie of Maulincourts, Maximes de Trailles, de Marsays, Ronquerolles, Ajuda-Pintos, and Vandenesses who shone there in all the glory of coxcombry among the best-dressed women of fashion in Paris--Lady Brandon, the Duchesse de Langeais, the Comtesse de Kergarouet, Mme.
Luckily, therefore, for him, the novice happened upon the Marquis de Montriveau, the lover of the Duchesse de Langeais, a general as simple as a child; from him Rastignac learned that the Comtesse lived in the Rue du Helder. Ah, what it is to be young, eager to see the world, greedily on the watch for any chance that brings you nearer the woman of your dreams, and behold two houses open their doors to you!
To set foot in the Vicomtesse de Beauseant's house in the Faubourg Saint-Germain; to fall on your knees before a Comtesse de Restaud in the Chaussee d'Antin; to look at one glance across a vista of Paris drawing-rooms, conscious that, possessing sufficient good looks, you may hope to find aid and protection there in a feminine heart! To feel ambitious enough to spurn the tight-rope on which you must walk with the steady head of an acrobat for whom a fall is impossible, and to find in a charming woman the best of all balancing poles.
He sat there with his thoughts for a while, Law on the one hand, and Poverty on the other, beholding a radiant vision of a woman rise above the dull, smouldering fire. Who would not have paused and questioned the future as Eugene was doing? His wondering thoughts took wings; he was transported out of the present into that blissful future; he was sitting by Mme.
Joseph, broke the silence of the night. It vibrated through the student, who took the sound for a death groan. He opened his door noiselessly, went out upon the landing, and saw a thin streak of light under Father Goriot's door. Eugene feared that his neighbor had been taken ill; he went over and looked through the keyhole; the old man was busily engaged in an occupation so singular and so suspicious that Rastignac thought he was only doing a piece of necessary service to society to watch the self-styled vermicelli maker's nocturnal industries.
The table was upturned, and Goriot had doubtless in some way secured a silver plate and cup to the bar before knotting a thick rope round them; he was pulling at this rope with such enormous force that they were being crushed and twisted out of shape; to all appearance he meant to convert the richly wrought metal into ingots.
Father Goriot had unwound his coil of rope; he had covered the table with a blanket, and was now employed in rolling the flattened mass of silver into a bar, an operation which he performed with marvelous dexterity. Der Vater Goriot aber putzt sich schon seit zwei Jahren die Schuhe selber. Der Luftikus von Student gibt mir vierzig Sous. So ein Pack! Ein so lebenslustiger Mann wie er hat dazu keine Zeit.
Solche Dummheit! Der Vater Goriot ist mit einem Paket fortgegangen. Der Student kommt erst nach den Vorlesungen, um zehn. Ich habe sie alle gesehen, als ich die Treppe kehrte. Das Ding war hart wie Eisen. Was treibt er eigentlich, der Alte? Sie haben ihn alle zum Narren, die andern; aber er ist trotzdem ein guter Mann, der mehr wert ist als sie alle. Es ist ein ganzes Dutzend. Geben Sie acht auf die Milch, Christoph, und auf die Katze! Father Goriot looked sadly at his handiwork, tears fell from his eyes, he blew out the dip which had served him for a light while he manipulated the silver, and Eugene heard him sigh as he lay down again.
Rastignac, hearing those words, concluded to keep silence; he would not hastily condemn his neighbor. He was just in the doorway of his room when a strange sound from the staircase below reached his ears; it might have been made by two men coming up in list slippers. Eugene listened; two men there certainly were, he could hear their breathing.
Yet there had been no sound of opening the street door, no footsteps in the passage. Suddenly, too, he saw a faint gleam of light on the second story; it came from M. Vautrin's room. He went part of the way downstairs and listened again. The rattle of gold reached his ears. In another moment the light was put out, and again he distinctly heard the breathing of two men, but no sound of a door being opened or shut. The two men went downstairs, the faint sounds growing fainter as they went. Vauquer out of her bedroom window. Vauquer," answered Vautrin's deep bass voice.
Christophe drew the bolts," said Eugene, going back to his room. These incidents turned his thought from his ambitious dreams; he betook himself to his work, but his thought wandered back to Father Goriot's suspicious occupation; Mme. When a young man makes up his mind that he will work all night, the chances are that seven times out of ten he will sleep till morning. Such vigils do not begin before we are turned twenty. The next morning Paris was wrapped in one of the dense fogs that throw the most punctual people out in their calculations as to the time; even the most business-like folk fail to keep their appointments in such weather, and ordinary mortals wake up at noon and fancy it is eight o'clock.
On this morning it was half-past nine, and Mme. Vauquer still lay abed. Christophe was late, Sylvie was late, but the two sat comfortably taking their coffee as usual. It was Sylvie's custom to take the cream off the milk destined for the boarders' breakfast for her own, and to boil the remainder for some time, so that madame should not discover this illegal exaction. Vautrin, who is not such a bad sort, all the same, had two people come to see him again last night. If madame says anything, mind you say nothing about it.
Du hast mich schlafen lassen wie ein Murmeltier. So etwas ist ja noch gar nicht vorgekommen! Christoph hatte doch den Riegel schon vorgeschoben? Und da haben Sie nun gedacht Couture, who doesn't look twice at every penny, there's no one in the house that doesn't try to get back with the left hand all that they give with the right at New Year," said Sylvie. A miserable five-franc piece.
There is Father Goriot, who has cleaned his shoes himself these two years past. There is that old beggar Poiret, who goes without blacking altogether; he would sooner drink it than put it on his boots. Then there is that whipper-snapper of a student, who gives me a couple of francs. Two francs will not pay for my brushes, and he sells his old clothes, and gets more for them than they are worth. But about that great big chap Vautrin, Christophe; has any one told you anything about him? I met a gentleman in the street a few days ago; he said to me, 'There's a gentleman in your place, isn't there?
A gay fellow like him hasn't the time to do it. Vautrin about it afterwards, he said, 'Quite right, my boy. That is the way to answer them. There is nothing more unpleasant than to have your little weaknesses known; it might spoil many a match. Such bosh! There," she cried, interrupting herself, "that's a quarter to ten striking at the Val-de-Grace, and not a soul stirring!
Ich werde ein wenig Wasser zusetzen, er wird es nicht merken. Couture and the girl went out at eight o'clock to take the wafer at Saint-Etienne. Father Goriot started off somewhere with a parcel, and the student won't be back from his lecture till ten o'clock. I saw them go while I was sweeping the stairs; Father Goriot knocked up against me, and his parcel was as hard as iron.
What is the old fellow up to, I wonder? He is as good as a plaything for the rest of them; they can never let him alone; but he is a good man, all the same, and worth more than all of them put together. He doesn't give you much himself, but he sometimes sends you with a message to ladies who fork out famous tips; they are dressed grandly, too. There are a dozen of them. Ah, ah! Guten Tag, Mama Vauquer! Wollen Sie's schleunigst sagen!
Kommen Sie, ich werde Ihnen den Tisch decken helfen. Just keep an eye on the milk, Christophe; don't let the cat get at it. How is this? It's nearly ten o'clock, and you let me sleep like a dormouse! Such a thing has never happened before. Es ist zum Lachen. They all cleared out before there was a wink of daylight.
Vauquer retorted; "say a blink of daylight. Anyhow, you can have breakfast at ten o'clock. La Michonnette and Poiret have neither of them stirred. There are only those two upstairs, and they are sleeping like the logs they are. Vautrin got in last night after Christophe had bolted the door? Christophe heard M. Vautrin, and went down and undid the door. And here are you imagining that? Dish up the rest of the mutton with the potatoes, and you can put the stewed pears on the table, those at five a penny.
A few moments later Mme. Vauquer came down, just in time to see the cat knock down a plate that covered a bowl of milk, and begin to lap in all haste. The cat fled, but promptly returned to rub against her ankles. I told him to stop and lay the table. What has become of him? Don't you worry, madame; Father Goriot shall have it. I will fill it up with water, and he won't know the difference; he never notices anything, not even what he eats. Vauquer, setting the plates round the table. The door bell rang at that moment, and Vautrin came through the sitting-room, singing loudly:.
Der Tisch war gedeckt. Frau Vauquer heizte den Ofen, und Vautrin half ihr dabei und summte:. Mamma Vauquer! Now, isn't that what you really mean? Stop a bit, I will help you to set the table. I am a nice man, am I not? They buy old spoons and forks and gold lace there, and Goriot sold a piece of silver plate for a good round sum.
It had been twisted out of shape very neatly for a man that's not used to the trade. One of my friends is expatriating himself; I had been to see him off on board the Royal Mail steamer, and was coming back here. I waited after that to see what Father Goriot would do; it is a comical affair.
In einigen Tagen werde ich mich Ihrer Angelegenheit annehmen, und alles wird gut gehen. He is a simpleton, stupid enough to ruin himself by running after". I have orders to give this into her hands myself. Off with you, old chap," he said, bringing down a hand on Christophe's head, and spinning the man round like a thimble; "you will have a famous tip. By this time the table was set. Sylvie was boiling the milk, Mme. Vauquer was lighting a fire in the stove with some assistance from Vautrin, who kept humming to himself:.
When everything was ready, Mme. Couture and Mlle. Taillefer came in. Vauquer, turning to Mme. To-day is the day when we must go to see M. Poor little thing! She is trembling like a leaf," Mme. Couture went on, as she seated herself before the fire and held the steaming soles of her boots to the blaze. What you want is a friend who will give the monster a piece of his mind; a barbarian that has three millions so they say , and will not give you a dowry; and a pretty girl needs a dowry nowadays. Oh, mein Herz schlug, ich stellte mir vor Victorine's eyes filled with tears at the words, and the widow checked herself at a sign from Mme.
I have never dared to run the risk of sending it by post; he knew my handwriting".
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In a few days' time I will look into your affairs, and it will be all right, you shall see. If you can induce him to relent a little towards me, I will pray to God for you. You may be sure of my gratitude". Der Student sah Vautrin starr an. At this juncture, Goriot, Mlle. Michonneau, and Poiret came downstairs together; possibly the scent of the gravy which Sylvie was making to serve with the mutton had announced breakfast. The seven people thus assembled bade each other good-morning, and took their places at the table; the clock struck ten, and the student's footstep was heard outside.
Eugene," said Sylvie; "every one is breakfasting at home to-day. Hat sie dazu Geschick, so raubt sie ihre Mutter bis auf die Eingeweide aus.
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Sie kennt hunderttausend Schliche! The student exchanged greetings with the lodgers, and sat down beside Goriot. Vauquer's eyes gauged as usual. Eugene is cut out for that kind of thing. She has a magnificent house; the rooms are hung with silk--in short, it was a splendid affair, and I was as happy as a king". There was peach blossom in her hair, and she had the loveliest bouquet of flowers--real flowers, that scented the airbut there! You ought to have seen her!
Well, and this morning I met this divine countess about nine o'clock, on foot in the Rue de Gres. I began to think". Haben Sie sie gesprochen? Haben Sie sie gefragt, ob sie vielleicht die Rechte studieren wolle? If ever you explore a Parisian woman's heart, you will find the money-lender first, and the lover afterwards. Your countess is called Anastasie de Restaud, and she lives in the Rue du Helder. The student stared hard at Vautrin.
Father Goriot raised his head at the words, and gave the two speakers a glance so full of intelligence and uneasiness that the lodgers beheld him with astonishment. Frau Couture machte ihr ein Zeichen, aufzustehen, um sich anzukleiden. Vauquer's ear. Goriot went on with his breakfast, but seemed unconscious of what he was doing. He had never looked more stupid nor more taken up with his own thoughts than he did at that moment.
Vauquer, speaking to Vautrin; "how his eyes light up! Michonneau, in a whisper to the student. Die alte Jungfer senkte den Blick, wie eine Nonne vor antiken Statuen. Father Goriot watched him with eager eyes. I was the twelfth on her list, and she danced every quadrille. The other women were furious. She must have enjoyed herself, if ever creature did! It is a true saying that there is no more beautiful sight than a frigate in full sail, a galloping horse, or a woman dancing.
Der Vater Goriot ist einer jener Leute. Der arme Alte denkt nur an sie. Bringen Sie ihn aber auf das betreffende Kapitel, so erhellt sich sein Gesicht wie ein Diamant. Es ist nicht schwer, hinter das Geheimnis zu kommen. Merken Sie auf! If their husbands cannot afford to pay for their frantic extravagance, they will sell themselves. Or if they cannot do that, they will tear out their mothers' hearts to find something to pay for their splendor.
They will turn the world upside down. Just a Parisienne through and through! Father Goriot's face, which had shone at the student's words like the sun on a bright day, clouded over all at once at this cruel speech of Vautrin's. Vauquer, "but where is your adventure? Did you speak to her? Did you ask her if she wanted to study law? She could not have reached home after the ball till two o'clock this morning. Wasn't it queer? There is no place like Paris for this sort of adventures. Taillefer had scarcely heeded the talk, she was so absorbed by the thought of the new attempt that she was about to make.
Couture made a sign that it was time to go upstairs and dress; the two ladies went out, and Father Goriot followed their example. Vauquer, addressing Vautrin and the rest of the circle. You are too young to know Paris thoroughly yet; later on you will find out that there are what we call men with a passion". Michonneau gave Vautrin a quick glance at these words.
They seemed to be like the sound of a trumpet to a trooper's horse. Der Student ging in sein Zimmer hinauf. Vautrin ging aus. They must drink the water from some particular spring--it is stagnant as often as not; but they will sell their wives and families, they will sell their own souls to the devil to get it.
For some this spring is play, or the stock-exchange, or music, or a collection of pictures or insects; for others it is some woman who can give them the dainties they like. You might offer these last all the women on earth--they would turn up their noses; they will have the only one who can gratify their passion.
It often happens that the woman does not care for them at all, and treats them cruelly; they buy their morsels of satisfaction very dear; but no matter, the fools are never tired of it; they will take their last blanket to the pawnbroker's to give their last five-franc piece to her. Father Goriot here is one of that sort. He is discreet, so the Countess exploits him--just the way of the gay world. The poor old fellow thinks of her and of nothing else. In all other respects you see he is a stupid animal; but get him on that subject, and his eyes sparkle like diamonds.
That secret is not difficult to guess. He took some plate himself this morning to the melting-pot, and I saw him at Daddy Gobseck's in the Rue des Gres.
And now, mark what follows--he came back here, and gave a letter for the Comtesse de Restaud to that noodle of a Christophe, who showed us the address; there was a receipted bill inside it. It is clear that it was an urgent matter if the Countess also went herself to the old money lender. Father Goriot has financed her handsomely. There is no need to tack a tale together; the thing is self-evident.
So that shows you, sir student, that all the time your Countess was smiling, dancing, flirting, swaying her peach-flower crowned head, with her gown gathered into her hand, her slippers were pinching her, as they say; she was thinking of her protested bills, or her lover's protested bills. Wissen Sie, was er tat, dieses Scheusal von Mann? Ist das nicht eine Schurkerei? Das war alles! Wenigstens hat er endlich seine Tochter gesehen. Ich begreife nicht, wie er sie verleugnen kann; sie gleicht ihm wie ein Wassertropfen dem anderen. Eugene looked disgusted. You are so unlucky as to walk off with something or other belonging to somebody else, and they exhibit you as a curiosity in the Place du Palais-de-Justice; you steal a million, and you are pointed out in every salon as a model of virtue.
And you pay thirty millions for the police and the courts of justice, for the maintenance of law and order! A pretty slate of things it is! Vauquer, "has Father Goriot really melted down his silver posset-dish? I happened to see him by accident. The student went up to his room. Vautrin went out, and a few moments later Mme. Couture and Victorine drove away in a cab which Sylvie had called for them.
Poiret gave his arm to Mlle. Michonneau, and they went together to spend the two sunniest hours of the day in the Jardin des Plantes. They are such a couple of dry sticks that if they happen to strike against each other they will draw sparks like flint and steel. Solche Scherzreden wechseln oft, leben kaum einen Monat lang. Michonneau's shawl, then," said Mme. Vauquer, laughing; "it would flare up like tinder. At four o'clock that evening, when Goriot came in, he saw, by the light of two smoky lamps, that Victorine's eyes were red.
Vauquer was listening to the history of the visit made that morning to M. Taillefer; it had been made in vain. Taillefer was tired of the annual application made by his daughter and her elderly friend; he gave them a personal interview in order to arrive at an understanding with them. Zum Teufel! Couture, addressing Mme. Vauquer, "just imagine it; he did not even ask Victorine to sit down, she was standing the whole time. The little thing threw herself at her father's feet and spoke up bravely; she said that she only persevered in her visits for her mother's sake; that she would obey him without a murmur, but that she begged him to read her poor dead mother's farewell letter.
She took it up and gave it to him, saying the most beautiful things in the world, most beautifully expressed; I do not know where she learned them; God must have put them into her head, for the poor child was inspired to speak so nicely that it made me cry like a fool to hear her talk. And what do you think the monster was doing all the time? Cutting his nails! He took the letter that poor Mme.
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