But there is a clear message that parents of ASD children can take on board: if your family is bilingual, relax and enjoy interacting with your ASD child in your language of choice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.
Coping skills unscramble
An increasing number of studies have been showing the benefits of bilingualism, both for children and in old age. A new study aimed to disentangle these complicating factors, by choosing 56 4-year-olds with college-educated parents, from middle-class neighborhoods, and comparing English-speaking U.
The children were tested on a computer-game-like activity designed to assess the alerting, orienting, and executive control components of executive attention a child version of the Attention Network Test. They were also given a vocabulary test the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III in their own language, if monolingual, or in English for the bilinguals.
As expected, given their young age, English monolinguals scored well above bilinguals learning more than one language slows the acquisition of vocabulary in the short-term. Interestingly, however, while Korean monolinguals in Korea performed at a comparable level to the English monolinguals, Korean monolinguals in the U. In other words, the monolinguals living in a country where their language is a majority language have comparable language skills, and those living in a country in which their primary language is a minority language have similar, and worse, language skills.
And here the bilingual children shone over the monolinguals. Specifically, the bilingual children were significantly more accurate on the attention test than the monolingual Koreans in the U. Although their performance in terms of accuracy was not significantly different from that of the monolingual children in Korea, these children obtained their high accuracy at the expense of speed.
The bilinguals were both accurate and fast, suggesting a different mechanism is at work. The findings confirm earlier research indicating that bilingualism, independent of culture, helps develop executive attention, and points to how early this advantage begins. The Korean-only and bilingual children from the United States had first generation native Korean parents. The children in Korea belonged to a daycare center that did offer a weekly minute session during which they were exposed to English through educational DVDs, but their understanding of English was minimal.
Similarly, the Korean-only children in the U. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. Clinical records of patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease have revealed that those who have spoken two or more languages consistently over many years experienced a delay in the onset of their symptoms by as much as five years.
Of the patients of the Sam and Ida Ross Memory Clinic at Baycrest, patients were classified as bilingual and as monolingual. Bilingual patients had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's 4. The groups were equivalent on measures of cognitive and occupational level, there was no apparent effect of immigration status, and there were no gender differences.
The findings confirm an earlier study from the same researchers, from the clinical records of patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia. Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease. While most foreign language courses try hard to provide native speakers, a new study shows that adults find it easier when the teacher speaks it in the same accent as the student.
Journal of Psycholinguistic Research. Research has found that Arabic-speaking students tend to be less proficient in reading than other students are in their native language. A new imaging study has now compared brain activity in a priming task among trilinguals fluent in MSA, spoken Arabic and Hebrew.
The results revealed that the cognitive process in using MSA was more similar to that employed for Hebrew, and less similar to the cognitive process of using the spoken native language. These results not only help explain why learning to read is more difficult for Arabic speakers, but also suggests that the most effective way of teaching written Arabic is by using techniques usually employed for the instruction of a second language — including exposing children to written Arabic in preschool or kindergarten.
Ibrahim, R. The cognitive basis of diglossia in Arabic: Evidence from a repetition priming study within and between languages. Journal of Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 2. A small study involving 7 native English speakers who had learned either Hindi or Zulu as children when living abroad, but now had no memory of the neglected language, found that the three who were under 40 could relearn certain phonemes that are difficult for native English speakers to recognize, but those over 40, like those who had never been exposed to the language in childhood, could not.
It should also be noted that where the ability was recovered and recovered almost to native ability , it took about training sessions. The findings point to the value of early foreign language learning. Preserved implicit knowledge of a forgotten childhood language. A new study provides evidence that bilingual speakers find it easier to learn a new language than those who only know one language.
The study compared the ability of three groups of native English speakers - English-Mandarin bilinguals, English-Spanish bilinguals and monolinguals - to master words in an invented language that bore no relationship to English, Spanish or Mandarin. The bilingual participants mastered nearly twice the number of words as the monolinguals. The finding adds more support to the value of introducing another language to children at a young age. The bilingual advantage in novel word learning. A number of studies have pointed to benefits of being bilingual, but many people still believe that the experience of two languages in infancy may cause confusion and impair their acquisition of language.
Now a new study shows that bilingual babies quickly adapt to different learning cues at seven months old compared with babies from single-language households. The study involved families in the Trieste area of Italy, where parents spoke to infants from birth using both Italian and Slovenian mother tongues.
When bilingual and monolingual babies were first taught to look at one side of a screen in response to a sound cue and in anticipation of a visual "reward" image of a puppet , then required to switch sides, it was found that bilingual babies quickly learned to look at the other side, but the monolingual babies never adapted to the change. The findings indicate that bilingualism gives an advantage above the purely linguistic, in executive function, which is consistent with other research indicating bilingual children have improved attention.
Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The size of the right HG was not important. The finding was surprising, given that this area, the primary region of the auditory cortex, is typically associated with handling the basic building blocks of sound — whether the pitch of a sound is going up or down, where sounds come from, and how loud a sound is — rather than speech per se.
Mandarin is a tonal language, that is, the pitch pattern is as important as the sound of the syllables in determining the meaning of a word. In a small study, a Mandarin word was presented to 20 adults as they watched a movie. All were native English speakers with no knowledge of Mandarin, but half had at least six years of musical instrument training starting before the age of 12, while half had minimal or no musical training.
As the subjects watched the movie, the researchers measured the accuracy of their brainstem ability to track three differently pitched "mi" sounds. Those who were musically trained were far better at tracking the three different tones than the non-musicians. The study is the first to provide concrete evidence that playing a musical instrument significantly enhances the brainstem's sensitivity to speech sounds, and supports the view that experience with music at a young age can "fine-tune" the brain's auditory system.
The findings are in line with previous studies suggesting that musical experience can improve one's ability to learn tone languages in adulthood, and are also consistent with studies revealing anomalies in brainstem sound encoding in some children with learning disabilities which can be improved by auditory training. The findings are also noteworthy for implicating the brainstem in processing that has been thought of as exclusively involving the cortex.
Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nat Neurosci. The study also found that this inhibition lessened as students became more fluent with the new language, suggesting it principally occurs during the initial stages of second language learning. Inhibiting your native language: the role of retrieval-induced forgetting during second-language acquisition. This difference remained even after considering the possible effect of cultural differences, immigration, formal education, employment and even gender as influencers in the results. Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia.
Using a new technique, researchers have shed light on how bilingualism affects the brain. The study involved 20 younger adults of whom half were bilingual in Spanish and English. Similar brain activity, in the left Broca's area and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC , was found in bilinguals and monolinguals when the task involved only one language. However, when the bilinguals were simultaneously processing each of their two languages and rapidly switching between them, they showed an increase in brain activity in both the left and the right hemisphere Broca's area, with greater activation in the right equivalent of Broca's area and the right DLPFC.
The findings support the view that the brains of bilinguals and monolinguals are similar, and both process their individual languages in fundamentally similar ways, but bilinguals engage more of the neurons available for language processing. The study was presented at the Society for Neuroscience's annual meeting on October in Atlanta, Ga. Studies of bilingual people have found that the same brain regions, particularly parts of the left temporal cortex, are similarly activated by both languages.
But there must be some part of the brain that knows one language from another. A new imaging study reveals that this region is the left caudate — a finding supported by case studies of bilingual patients with damage to the left caudate, who are prone to switch languages involuntarily. Language Control in the Bilingual Brain. The study involved 65 French adults in their twenties, who were asked to distinguish two closely related sounds the French 'da' sound from the Hindi 'da' sound. A study involving 96 deaf children who had received cochlear implants during their first four years of life has found that the rate of language learning was greatest for those given implants before they turned two.
Children given implants at three or four years of age acquired language skills more slowly. The finding supports the idea that there is a 'sensitive period' for language learning, and suggests that deaf children should get cochlear implants sooner it is still relatively rare for them to be given to children younger than two. An imaging study of 25 Britons who did not speak a second language, 25 people who had learned another European language before the age of five and 33 bilinguals who had learned a second language between 10 and 15 years old found that the density of the gray matter in the left inferior parietal cortex of the brain was greater in bilinguals than in those without a second language.
The effect was particularly noticeable in the "early" bilinguals. The findings were replicated in a study of 22 native Italian speakers who had learned English as a second language between the ages of two and Mechelli, A. Neurolinguistics: Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, , A study of people aged between 30 and 88 has found that those who were fluent in two languages rather than just one were sharper mentally. Those fluent in two languages responded faster on tasks assumed to place demands on working memory , compared to those who were fluent in just English, at all age groups.
This is consistent with the theory that constant management of 2 competing languages enhances executive functions. Bilingual volunteers were also much less likely to suffer from the mental decline associated with old age. The finding is consistent with other research suggesting that mental activity helps in protecting older adults from mental decline.
The participants were all middle class, and educated to degree level. Half of the volunteers came from Canada and spoke only English. The other half came from India and were fluent in both English and Tamil. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task.
Psychology and Aging. A study of adult learners of a second language has revealed that their brains still possess a surprising facility for learning words — much greater than the learner is consciously aware of. College students learning first-year French demonstrated brain activity that was clearly discriminating between real and pseudo-French words after only 14 hours of classroom instruction, although the students performed only at chance levels when asked to consciously choose whether or not the stimuli were real French words.
The greater the exposure to French, the larger the difference in brain response to words and pseudo words. Neural correlates of second-language word learning: minimal instruction produces rapid change. Nature Neuroscience. A recent Canadian study comparing young monolingual children to bilingual found that bilingual children were much better at a non-language cognitive task.
The year old bilingual children were versed in a spoken language and a signing one. It was suggested that their higher cognitive skill was due to the increased computational demands of processing two different language systems. Baker, S. New Orleans, LA. An imaging study involving bilingual Dutch and English speakers suggests that when a bilingual person is speaking a second language, the first language is always active and cannot be suppressed. It was thought that an environment of total immersion in a language would provide massive exposure to a second language and suppress the first language.
To test this, students with no exposure to German or Dutch were taught 40 Dutch words. Some students learned the words in association with their English counterparts and others learned the words in association with a picture. Some of the pictures were oriented in the normal way and others were upside down or otherwise skewed.
People who learned the Dutch in association with an object that was oriented uniquely were faster to later translate English words into Dutch. The mis-oriented pictures served as a unique cue. Sadly, it does appear that the easiest time to learn a second language is, indeed, in childhood. An imaging study has found that when grammatical judgement in the second language was compared to grammatical judgement in first language as evidenced by performance on sentences with grammatical mistakes , there was no difference in brain activation in those who learned the second language as children.
However, people who acquired the second language late and with different proficiency levels displayed significantly more activity in the Broca's region during second language grammatical processing. It is generally believed that there is a critical period for learning a first language, and that children not exposed to language during this period will never fully acquire language.
It is also thought that this might apply as well to second language learning — that those who learn another language after puberty can never become as fluent as those who learn it before puberty. For those irksome tasks that won't go away, no matter how long you leave them at the bottom of the in-tray. Julie Bramhall. Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Acronym name for the early computer programming language. Makes a good quiz question.
Business As Usual. In fact the expression was once an official UK government policy, during the First World War , under prime minister Herbert H Asquith, and reinforced by Winston Churchill at the time long before he led Britain in the 2nd WW - in which the aim was to maintain social norms during wartime, thus not conceding any change or weakening, in spite of the enemy and the difficult times. Bullshit Baffles Brains.
There is some truth to this rather rude maxim, in that highly persuasive people can often dominate highly intelligent people, if only by force of argument, or by securing the support of easily influenced associates and bystanders. Big Boobs, See Soon. Appalling and very scary doctors' notes shorthand acronym. Ack JW. Brain Dead User. Covert IT technical support staff acronym to describe a human failing instead of equipment or software fault. When you next hear reference to a BDU error, ask for an explanation Behaviour, Effect, Expectation, Results.
Table of contents
The headings by which to assess performance of anything, particularly a new initiative. A great discipline when working with a team or delegating another to conduct a review, when it's important to keep the review focused.
A model, typically used as a table or template or matrix for identifying motivations and issues of stakeholders within a project plan. This has the look of something that could be protected intellectual property so I'd urge caution if you intend to exploit it outsode of a passing reference. My thanks to Steve Buonaugurio, who emailed to suggest it was first coined by Tony Robbins. Brute Force and Ignorance. An expression found in everyday language since the early s, meaning a heavy handed unrefined solution to a problem especially fixing something - like bashing an electrical appliance to get it working again.
In more recent times BFI and variant BFMI - Brute Force and Massive Ignorance is aptly applied also to certain areas of design for example software or computing systems in which previous proven effective methods are ignored, resulting in a new but clumsy and unsuccessful outcome.
Similar application of the BFI expression can be made to strategic thinking - notably in politics and business - where arrogant leaders, driven by subjective idealism, religious justification, ego, personal gain, etc. Thanks E Key. The polite version 'Big Hairy Audacious Goal' doesn't have quite the same ring to it no pun intended. Big Hat No Cattle. What a great expression. The abbreviation is all the more amusing because it looks like some kind of highly official certificate for the construction or maritime industry.
No nonsense here Ack R Biggs. Break It Down. When training anything to anybody never teach the whole thing all at once. Break the skill or process down to digestible parts. This will avoid destroying confidence, and enable gradual progress to the point that the whole thing can be practiced. Basking In Reflected Glory. This is a wonderful old expression, made modern and more fascinating too by its recent rendering in acronym form and use in the psychology of social identity. This relates directly to human motivation in many ways.
Psychologist Robert Cialdini and author of the best-selling book 'Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion' helped significantly to popularize the BIRGing terminology and concept, and conducted extensive research demonstrating BIRGing behaviour theory and its wide existence. Nearly all of us do it BIRGing in one way or another. At a superficial level we see examples of BIRGing everywhere, fundamentally yet very subtly, in the wearing of strongly branded clothing and apparel.
We see it in people who like to drive very aspirational car brands, and in the aims and effects of aspirational and lifestyle branding more broadly. The BIRGing phenomenon is very simply shown in the wearing of football club shirts, especially when the football club concerned is winning. More individually BIRGing can be seen when people affiliate seriously and very openly with a popular local person or entity, such as a leader or project or cause.
The psychology of BIRGing can be related to Darwinian evolutionary theory, and also to Freudian theory on ego and self image, etc. BIRGing is a popular and light term, yet has serious influences and connections. Babe In Total Control of Herself. Supreme interpretation or response for the typical insulting or envious use of the term.
A small yet powerful example of redefining a negative into a positive. Finding the good angle - an essential instrument of success. Thanks A MacGowan. Back Later After Christmas Piss-up. Seasonal acronym for when work and customers must necessarily fit in around the festivities and holidays. Base-Line Test. More boring and less tasty alternative to the more common usage - Bacon Lettuce and Tomato sandwich. Ack Don Clark. Bottom Line Up Front. Simply this means and warns the reader that the key point is summarised at the start or top of the communication.
BLUF is a wonderfully potent acronym, useful in many situations. BLUF thanks M Callaham originated in the US military in written communications, where it serves as as an immediate emphasis and prefix of the central point of the message or report. It equates to the expressions ' cutting to the chase ' and 'without beating around the bush'. In structural terms, the BLUF technique equates to an 'executive summary', which is a very brief summary of the strategically essential point s positioned at the start of the communication.
This itself is normally a very concisely reduced version of a larger summary at the end of the document, based on the greater detail within the main part of the document or communication. A major learning and usage aspect of BLUF is the communicator's responsibility to present information to the reader or listener or audience efficiently, especially for senior and very busy people, who often have neither time nor need to read and absorb lots of detail. Senior people especially want the main point s - the' bottom line' - first - 'up front'. In management, and in the military, senior people rely on junior people to take care of the detail and to provide the strategic interpretation by which big decisions can be made.
Incidentally the term 'bottom line' is a figurative reference to the bottom line in corporate financial accounts, which contains the profit or loss figure, crucial to most organized ventures and organizations. While BLUF remains popular in US military communications, its usefulness has spread and its adoption can be helpful into very many situations where effective speedy communication is valued.
This includes notably: business and management communications especially involving strategic decision-making ; quick report-writing and conveying updates and status; emergency response and reactions reporting up and informing down the management structure ; presentations and speeches and talks; writing of press releases, PR materials, and also advertising and consumer or 'general-public audience' communications in which the actual inclusion of the term BLUF is generally not appropriate - here BLUF serves more of a structural reminder to the writer.
Before My Time. If you are a new broom trying to sweep clean, this is a useful response to the 'we've always done it that way' school of thought. In other words, 'that was then and this is now'. Ack M Paretski. Behaviour that can be exhibited by a group when stressed, demotivated or unhappy with their situation. Also a common subject area in meetings where the purpose and facilitation perhaps requires a more a positive focus or perspective. Ack Denise If you are a manager or team leader and ever find yourself having to handle a BMW session, give the group encouragement, responsibility and suitable freedom to identify and pursue constructive response, change and improvement.
Focus on positive response rather than blame. Here are a couple of helpful quotes in this connection: "You have a choice whether to be part of the steam roller or part of the road.. Bicycle MotoCross. Generally in modern times BMX is seen to refer to a style of small-wheeled, small-framed bicyle on which young people, especially boys, can perform more agile moves than when riding a conventionally designed bike. While BMX is a very widely recognized abbreviation, its origins and precise meaning are far less well known.
In addition to BMX off-road riding, BMX bike-riding quickly became very popular in urban areas, not least because pedestrianized areas of towns shopping centres, etc offered slopes and curves on which to ride and practise skills, much as in the development of skateboarding. BMX bikes, designed for rugged riding and acrobatics, also proved popular in young people's fashion, and no doubt with parents of kids who appreciated the strong design and construction of BMX bikes, which tended to withstand tough treatment, and encouraged a generation of youngsters to play outdoors perhaps more than would otherwise have been the case.
Sadly local councils and planners were very slow to realise that BMX riding, and skateboarding too, are actually good things for young people to do. Bloody Near Dead. Medical notes abbreviation used since s, in Australia; probably elsewhere too. Thanks K Mildred. Better On A Camel. Battery Operated Boyfriend.
Amusing pet name for a vibrator, and perhaps the cleverest and funniest BOB bacronym. Nightclub and dating vernacular, and not gender specific. Ack JHB. Burnt Out But Opulent. Various applications, including references to property and people, the image is one of exhausted or useless wealth or luxury.
Thanks GJ. Brackets, Order means power, e. BODMAS thanks J McColl provides the sequence for working out and constructing mathematical equations and formulas 'formulae' to be precise containing more than one calculation. This methodology is commonly referred to as the order of mathematical 'operations'. In those two examples we calculate the brackets first. BODMAS is therefore very useful for non-mathematical folk when trying to construct complex formulas formulae for spreadsheet cells. I hasten to add no pun intended that I am not a mathematician and I welcome suggestions for improving this item.
Marketingspeak, but also great for emphasising the need for creative thinking to achieve cost-effective, high perceived value promotional selling. A fine motto for all who suffer under incompetent management. And if you are a CEO and you begin to see a few BOHICA posters appearing around the place, then perhaps start asking yourself some questions about your organisational culture and management style.. Paternalistic - and thoroughly patronising - expression of traditional values still held by many, including some who lead us.
Accepting modern politically correct adaptations, BOMFOG attitudes typically sit snugly alongside the marginalisation of women and all other historically brow-beaten groups. Leadership - and government, and any organized system - should be a force for genuine individual aspiration and emotional maturity. Regrettably however many sorts of leadership - especially of significant scale - eventually degenerate into control, manipulation, sham, and BOMFOG principles.
By the way the term BOMFOG is linked most famously with certain very grand quotes attributed to the Rockerfellers Nelson and John D around the mid s, generally pronouncing how a new world can be established, based on their own superior, western, 'enlightened' view of life, and the assumption that holding such a view somehow includes the right to impose it on others. Sounds familiar? Useful acronym for coaching and giving feedback to people.
Ack C Lloyd. Very useful acronym thanks J O'Connor for inception of projects, committees, investigations inquiries , studies, reports, etc, where purpose, parameters and ground-rules etc. Business Process Outsourcing. I'm wondering when the first example of an outsourced board of directors will be seen Benefits, Risks, Alternatives, Nothing.
Decision-making aid, applicable and useful for all sorts of situations. What are the benefits and risks from a particular course of action or option or default? What are the alternatives also considering their benefits and risks? And finally always remember that there is the option to do nothing, which on occasions can be the best thing. Ack A Jones. Brazil, Russia, India, China.
In the early 21st century these are the 'Big Four' rapidly expanding national economies of the world. This increasingly visible acronym emphasises the growing significance of the emerging markets and economic powers, and the fact that the world is changing - in fact has already changed. It may not be long before the older economies UK, US, etc start to find manufacturing and low-skilled jobs returning, for the same reasons they were once moved away. Normally shown as bullshit. BS is a very succinct expletive, usually referring to misleading language or nonsense, or frustrating bureaucracy, etc.
It originated in the US and is now used widely in the English speaking world, to the extent that the BS expression is now very rarely considered truly offensive. The BSA motorbike was not famed for its comfortable ride Of course the usage is not restricted to motorbiking. Apparently the expression can be heard in the Dambusters film in a conversation between pilot and co-pilot after a particularly long flight, illustrating the expression's succinct and flexible quality.
Ack S Adam. British Transport Police. Ack AB. By The Way. One of the most commonly used abbreviations today, meaning 'incidentally' or 'in passing', and, BTW, originally meaning 'by the way of a secondary subject or matter', which was earlier shortened to 'by the bye', which has now almost passed out of use.
Buck Up For Flips Sake. Polite version of motivational expression used in the Royal Navy. The language might be crude, but the sentiment is a positive one ack S Smyth. A more polite alternative to the x-rated ' Finest Universal Cleaner Known ' version below. Similar usage, for example, ".. Thanks A Smith. Pre-landing checks system popular in private pilot licence training.
But Unfortunately Not Dead Yet. A further example of how dark humour is used to counter the darker aspects of human experience. Ack DW.
The Latinum Institute
Be Undressed and Ready My Angel. Thanks pointing out this glaring omission BC. Bankrupt Unemployed Rejected Person. Never use this, just try to be kind and understanding. Breathing Valuable Air. Amusing and highly efficient, and transferable to a wide variety of situations. Ack KT. Widely used acronym used by party hosts and operators of unlicensed restaurants, instructing or requesting guests to bring drink, rather than expect it to be provided or available for purchase at the venue.
There are other variations, for example, Bring Your Own Beef for barbeques , Bring Your Own Bagels gatherings of Jewish folk, or anyone really who likes bagels , and Bring Your Own Bag s for shops keen to reduce use of free carrier bags. It has been suggested that Bring Your Own Basket s for picnics was an older version of the term although this seems not to be substantiated, and frankly I doubt it will be because the notion is a little bit daft.
Thanks P Bruton. Consumer To Consumer. Can't Add, Doesn't Even Try. Assessment acronym for the numerically and motivationally challenged. Cover All Possibilities. Versatile training and planning acronym. Thanks L Woodhouse. The code is unique and random and distorted so that computers hopefully cannot read and re-use it, which guards websites against mischievous or criminal automated attack.
The acronym reflects its technical meaning and origins, and also reflects its purpose, which while primarily acting as a security device, also enables the 'capture' of data. The Turing test element refers to the exceptional English mathematician and computer scientist Alan Turing and his theory and test work, first published in , dealing with artificial intelligence and comparisons between human and computer 'thinking' capabilities. Alan Turing was a fascinating character in his own right - regarded as a founder of computer science, he was part of the famous and pivotal codebreaking team at Bletchley Park in the Second World War, and subsequently went on to pioneer the development of early computers and artificial intelligence.
Shamefully his country later saw fit to prosecute and convict him for being a homosexual, following which he committed suicide in , aged forty-one. Today Britain is very keen to patronise and impose our holier than thou ideas on the developing world. As with any situation where one seeks influence and change, perhaps a little more humility and awareness of our own past and ongoing failings would be more constructive. Counselling, Advice, Referral, Assessment and Throughcare. The term sometimes understandably mistaken to be CARROT also extends to the assistance and workers involved in the delivery of prisoner drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation.
The acronym does not signify a sequential process, but instead the elements contained within it. The actual sequence would typically place the Assessment element ahead of Advice and Referral, but the resulting CAART was presumably not memorable enough, or perhaps too close to the slang term 'cart', meaning prison or gallows, derived from the the late s when horse-drawn carts were used for prisoner transport, and which is the origin of the modern expression 'in the cart' meaning to be in trouble or difficulty. The element called Throughcare might alternatively be represented as Aftercare after release.
We must assume that Throughcare was preferred because devising a useful mnemonic with three A's, a C and and R would have been impossible. There is an interesting lesson in this, aside from illustrating the elements of a rehabilitation process, namely that a good acronym should be memorable and distinct in its abbreviated and full form, and unfortunately CARAT is not, despite the very worthy aims and activities which underpin it. Cover Arse, Remain Employed.
Thanks P Halstead. Computer Assisted Self-Help. An acronym for the modern age. Computer-based methods for self-improvement, even therapy, are becoming increasingly viable, effective and common. Actually, and logically, Businessballs is a Computer Assisted Self-Help website, despite its limited functionality.
Computer Assisted Self-Help can be very effective with or without the support of a real person, and we should expect to see significant development and availability of CASH products and services, offered via data storage devices and online through websites and intranets, etc. The additional ongoing development of artificial intelligence and its incorporation within computer-based applications will ensure that CASH websites and services become progressively sophisticated and widespread, across many different fields, from stress-management to life-change, marriage guidance to addictions counselling, and just about any other attitudinal or behavioural change you can imagine.
With acknowledgements to Steve Cottrell. Completely Bloody Ignorant. Ack N Spargo. Chief Has Arrived On Scene. If not then it should be. For interfering bosses everywhere. Ack J Attison. Council Housed And Violent. The bacronym meaning is entirely made-up, but reflects a certain view in society of the description. Chick Hunting In North Africa. Naval acronym, suitably toned down because the original meaning is too rich for this page.
Possibly the most outrageous acronym in this listing. Ack S Dancer. Come Home I'm Pregnant. Thanks Sandy Fox. Employment and recruitment industry acronym: the six acceptable reasons for leaving your job if asked why in a job interview, cited by MJ Yate interview guru and author. Clear, Loud, As an order, with Pauses. The principle is easily applicable with a little adaptation for certain types of presentations.
The key points also remind us to avoid waffle and unnecessary information when communicating vital and urgent instruction. Thanks M Green. Career Limiting Move. A reminder to think twice before embarking on any action that has an obvious whiff of disaster about it. Ack R Gesling and S Phillips. Ack Nick H. COmmon Business Orientated Language. Acronym-derived name for the early computer language.
Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment. Criminal Protection Society. Advertising terms and crucial measures of advertising and selling performance. CPT refers to the cost of reaching each thousand people of the target audience with the advertising message. CPI is the cost of each inquiry received, ie total advertising cost divided by the number of inquiries received. CPC is the total cost of each converted sale. Can't Remember A Flipping Thing. Polite version. Or a tedious training course or meeting, or one of those awful 'pep up the workers' roadshow presentations by the new board of directors.
Ack L Speden, R Dale. Chronological Random Ascending Pile. A common paperwork filing system particularly preferred by people of an Intuitive-Creative personality. If you know an earlier use please tell me. The full expression perhaps originated, certainly features and achieved prominence in Rob Reiner's classic rock band spoof masterpiece movie This is Spinal Tap. A radio DJ refers to the band in this way. It's not the most easy to pronounce acronym, but is a fine example of the genre nevertheless. The term is widely applicable for all ideas, fashions, trends, personalities, must-haves, etc.
Use it to illustrate the fleeting nature of success, the whimsical nature of swarming humankind, or the fact, simply, that every dog has its day. What can seem in people's lives utterly crucial today, will almost certainly be insignificant given a little time. Thanks P Smith for suggesting it. Thanks T White. Perhaps the two feelings are related in some way. Corporate Social Responsibility.
A central aspect of capability and process within all all good organizations, and one of several related concepts within the ' ethical organisations ' philosophy. Cerca Trova. Italian, meaning 'He who seeks, finds' - more popularly interpreted to represent the expression 'Seek and you shall find'.
Circling the Drain. Healthcare acronym. Transferable to a wide variety of lost causes. Ack L Russell. Computer User Non-Technical. Outrageous of course. Ack JB and CL. Compulsive Use Of Acronyms. Not guilty There is the true story of the meeting that took place in a particular government office to discuss the effects of EMU.
Some considerable time into the meeting it was discovered that half of the participants thought they were there to discuss the European Monetary Union, while the other half were thinking about Environmental Monitoring and Utilisation. With thanks to Kevin Thomas. The principle that the effectiveness of advertising can only be measured if the aims of the advertising are clearly specified before it takes place.
Doesn't Ever Leave The Airport. Sardonic reverse acronym at the Delta airline's expense. I'm sure they are every bit as punctual as all the other airlines. This wonderfully flexible and expressive term thanks N Purcell is commonly used in the film and TV industry when a change of plan occurs, typically after considerable and now wasted effort by the crew to achieve the original plan.
In fact this frustrating and time-wasting shift in executive direction occurs very widely in all areas of management and leadership, including at the very highest level. The alternative interpretation of meaning - Different Flipping Idea - is the understandably sarcastic response from the teams, subordinates and victims of whimsical unthinking leaders, the world over. The original meaning 'Director's Further Instructions' conceivably dates from the s golden age of film making when Directors of Photography DoPs wore white lab coats and Heads of Departments HoDs were always referred to as 'Sir'.
The lesson of DFI teaches us the importance of good quality planning, consistent project management and communications, towards a properly considered aim. The advent of changing circumstances is not an excuse for poor planning. One of the most crucial and often overlooked elements of planning and leadership is to anticipate circumstances. This generally involves some good quality thinking and consultation, and probably some research too. Where the DFI effect arises, this aspect of leadership is almost certainly missing.
By way of illustration, a certain ex-leader once said at a certain inquiry into a certain disastrous war: "It wasn't a lack of planning, it was that we discovered a different set of eventualities Not true of course Thanks JV for correction. The American spelling is diarrhea, which is only marginally easier to remember. The word is very old indeed, from the ancient Greek equivalent diarrhoia, and diarrhein, meaning to flow through, from the Greek words dia through and rhein flow , which incidentally is from the earliest European language roots from which related words like river, run and the German river Rhine are ultimately derived.
This highly memorable memory device is a fine example of the technique of using bacronym constructions to remember difficult words. Difficulty, Importance, Frequency. The system can be used in different ways, commonly entailing a flow diagram and process of assessing scoring each activity according to the three elements, Difficulty, Importance, and Frequency, in that sequence.
At a simple level, an activity that scores low on all three scales is obviously low priority; whereas an activity that scores high on all three scales is a high priority. DIF Analysis has roots in military training, where traditionally training and development tended to be oriented according to task effectiveness and organizational efficiency, rather than driven by individual personal development needs. Useful reminder to check readiness before starting anything which might cause problems if under-prepared. This wonderful funny and illustrative demographic acronym thanks A de Rooy is relatively recent, perhaps 21st century, although the lifestyle itself has been evident among couples in the western world for ages.
By implication having little dogs and no kids is not a genetic or hereditary tendency. This amusing demographic profile - plenty of money and no dependents other than a little dog or two - contrasts sharply with the millions of Generation-Y young people in relatively low-paid work facing a difficult and economically challenging future - far more challenging than is faced by established professionals already on the property and career ladders, and especially such people with double income and little dogs only. Please note that the word dildo otherwise refers to an artificial penis and so could cause offence if used in sensitive situations.
The use of the word 'Fig' is a polite substitution.
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There are also various alternative end words which are usually rude. This rather insulting and disrepectful expression is mainly used in dismissively emphasising a lack of time or concern for a particular issue, especially in response to a request or appeal from a co-worker, or when potential negative implications of an action or decision are described. I rarely publish newly created acronyms in this listing, but this one is so good I had to include it. This was created and sent to me by writer Sandra McCarthy, thanks. Do It Now. See JFDI For procrastinators everywhere.
As the famous quote says: 'We all know what happens to people who stay in the middle of the road. They get run over.. Description Is Not Analysis. Simple yet profoundly useful acronym for anyone involved in helping others to think and interpret rather than simply paraphrase or describe. Commonly used by teachers when encouraging students to be more creative in answering questions. Readily transfers to corporate training and evaluation, business report writing, strategic planning, etc. Ack Leena Cohen.
The only people these days who can remotely afford to buy a few bricks of and a couple of fence panels towards their first house. Tenuously and amusingly constructed, and an obviously insulting term, allegedly used by certain members of the computer technical support community to describe an inept user. The loose construction of the acronym - which technically should be the very unmemorable DIIASFB - probably owes much to it bringing to mind the word 'dysfuntional'. Appalling of course. Theoretically also ten, twelve, thirteen, twenty or thirty children Define opportunity, Measure performance, Analyse opportunity, Improve performance, Control performance.
An acronym - or strictly an abbreviation - from the s. One would have expected that such an all-conquering management movement, as Six Sigma seems now to be, could have come up with a more memorable mnemonic Deoxyribonucleic Acid , represented by the famous double helix, and the Human Genome Project which successfully mapped human DNA in DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid was first identified in salmon sperm by Friedrich Miescher in , and was generally accepted to carry genetic code of all living things following the published work of Crick and Watson in As regards the word Dyslexia, its meaning, 'difficulty with words' is derived from Greek lexis is Greek for speech , and that's what it means - difficulty with words, notably spelling and reading - it does not mean that the person is daft or stupid, in fact often the opposite is closer to the truth.
Dyslexia is often called a gift, since for many 'sufferers' that's what it is. Two important points about dyslexia: Dyslexia is technically a disability as well as a 'gift', so employers quite rightly have to make appropriate allowances for sufferers or risk falling foul of disability and discrimination laws.
An innocently intended workplace joke or email, like the outrageously non-pc "Dyslexics of the world - Untie! Secondly and more positively, dyslexia sufferers tend to have special strengths resulting from the way their brains work, notably in problem-solving, innovation, creativity, trouble-shooting, entrepreneurialism, intuitive feelings and judgements, sport, politics, and artistic expression of various sorts. Day Off, Not Flipping Interested.
Most commonly used by off-duty staff of amenities such as hotels, swimming pools, holiday camps, bars, etc. Ack R Banham. Dignity and Respect At Work. Acronym mnemonic for workplace culture, attitude, behaviour, values, etc. Ack M Andrews. Dedication, Responsibility, Education, Attitude, Motivation. Carroll asked if he could use them in the motivational talks he gave at schools and camps. But it wasn't until that the fashion statement took on some meaning.. Don't Read If Busy. Only the email generation could have developed the need for such an acronym.
Define, Review, Identify, Verify, Execute. For checking or auditing a control process, especially for vehicles and maintenance systems thanks J Hadler. In detail: Documents - check documentation is correct; Records - check procedures are recorded; Interviews - check staff understand and are committed to the system; Visuals - visually double-check that the system has not missed anything records and interviews do not guarantee everything is covered ; Evaluation - has the system worked properly? Digital Rights Management. DRM might seem one of the most boring abbreviations in this list, but Digital Rights Management is a hugely far-reaching issue.
Digital Rights Management is basically the means by which intellectual property IP is protected and its usage is controlled. This particularly applies to intellectual property of the digital age: music, film, news, and arguably more significantly: information, software, and technology. The implications of Digital Rights Management extend ultimately to the way that knowledge and created works of all sorts are spread and made available around the world, the process of which of course contributes to the development of human civilisation.
The 'web 2. The internet offers unprecedented opportunities for sharing knowledge and extending access to created works of all sorts, whereas many IP owners and exploiters have an entirely different priority, namely profit. The transference of knowledge and technology among people around the world, and from one generation to the next, is what determines human progress. And yet typical corporate interpretations of DRM essentially seek to frustrate this process.
Where DRM is restrictive and greedy, so knowledge and human advancement are suppressed. Where DRM is open and giving, so knowledge and advancement are expansive. To perceive with the eye. Seas plural noun. The plural of sea, a great body of salt water. Seize verb. To possess or take by force. Threw verb. Through preposition. A word that indicates movement. Where adverb. The place in which something happens. Wear verb. To carry or have on the body. Ware noun.
Articles of merchandise or manufacture usually, wares. Which pronoun. Replaces one out of a group. Witch noun. A person who practises sorcery or who has supernatural powers. Table 2. You probably use these words every day in either speaking or writing. Each word has a segment in bold type that indicates the problem area of the word that is often spelled incorrectly. Refer to this list as needed before, during, and after you write.
Identify and correct the 10 commonly misspelled words in the following pa ssage. Brooklyn is one of the five boroughs that make up New York City. It is located on the eastern shore of Long Island directly accross the East River from the island of Manhattan. When European settlers first arrived, Brooklyn was largely inhabited by the Lenapi, a collective name for several organized bands of Native American people who settled a large area of land that extended from upstate New York through the entire state of New Jersey.
They are sometimes referred to as the Delaware Indians. Over time, the Lenapi succumbed to European diseases or conflicts between European settlers or other Native American enemies. Finalley, they were pushed out of Brooklyn completely by the British. In , Brooklyn was the site of the first importent battle of the American Revolution known as the Battle of Brooklyn. The colonists lost this battle, which was led by George Washington, but over the next two years they would win the war, kicking the British out of the colonies once and for all. By the end of the 19th century, Brooklyn grew to be a city in its own right.
The completion of the Brooklyn Bridge was an ocasion for celebration; transportation and commerce between Brooklyn and Manhattan now became much easier. Eventually, in , Brooklyn lost its seperate identity as an independent city and became one of five boroughs of New York City. Emails to prospective employers require thoughtful word choice, accurate spelling, and perfect punctuation.
The best thing to do after you proofread an email to an employer and run the spell checker is to have an additional set of eyes go over it with you; one of your teachers may be able to read the email and give you suggestions for improvement. Most colleges and universities have writing centres, which may also be able to assist you.
Studying the list of commonly misspelled words in this chapter, or studying a list of your own, is one way to improve your spelling skills. What is your definition of a successful person? Perhaps success means a combination of both. In one paragraph, describe in detail what you think makes a person successful.
When you are finished, proofread your work for spelling errors. See if you catch any spelling errors that your partner missed. Effective writing involves making conscious word choices. When you prepare to sit down to write your first draft, you likely have already completed some freewriting exercises, chosen your topic, developed your thesis statement, written an outline, and even selected your sources. When it is time to write your first draft, start to consider which words to use to best convey your ideas to the reader.
Some writers are picky about word choice as they start drafting. Once you understand these tricks of the trade, you can move ahead confidently in writing your assignment. Remember, the skill and accuracy of your word choice is a major factor in developing your writing style. Precise selection of your words will help you be more clearly understood—in both writing and speaking. Even professional writers need help with the meanings, spellings, pronunciations, and uses of particular words.
In fact, they rely on dictionaries to help them write better. No one knows every word in the English language and their multiple uses and meanings, so all writers, from novices to professionals, can benefit from the use of dictionaries. Look at the following sample dictionary entry and see which of the preceding information you can identify:.
Like a dictionary, a thesaurus is another indispensable writing tool. A thesaurus gives you a list of synonyms—words that have the same or close to the same meaning as another word. It also lists antonyms—words with the opposite meaning of the word. A thesaurus will help you when you are looking for the perfect word with just the right meaning to convey your ideas. It will also help you learn more words and use the ones you already know more correctly.
Look at the following thesaurus entry:. The connotation of a word can be positive, negative, or neutral. Keep in mind the connotative meaning when choosing a word. Look at the examples below:. They might find it to mean a weakness or a personal flaw; however, the word fits into the sentence appropriately. It is merely a neutral descriptive word. Notice that all the words have a very similar denotation; however, the connotations of each word differ.
In each of the following list items, you will find words with similar denotations. Use the table below. Slang often changes with passing fads and may be used by or familiar to only a specific group of people. Most people use slang when they speak and in personal correspondence, such as emails, text messages, and instant messages. Slang is appropriate between friends in an informal context but should be avoided in formal academic writing. Frequent exposure to media and popular culture has desensitized many of us to slang. In certain situations, using slang at work may not be problematic, but keep in mind that words can have a powerful effect.
Slang in professional emails or during meetings may convey the wrong message or even mistakenly offend someone. Edit the following paragraph by replacing the slang words and phrases with more formal language. Rewrite the paragraph on your own sheet of paper. I felt like such an airhead when I got up to give my speech. As I walked toward the podium, I banged my knee on a chair.
Man, I felt like such a klutz. I was so stressed out about being up there. Wow, did I ever prove my point. My teacher said not to sweat it, though. Everyone gets nervous his or her first time speaking in public, and she said, with time, I would become a whiz at this speech giving stuff. I wonder if I have the guts to do it again. Fran had an axe to grind with Benny, and she planned to confront him that night at the party. The bottom line is that Greg was fired because he missed too many days of work.
Sometimes it is hard to make ends meet with just one paycheque. My brain is fried from pulling an all-nighter. Maria left the dishes in the sink all week to give Jeff a taste of his own medicine. Specific words and images make your writing more interesting to read. Whenever possible, avoid overly general words in your writing; instead, try to replace general language with particular nouns, verbs, and modifiers that convey details and that bring yours words to life.
Add words that provide colour, texture, sound, and even smell to your writing. Atwater, created a presentation detailing exactly how plagiarism is illegal and unethical. Revise the following sentences by replacing the overly general words with more precise and attractive language. Write the new sentences on your own sheet of paper. Reilly got into her car and drove off.
Realistically, how many known words could i get per month?
I would like to travel to outer space because it would be amazing. Jane came home after a bad day at the office. The dog walked up the street. The coal miners were tired after a long day. The tropical fish are pretty. I sweat a lot after running. The goalie blocked the shot. I enjoyed my Mexican meal. Review a piece of writing that you have completed for school. On occasion, you will be asked to write an emotionally expressive or sensory piece—something like your journal entries.
However, during your academic studies, your instructors will ask you to write essays that are fact based and academic in tone. This means you will only be able to show your opinions by the choice of ideas you discuss and how you present your evidence. Your instructors will expect you to compose emotion-free papers, which means you have to choose your words carefully. When you write pieces full of emotion without facts, the reader is less likely to trust your argument. Imagine that you feel very strongly on an issue but do not use facts to support your argument.
What if the reader disagrees with you? Since you have not provided factual supporting evidence, the reader will not be convinced of your point of view. In this section, we will explore the impact of emotional writing and the impact on the reader; we will also explore word choices and their possible connotations. To begin, look at the two passages in Self-Practice Exercise 2. This exercise will show you how simple changes in word choice and a writer using a lot of personal opinion will impact the reader.
Look at the two passages below then answer the questions. Passage 1 What a glorious day! The beautiful sun is shining down on those basking, hoping to absorb its wonderful rays. The surf is playfully nudging the young children who are frolicking in the waves.
A group of smiling young people laugh joyously as they plan an exciting game of volleyball. As I watch their rousing game, I enjoy the feel of the warm sand playing between my toes. I love summer at the beach! Passage 2 It is way too hot! The sun is beating down on all those foolish enough to think it is healthy to get a suntan. They will be sorry when they burn. I keep seeing unsupervised children getting knocked down by the strong waves, and their negligent parents are nowhere to be seen.
Nearby, some rowdy teenagers keep laughing obnoxiously every time one in their group misses the volleyball; they are really terrible volleyball players. I would like to move from where I am sitting, but the sand is scorching hot and will burn my feet. I wish I had stayed home! What are the differences in the physical setting that these passages are describing? Are they in different locations or happening at different times of day? Are there different people involved?
Which one are you more likely to agree with? Is this because it matches your personal opinion of the beach or because it is combined with supporting facts? It is clear that the two authors like or appreciate conditions and experiences differently. In Passage 1, the writer likes warm weather and does not mind noise, but in Passage 2, the writer would probably prefer to be at home in air conditioning.
Ultimately, the passage that you connect with more is probably based on how you personally feel about going to the beach. Because the passages are based solely on opinion, there is nothing in them to convince the reader that other perspectives or angles of vision are valid.
This is why you need to use facts to back up your ideas when writing and of course include citations, which are discussed in Chapter 9 : Citations and Referencing. However, before we look at objective, fact-based writing, your first assignment will give you an opportunity to practise choosing your words to show differing perspectives; it will also help you to see how changing words can completely change the effect of the writing. Choose a place where you can sit and observe for 15 to minutes. Then write a focused description of the scene that will enable the reader to see what you see.
You will actually have to write two descriptions of the same scene. One will be of the scene from a positive or favourable perspective; the other needs to convey a negative or unfavourable impression. Both descriptions must contain only factual details and must describe exactly the same scene from the same location at the same time. This means that you cannot just change the facts like making the weather cloudy instead of sunny; your descriptive words need to do the work for you.
Length: combined total of to words. You can start with either the positive or negative paragraph, but remember, you do not want to just substitute antonyms, or opposite words, when writing from the opposite angle. You want to step back from the scene, so to speak, and visualize how aspects of what you are experiencing or witnessing would appear to someone who did not feel the same way you do. Assignment 1 shows you that changing your wording even slightly can completely change the impact or effect.
On the morning of Saturday, June 10, I decided to visit the beach. The sky was clear with no clouds visible in the sky. I arrived at the beach at about , and it was already quite warm. Just before getting out of the car, I remembered to grab my 30 SPF sunscreen because I got burned so badly last year, and I do not want to experience that blistering again this year.
In front of me, there were five children who were about six years old playing in the foot-high waves; it looked like their parents were sitting watching them carefully from about four metres away probably just in case the waves got too high and they needed to dash to their children quickly. I chose a spot 10 metres to the right away from a group of young people, maybe 16 years old, playing volleyball, close enough to watch them having fun but far away enough to not get hit by any stray balls. These teenagers must have been playing just for fun because it seemed like someone missed every second ball, and the entire group started laughing when they did.
Thankfully I wore my sandals, so I could feel the warmth of the sand between my toes but protect my feet in case the sand got too hot. How is this passage different from the subjective examples in Self-Practice Exercise 2. What evidence beyond sensory perceptions and personal opinion does the writer provide? Is the passage more positive or negative? Does it discuss both good and bad things? What is different about how the different perspectives are presented?
In the passage above, the writer has presented both positive and negative situations, but the language she used is neutral and without judgment. The writer has linked bad past experiences and put a positive spin on them or was able to see possible negatives but also present solutions. She also provided enough detail measurements, temperatures, distances, etc. Essentially, the writer presented a complete, unemotional, and objective perspective that is supported by quantifiable evidence.
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