Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

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The Internet and U.S. Communication Policy‐Making

Language eng. Publication Lanham, Md. Extent x, pages. Note Includes index. Isbn Label Democratic decision-making : historical and contemporary perspectives, edited by David Lewis Schaefer Instantiates Democratic decision-making : historical and contemporary perspectives Publication Lanham, Md. Library Locations Map Details. Bowdoin College Library Borrow it. Library Links. Staff Services News and Events. Embed Experimental. Layout options: Carousel Grid List Card. Include data citation:. Copy to clipboard Close. Cite Data - Experimental. Do women differ from men in such leadership positions?

Would state interactions be more peaceful and our lives more secure if women ran the world? The seminar then moves from women in governance to the second broad section: women in warfare. In this section, two characterizations rise to the forefront: women as victims during conflict, including from displacement, sexual violence, and the disruption of everyday life, and then women as combatants during conflict, including in the armed forces, resistance movements, and terrorist organizations.

The final section of the seminar examines a range of select topics related to Women and National Security. We explore women as builders of peace through peace accords and post-conflict reconstruction; the experiences of women serving in the Intelligence Services; the day-to-day practical realities confronting women with careers in global affairs; and how men can serve as agents of change for equality.

This course examines national security decision-making from both a theoretical perspective and from its execution in practice. The seminar focuses on how national security decisions are made rather than on the theories of international relations or the substantive content of national security policies. It is divided into three sections. The first part of the seminar—drawn, in part, from the instructor's nearly six years on the National Security Council NSC staff—introduces the student to the current structures, processes, and primary actors involved in national security decisions.

The second section then delves into analytic and theoretical models of decision-making, cognitive biases, and how decision-makers use intelligence and lessons from history in their decisions. Finally, the seminar concludes with discussions on practical application and execution, has students participate in a crisis simulation, and explores possible reforms.

Emphasis throughout the seminar is placed on the national security decision-making system of the United States and particularly on the Executive Branch , but seminar participants also are encouraged to examine and discuss the systems and actors of other states as well. Maritime security is a constant fixture in security headlines. Ranging from territorial disputes in the South China Sea to piracy near strategic chokepoints, maritime security challenges are varied and complex.

This course seeks to unravel these challenges by examining the basic foundations of maritime security. These include the key technologies and technological trends which affect maritime security, the role of Great Powers, the importance of chokepoints, and future of non-state actors. Students taking this course will emerge with a nuanced understanding of security challenges in the maritime domain and knowledge of maritime terminology used by practitioners in the field. This course introduces students to the use of geospatial technologies, data, and analysis focusing on applications in the international context.

The course gives primary emphasis to the use of geographic information systems GIS for data creation, mapping, and analysis. It will also cover the use of global positioning systems GPS for field data collection and mapping; cartography for high quality visualization; and the use of map mash-ups and crowd sourcing in the international arena.

Final projects are large-format poster info-graphics. Enrollment limited to 26 student. This course examines core issues in international relations and security policy. It aims to give students a fundamental understanding of physical security and to address the broader dimensions of security and threats to human security in light of the contemporary challenges around the use of force and violence faced by states and citizens.

We will investigate whether the nature of violence has changed such that states and citizens have had to reassess how to respond. For example, since the end of the Cold War, the locus of security threats has shifted. No longer is the only and greatest threat to security great powers tilting against one another but now the threat rests in dynamics within and across states by actors with global reach.

Saying this, however, does not imply that dynamics between states no longer matter for global security. We live in an unprecedented era in which not only states but also individuals and groups of individuals can do great harm to global peace and security. Just consider the digital revolution and cyber security or transnational networks and jihadists.

As we know from research on armed conflict, organized political violence has been declining, particularly interstate war, and trends indicate that people dying from war has also declined. Moreover, events of the past three decades have impressed upon scholars and policy-makers alike that the problem of fragile and failed states and internal war are no longer peripheral issues that can be ignored, as they are often at the center of major shifts in world affairs.

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Recent events in Syria, South Sudan, Nigeria, Libya, Iraq, and Ukraine demonstrate that fragile states and those states experiencing civil war pose serious threats to international stability through the overflow of violence, the mass migration of refugees, the disruption of trade, and the potential for terrorist network sanctuaries. Never before has the threat environment been so varied and the nature of violence so dispersed.

Furthermore, we have come to understand that security is more than just physical and that issues of identity, justice, and societal well-being are core elements of security that also require consideration. Demography is a critical factor in explaining the stability of states, it is often missed by both policymakers and academics until it is too late.

Why is it missed? Policy makers tend to be focused on immediate crises and events, while population change happens over the longer term, in slow motion. Academics tend to favor immediate and direct causal factors in explaining political instability, war and state death. How demography impacts societies and politics is too complex and too messy for contemporary analysis that tends to emphasize the search for causality through formal modeling and statistical methods. This course seeks to remedy these oversights by providing an introduction to key concepts and trends related to the study of populations and what it means to international and states' national security.

The goal is to build an understanding that enables scholars to better inform policy makers, and policy makers to be better prepared to grasp the opportunities and ameliorate the risks that demographic changes present. This course covers the basics of research design and methods in political science. The first part of the course is devoted to developing a research question, constructing testable theories, understanding the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods, and concept formation. The second part of the course focuses on specific research methods historical analysis, statistical methods, field research, archival research, and experiments and their relative strengths and weaknesses.

The final section of the course addresses the ways in which scholars combine different methods to study political phenomena. Open to PhD students only or with permission of instructor. The arms industry and trade sits at the intersection of global economics, security, and politics. Access to armaments, whether domestically produced or imported, is necessary for states and armed groups to develop military capability; thus the arms industry and trade is a key instrument of state policy and international relations.

At the same time, the arms industry is an economic enterprise, in most countries a private, profit-seeking one. It depends on general national economic, industrial and technological development, and is often seen — debatably — as an important source of industrialization, jobs, and trade. But military spending, including arms acquisition, carries an opportunity cost, and how states choose to allocate limited resources between civilian and military priorities is the outcome of numerous economic, political and security factors.

This course is designed to introduce the students to the study of the relationship between religion and politics. The course will be structured around key research areas in the field such as the conditions under which societies or the institutions that govern them become secularized, the emergence and persistence of the religious-secular divide as a salient political cleavage, the relationship between regime type and religion, the potential implications of religious doctrines for public policy and economic outcomes, the causes of religious violence, as well as the historical and contemporary role of religion in the international sphere.

This course provides a foundation in key theories and frameworks for understanding gender issues across disciplines. Drawing on key texts from the fields of anthropology, philosophy, post-colonial theory, women's and gender studies, feminist theory, international relations, development economics, environmental studies and beyond, students will explore the role of gender and gender relations across the spheres of social, cultural, political, economic and religious life. The course syllabus seeks to capture the diversity of identities and viewpoints that are reflected in theoretical conversations about gender.

While many of these debates are commonly discussed with reference to international studies, this course will also wade into the realm of the domestic, exploring how gender theories manifest in reproduction, labor, and peacetime relationships. Discussions will draw out intersectional themes and invite students to reflect on how to apply these theories and approaches to issues of race, social class, and other dimensions of identity and privilege.

The seminar offers an in-depth analysis of selected nuclear issues that today top the U. The course seeks to explain the genesis and the evolution of these issues and to examine and debate the appropriateness of current policies. The course offers both theoretical and policy perspectives on these issues so as to encourage students to experiment with different theoretical lenses and to familiarize themselves with the constraints and limits of policy formulation in the face of complex and pressing dilemmas. The goal of this seminar is to introduce students to the process of writing research papers on topics in global political economy GPE.

We will examine how domestic and international politics influence the economic relations between states, and vice versa. The course is intended to introduce students to research design and guide them in selecting a capstone research question and methodology. The course objectives are — 1 introduce seminal theoretical debates and research approaches in global political economy 2 develop skills in critical reading and writing 3 to apply the logic of the scientific method 4 to have students develop a research proposal that can ultimately be the foundation of their capstone thesis.

What determines the direction, magnitude, governance, and fluctuation of international economic exchange? This course surveys the theories and issue areas of the global political economy, both in the current day and in the past. Different analytical models are presented to explain the variations in economic exchange over time. The issue areas that will be examined include: world trade, monetary orders, global finance, and foreign investment. Current topics that will be covered include: the effects of the financial crisis, the rise of the BRIC economies, the future of the dollar, and the future of global economic governance.

The goal of this course is to introduce students to the social-scientific study of global political economy GPE. We will critically examine how domestic and international politics influence economic relations between states, and vice versa. The course is organized into three sections. The first section draws the students into the study and broader history of GPE and introduces the theoretical framework s. The second part of the course focuses on three dominant policy domains: International Trade, Finance and Investment.

This class offers a survey of some of the key debates and issues in the political economy of development. First, we examine alternative approaches to development and how they have informed policies in developing countries since the s. Second, we compare different patterns of interaction among the state, political parties, interest groups, and civil society and examine how they have affected development outcomes.

Third, we address current topics such as the rise of China and India, new approaches to poverty alleviation, and the impact of global financial crises on developing countries. The study and development of policy related to "genocide" and mass atrocities are highly contested in terms of the universe of cases, key definitions, and thresholds of violence that should trigger action.

This course provides an overview of the debates by introducing the key concepts, contexts and policies related to mass atrocities. Beginning with the introduction of the term "genocide," we will explore a range of terminologies and frameworks for defining and explaining mass violence against civilians. In this course we analyze the relationship between memory and social reconciliation, and the role that theories of truth, justice and redress play in this equation.

We begin with WWII, or more precisely its aftermath and the emergence of a series of conventions and covenants establishing human rights as a set of international laws, institutions, and norms. We trace the expansion of, and challenges to, the regime of human rights and international law by focusing on case studies that allow us to analyze war crimes tribunals, truth commissions, the burgeoning field of transitional justice, and local level forms of assessing guilt and administering justice.

This course provides an overview of the operational and professional world of development. It covers choices, key concepts, and the main tools in the practice of development. There will be a focus on management and leadership challenges that development professionals face, both from the policy and practitioner perspective. Students will not learn technical knowledge in education, health, infrastructure, etc. This course provides a theoretical and empirical overview of different types of political violence including interstate wars, civil wars, violence within wars and occupations, mass violence targeting groups such as genocide and ethnic cleansing , and riots.

The influence of cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes on the evolution of societies has been shunned by scholars, politicians, and development experts. It is much more common for the experts to cite geographic constraints, insufficient resources, bad policies, or weak institutions. But by avoiding values and culture, they ignore an important part of the explanation why some societies or ethno-religious groups do better than others with respect to democratic governance, social justice, and prosperity.

The course explores core components of the program cycle, beginning with peacebuilding theories that underpin program design and ending with the development of high-quality indicators for monitoring. The core concepts of design and monitoring will be applied primarily to international development and peacebuilding programming. This practical course is intended for students who wish to obtain a strong skill set in Design, Monitoring, and Evaluation DME and work in peacebuilding or international development.

The course provides an in-depth, practical preparation for those seeking to be practitioners or donors in the final stage of the program cycle; evaluation. The core concepts will be applied primarily to international development and peacebuilding programming. This practical course should be taken by any student wishing to work in the development or peacebuilding field.

Open to students who have completed Pm. Note: Pm is a prerequisite for Pm. This seminar is an in-depth and cutting-edge discussion of what development and conflict resolution practitioners currently do together on the ground in conflict situations on all continents. It deals with methodologies conflict analysis, program development, etc. Open to students who have completed D, P or with permission of the instructor. This advanced module is key for students who wish to develop the full-package of skills and concepts expected of professionals working in development and peacebuilding.

At the end of this class, students will have a working knowledge of the key evaluation designs, approaches and tools; the ability to evaluate existing evaluations for adequacy of the design and quality; a clear picture of the link between evaluation and learning; and an overview of the latest strategies and challenges in creating learning organizations. The course focuses on the crucial interface of governance and interests, aiming to explore the role of interest groups in today's political systems.

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The course tackles the role of interests in governance in everyday, routine politics, as well as in cases of dramatic political change and upheaval. Interest groups are a major channel through which citizens express their views to decision-makers and impact policy.

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At the same time, interest groups may often help shape and direct the interest they are supposed to represent. In international development, donors, policymakers, program implementers, and end-users all have a significant investment in understanding to what extent a program or intervention works, for whom, and why or why not. To answer these questions we turn to evaluation research. This course focuses on the practice of program monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings.

A central focus in program evaluation is causality: how do we identify the causal effects of a program or intervention and rule out other explanations for observed outcomes? How do we explain the potential influence of setting and context on the outcomes? Students will learn to conceptualize the entire evaluation process from engaging with stakeholders during the initial stages of program development through designing rigorous mixed-methods evaluation studies informed by the real-world challenges.

Students will work in teams, choose an existing program or intervention, and design a realistic process and outcome evaluation proposal using a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods. The course covers international communication from three perspectives: its governance, its many- dimensional relationship with governments, and policy issues.

Students explore different theories and examples of how different types of communication content and technology interact with sovereignty, politics, security, international relations, culture, and development.

The course provides the foundations of this field with a structural approach. Topics covered include freedom of speech, global media and international journalism, public diplomacy, propaganda, media in democracies and totalitarian states, media influence on foreign policy, digital divide, intellectual property, privacy, convergence, security, media and political conflict and economic development. Students will learn the important political and economic characteristics of communication policy and markets, and will practice using basic analytic tools through case studies and examples from different countries to enhance their understanding of communication policy issues.

Students will study the general background and trends in communication policy in different parts of the world. This is followed by in-depth exploration of several issues of telecommunications policy, media policy, and policy issues of the Internet and newer technologies. Open to students who have completed either E or E or the equivalent. This course focuses on the impact of the contemporary information and communications technologies ICT on the interaction between individuals, public authorities, businesses and the non-profit sector.

How is technology affecting political, social, and economic relationships? How is it affecting development activities such as agriculture, financial services, education, health services, the security of citizens and their ability to participate in democratic institutions? How can the transformative power of technology be maximized to contribute effectively to inclusive socio-economic growth and equality?

The course will build on academic literature, technical papers, blogs, and the expertise of policymakers, intellectuals, and practitioners from both hemispheres to discuss the meaning of doing business, doing good, and being citizens in the digital world, as well as issues related to the governance of the digital society. It will further expand students' understanding of the transformative power of technology, the dynamic interactions between the parties mentioned above, the rights, obligation, expectations of each, and will equip them to assess challenges and opportunities to use technology to foster social and economic development.

Today's leaders must have the ability not only to analyze thoughtfully but also to communicate clearly and persuasively. This full semester course is intended to turn you into a significantly more persuasive and effective public speaker—someone who speaks with the ease, confidence, clarity, and modes of persuasion that are critical in today's corporate, nonprofit, policy, and diplomacy worlds.

We will cover a range of speaking scenarios, from podium speeches on values to simulations of a press conference or media interview on camera. The course is intended to help you develop your own personal style by deepening your understanding of the persuasive tools, recommendations, refutations, modes of analysis, and variations in audiences that motivate listeners to turn business, policy and diplomacy ideas into action. The full semester course will take a deeper and wider dive into the world of public speaking relative to the module course, and include sessions on debating, ceremonial speeches, as well as more detailed sessions on facing the camera and press, impromptu speaking, and elevator pitching.

Approximately one-half of the course will be devoted to classes that introduce students to strategies of spoken communication and to models of public presentation. The other half will consist of speech delivery sessions in which students will hone their skills in public speaking. Enrollment limited to 30 students.

Adaptive Leadership and Managerial Communication ALMC is a new module course that is intended to sharpen your skills around practical, impactful, and often challenging verbal communication across a range of adaptive leadership and managerial scenarios. Through your experiences, you will further develop your public speaking and presentation skills, and better understand the concept of adaptive leadership and its communication.

You will also get exposure to both personal and organizational communication case scenarios, including crisis communication. As with Arts of Communication AOC , this module course should also further your journey to becoming a more persuasive, motivating and effective public speaker and media communicator. There is a myth that the Internet erases borders.

But as Internet companies' ability to place localized ads show, that's false. What's more accurate is that the Internet complicates a nation's ability to control of the flow of information within its borders. This is not a new challenge for sovereign nations; consider the telegraph. This fluidity has created great economic opportunity and simplified trans-border access, the latter potentially threatening security and other basic state functions. With bits increasingly controlling the world around us, the Digital Revolution poses a highly disruptive threat.

In this course, we'll explore cyber clashes in the civilian sec-tor: from jurisdictional issues and the challenges posed by new technologies to criminal activities and impacts on civil infrastructures. Cyber in the Civilian Sector will have a greater focus on technology and, naturally enough, on the civilian, as opposed to national security, side of the house. This module will provide an introduction to the threats to and protections for privacy in the digital age, examining public and private sector threats, and looking at issues from an international point of view.

Topics to be covered include privacy threat models, location tracking and first and third party collection by private parties, government threats to privacy, and privacy protective technologies. No programming background needed, but a willingness and interest to play with digital tools is required. A so-called 'digital revolution' is beginning to sweep across the developing world. This revolution is creating new innovations in manufacturing, payment systems, agriculture, transport, and other sectors. There is great demand for policymakers and advisors who can design regulation, policies and other rules to effectively regulate these innovations into the 21st century.

This course aims to assist students to take a leading role in designing such rules. Many of these innovations are so new that we cannot copy and paste regulatory solutions from developed countries. Instead, 'new thinking' is required.

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This course will teach students about different regulatory approaches in relation to these new innovations. Students will learn about regulatory theory and how it interrelates with technology and international development. Students will be better placed to assume leadership roles in the increasingly digitized 21st century world, particularly in developing and emerging economies. This core International Security Studies course presents an examination of the role of force as an instrument of statecraft.

This course employs case studies to assess enduring principles of war and their role in defending a nation's interests and objectives. The works of three military strategists and four political theorists are examined to develop an analytical framework for assessing the origins, conduct, and termination of war. The 21st-century proliferation setting; alternative approaches to threat reduction; international negotiations and agreements including the Non- Proliferation Treaty; the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Missile Technology Control Regime, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Open Skies Treaty, the Biological Weapons Convention, and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; approaches to nonproliferation and counterproliferation; issues of homeland security; coping with the effects of weapons of mass destruction; cyber war; technology transfer; the nuclear fuel cycle; the fissile material problem; cooperative security; compliance, verification, and on- site inspection; missile defense; negotiating strategies, styles, objectives, asymmetries, and techniques.

Instability, conflict, and irregular warfare within states due to burgeoning challenges posed by armed groups have proliferated in number and importance since the Cold War ended. This seminar examines their patterns and evolution. This course examines the nature of terrorism; the spectrum of terrorist motivations, strategies, and operations; the socio-political, economic and other factors that can enable terrorist group activities; the unique threat of WMD terrorism; and the internal vulnerabilities of terrorist organizations. Students will examine current and classic research on terrorism, and explore many of the puzzles that remain unanswered.

Finally, the course will analyze these critical issues within the context of policies and strategies for responding to the threat of terrorism with increasing sophistication and success. Consideration of crisis management in theory and practice, drawing from recent and earlier crises; theories of crisis prevention, deterrence; escalation, de-escalation, termination, and post crisis management; decision making; bargaining and negotiation; the role of third-parties; the National Security Act of and decisional approaches in successive U.

Emphasis on theoretical literature, as well as the perspective of actual participants in recent crises and utilization of case studies, including cyber crises. The seminar also includes a major weekend crisis simulation exercise, SIMULEX, with outside participants from the official policy community. This module is an in-depth conversation about i civil resistance — understood as a nonviolent struggle that is planned and waged by ordinary people — and ii the power of civil resistance to bring about major political, economic, or social change.

This course will address how and why civil resistance movements work, their historical record and outcomes, and the strategy and dynamics of asymmetric conflicts waged by civil resistance movements. Drawing from this basis of understanding, we will look at how knowledge of civil resistance can better inform foreign policy formulations, including external assistance to civil resistance movements.

Although recent conflict environments entered a grey area that is neither war nor peace, the complexity of civil-military relations is not new. In the last two decades, kinetic activity, wider peacekeeping, peace building and state building have been pursued simultaneously.

Cyber attacks and targeted killing outside war zones add to the "grey area. Approaches will include themes, such as lack of coordination and planning; negotiation at HQ and in the field among civilian agencies, NGOs, and the military. We will examine cases and themes, as well as theory.

Prior to taking this course, students should have taken a course in security studies, negotiation, or international law. The goal of this course is to introduce students to the study of corruption in the global political economy. Corruption is a political phenomenon that affects both the quality of governing institutions and the functioning of economic markets.

For this reason, scholars and policy practitioners place considerable attention on, first, conceptualizing and identifying the phenomenon and, then, explaining its causes and consequences. Ultimately this research is aimed at formulating practical methods for reducing corruption's prevalence and harm. The course is organized into three main sections. The first part of the course introduces the topic of corruption and its relevance to international affairs, economic development and comparative politics.

The second part of the course explores corruption through the lenses of four distinct theoretical frameworks: economic, rational-legal, institutional and cultural. Here students will be introduced briefly to the methodological toolkits of these varying approaches and critically assess their relative merits. The final component of the course consists of special issue areas in corruption.

One of the most consequential national security and economic challenges confronting policymakers today is cyber space and the threats that emanate from it. As a domain and instrument of competition and conflict, cyber space enables a range of global actors—including dissidents, terrorist organizations, and states with varying levels of offensive and defensive cyber capabilities—to assert influence, project power, and conduct activities in the increasingly ambiguous gray areas between war and peace. Designed as an introductory course for the national security generalist, this seminar will explore the role of power and conflict in cyber space; examine the various activities that occur in cyber space, including espionage, subversion, sabotage, and the potential for cyber warfare; explore the vulnerability of critical infrastructure and the role of the private sector; and discuss the policies, strategies, and governance structures of key actors that operate within the cyber domain.

Underscoring topics throughout the course will be discussions on the role of risk and how policymakers assess threats and adapt to risk in the cyber domain. The foundation of this course is exposure to a portfolio of primarily quantitative analytical techniques for assessing environmental dimensions of economic activities, policies, and technologies. The goal is for students to become informed, capable environmental analysts and discerning consumers of environmental research and analysis.

The course focuses on four applied environmental problems. Driven by environmental factors, technology and market conditions, opportunities abound in areas related to conventional and new energy, which is represented by renewables and new technologies. This course examines the role that entrepreneurship, policy and financing taken together play in driving change that impacts traditional energy sources and results new energy opportunities. Energy entrepreneurship and financing together will support and create new infrastructure and require new energy paradigms on both the supply and demand side.

The class will meld policy, strategy, finance and entrepreneurship in order to build a coherent framework for integrating conventional and new energy with a focus on both business and the environment. DHP P is recommended but not required. With increasing globalization of trade, travel and terrorism, public and individual human health have become topics of global concern, involving sovereign nations, international organizations and the scientific community. Threats from emerging infectious diseases outbreaks exemplify this trend. In contrast to the traditional idea of national security, the field of human security focuses on the individual, rather than state, as the nexus of analysis and takes a multidisciplinary approach through which to analyze the challenges related to community, national and global response to emerging infectious diseases epidemics.

This course will start by examining human security literature and practice as it applies to infectious diseases threats. It will examine factors leading to increasing frequency of outbreaks due to novel pathogens, such as climate change and environmental degradation, and the concept of One Health. It will then look at the intersection between scientific research and related ethical issues, disease surveillance and global biosecurity issues.

Further, the course will examine the historical basis for International Health Regulations and other frameworks for modern global health governance as they apply to outbreaks.

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This course is meant to foster interdisciplinary perspectives by bringing together practitioners from international law, human development, public health and clinical care. Sustainable development diplomacy course examines how to integrate economic, environmental and social equity goals in foreign policy-making. It discusses the emergence of sustainable development as a concept and international institutions and negotiation processes that facilitate its implementation.

Focusing on climate, water and forest diplomacy, we address a range of themes including UN climate negotiations, climate finance, environmental refugees, public-private cooperation, and water governance. It offers insights from practice, trainings in mutual gains negotiations and complex UN multiparty negotiations.

Students develop expertise in policy analysis and planning, strategic thinking and feedback management. This course examines how governments respond to the challenges posed by the complex problem of global climate change and how clean energy policies can help countries achieve multiple goals. The latest science, technological developments, economic assessments of costs and opportunities, the role of the media, domestic and international politics, and innovation are all discussed.

Policy instruments for climate mitigation, adaptation, and a clean energy economy are introduced and thoroughly analyzed in a comparative way across most of the major-energy consuming countries. In-class exercises including an international negotiation simulation illuminate course themes. The course introduces and strengthens multidisciplinary policy analysis skills. Energy affects every dimension of human society and it is crucial for economic prosperity. Energy is at the heart of economic development strategies, national security challenges, and intractable environmental problems.

This review course maps how challenges and opportunities differ among countries, exploring basic differences between industrialized and developing countries. The policies of major energy producers and consumers are compared. The focus is on oil and gas, but renewable energy sources are also considered. Topics include: energy and the world economy, the geopolitics of oil and gas, energy markets, energy policy and economic development, climate change, technological change and the future of energy. Innovation is the main source of economic growth and improvements in productivity, is a key lever for catalyzing development, reducing environmental harm, improving human health and well-being, and enhances national security.

This seminar explores the nature of technology, theories and "stylized facts" about innovation processes, and how to think about innovation systems. A major focus is policy for innovation. Topics include national innovation systems, management of risks, global change, actors and institutions, social innovation, private vs. Case studies are used to understand each topic. Explores companies' responses to pressure from stockholders, regulatory agencies, community and non-governmental organizations to exercise greater responsibility toward the environment and an increasing spectrum of social issues.

Topics included strategy, staffing and organization, decision making, codes of conduct, resources, program development, product responsibility, corporate environmental policies, pollution prevention, trade associations, accident response, response to laws and regulations, corporate social responsibility, international issues, and foreign operations. This course primarily consists of experiential learning through applied group research projects for clients.

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Students will spend the bulk of the semester conducting two projects for leading development organizations in teams of two to five. At the beginning of the term, lectures will be conducted on the process conducting rigorous-yet applied research. We will discuss the development of testable hypotheses, the acquisition of appropriate data for hypothesis testing, the art of policy analysis, techniques for effective team research, and writing policy memos that are both technically sound and persuasive.

Students interested in taking this course but who have not taken one of the pre-requisite courses MUST seek permission of the instructor. This course will address "science diplomacy" as an emerging interdisciplinary field with global relevance to promote cooperation and prevent conflict among nations. The resulting book, which has over 40, downloads, will serve as the key text to address the elements of science diplomacy that apply across our civilization: 1 understanding of changes over time and space; 2 instruments for Earth system monitoring and assessment; 3 early warning systems; 4 catalysts of public-policy agendas; 5 features of international legal institutions; 6 sources of invention and commercial enterprise; 7 continuity across generations; 8 and global tool of diplomacy.

Overall objective of this course is to consider the contributions of science diplomacy for building common interests among nations so that we can balance economic prosperity, environmental protection and societal well-being — in view of today's urgencies and the needs of future generations — across our world. United States and Russian students will learn together in the shared classroom environment and collaborate on projects throughout the semester, leading to a Mock Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting and shared production of a mock ministerial declaration.

This course necessitates early enrollment so that Fletcher and MGIMO students may be integrated into the necessary course systems at both institutions prior to the start of the spring semester. After providing some essential background, the course concentrates on the colonial and postcolonial encounter between Muslim and Western societies and polities with special, but not exclusive reference to the South Asian subcontinent.

Organized along historical and thematic lines, the course focuses on the overlapping domains of culture and politics, thought and practice, to elucidate aspects of dialogue, tension, and confrontation between the worlds of Islam and the West. This course explores foundational theoretical, methodological, and operational questions relevant to understanding democratization in the Middle East. How do we specify regime types; how do we explain the pervasiveness of authoritarian resilience and hybrid regimes, versus democratic, regimes, in the region?

How do historical conditions of state-formation and patterns of secular and religious nation-building shape democratization trajectories in the region? How does geopolitics affect democratization in the Middle East? Organized along both historical and thematic lines, the course surveys politics, economy, and society in late colonial India and offers a comparative historical analysis of state structures and political processes in post-colonial South Asia, particularly India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

Among the themes considered are the reasons for the partition of , the nature of the colonial legacy, the origins of democracy and military authoritarianism, history of development, the shifting balance between central and regional power, the ongoing clash between so-called secular and religiously informed ideologies, and the impact on interstate relations in the subcontinent.

This course introduces students to the analytical and comparative study of large-scale, organized violence within states. Historical and contemporary civil wars will be analyzed from a variety of perspectives, and prominent cases such as former Yugoslavia and contemporary Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Sudan and Syria will be discussed. The course will address the role of resources, grievances, religion, nationalism, interstate dimensions including refugee flows and repatriation , external intervention, and conflict resolution.

The course aims to provide students with solid theoretical and historical foundations, and to highlight the difficult policy dilemmas associated with civil wars. By the end of the course, students will be well prepared to think through policy options in the prevention and resolution of civil wars. Enrollment is open, and there are no prerequisites. Apart from being an area that has demonstrated significant economic growth over the last two decades led by the world's largest democracy, India, South Asia has also been a region of tremendous instability fueled by numerous inter-state rivalries, limited wars, insurgencies and proxy wars that exist under a fragile nuclear environment.

India is fast emerging as the pre-eminent power in South Asia and has the capacity to emerge as a Pan-Asian power with both the aspirations and the appetite to share strategic space with China. The course, therefore would offer an India-centric interplay of geopolitics, geo-strategy and applied military history that would enhance an understanding of South Asia from a 'security challenges' perspective. This course aims to explain those aspects of the Islamic world—history, politics, economics, society, legal systems, business practices—that are necessary to conduct business or political negotiations in a number of countries.

The course will discuss issues of political economy and business of the Islamic world, with a special focus on Islamic networks, business culture, oil, and issues of globalization and governance. Case studies will focus on specific companies and institutions. From a geographic standpoint, the course will focus primarily on Middle Eastern and Persian Gulf countries, although it will also include countries such as Malaysia and Pakistan.

For MIB students, this course is one of the regional course options.

Horizontal Democracy Now: From Alterglobalization to Occupation1 | Athens Biennale

One- half credit. Islamic ideas and actors play an important part in global politics today. Their impact on political change, international security, and economic and social trends has shaped international relations in recent years. This course will trace the historical evolution of political Islam from both an international relations and a comparative politics perspective.

A particular focus will be on the diversity of political Islam and on the religious factor in the "Arab Spring. This seminar examines the significance of China's frontiers for Chinese foreign policy, Asian security, and international relations. The course will move geographically, taking students from Vietnam to the South China Sea, by way of the Tibetan plateau, Central Asia, the Mongolian steppe, and the Diaoyu or Senkaku islands, to name a few.

Students will consider the different forces that come into play in a frontier region, such as ethnicity, trade, boundary disputes, and geography. The course is multidisciplinary: students are encouraged to take advantage of perspectives from history, anthropology, political science, economics, and journalism. Students are expected to produce a page research paper.

This course is built around two key questions surrounding China's rise: How will China rise? Where will this rise take China? To address these two deceptively simple questions, this course relies on the concept of strategy.

Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives Democratic Decision-Making: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

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