The 99 Theses


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Finally and pragmatically, on its form, this way of presenting the text makes online reading easier, and the work is freely available in draft form online at the SenseLab-hosted 3 Ecologies Process Seed Bank. Massumi cites many of his own recent works from onwards, opening out each argument to longer elaborations: Politics of Affect and The Principle of Unrest to name just two. The case Massumi makes in this section is that there are always possible resistances to figures like Donald Trump and Silvio Berlusconi who have been enabled by the endemic corruption fostered by neoliberalism, even if that very system works to make resistance impossible or unimaginable T In sum, while Massumi is clear about the conditions required to move towards a postcapitalist future, this is not a manifesto that rails or preaches.

It competently draws together economic, cultural political and philosophical theory to dissect the processes by which we are currently shaped, and how we might collectively outmanoeuvre them. Her work explores the place of waterways in British culture, and the historical representation of British Romanies and Travellers.

99 Theses | Michael McClure | First Printing

Read more by Jodie Matthews. Click here to cancel reply. Explore the latest social science book reviews by academics and experts. Facebook Facebook. Lawrence called the poor of the community the treasures of the community and of the Church, but he understood the word according to the use in his time. We affirm without pertness that the keys of the Church, bestowed through the merit of Christ, are this treasure.

For it is clear that the Pope's power is sufficient for the remission of penalties and forgiveness in the reserved cases. The right and true treasure of the Church is the most Holy Gospel of the glory and grace of God. This treasure, however, is deservedly most hateful, for it makes the first to be last. While the treasure of indulgence is deservedly most agreeable, for it makes the last to be first. Therefore, the treasures of the Gospel are nets, with which, in times of yore, one fished for the men of Mammon.

But the treasures of indulgence are nets, with which now-a-days one fishes for the Mammon of men. Those indulgences, which the preachers proclaim to be great mercies, are indeed great mercies, forasmuch as they promote gain. And yet they are of the smallest compared to the grace of God and to the devotion of the Cross.

About Luther

Bishops and curates ought to mark with eyes and ears, that the commissaries of apostolical that is, Popish pardons are received with all reverence. But they ought still more to mark with eyes and ears, that these commissaries do not preach their own fancies instead of what the Pope has commanded.

The 95 Theses

But blessed be he who is on his guard against the preacher's of pardons naughty and impudent words. As the Pope justly disgraces and excommunicates those who use any kind of contrivance to do damage to the traffic in indulgences. Much more it is his intention to disgrace and excommunicate those who, under the pretext of indulgences, use contrivance to do damage to holy love and truth. To think that the Popish pardons have power to absolve a man even if - to utter an impossibility - he had violated the Mother of God, is madness.

We assert on the contrary that the Popish pardon cannot take away the least of daily sins, as regards the guilt of it.

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To say that St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could show no greater mercies, is blasphemy against St. Peter and the Pope. We assert on the contrary that both this and every other Pope has greater mercies to show: namely, the Gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc. He who says that the cross with the Pope's arms, solemnly set on high, has as much power as the Cross of Christ, blasphemes God.

Those bishops, curates, and theologists, who allow such speeches to be uttered among the people, will have one day to answer for it. Such impudent sermons concerning indulgences make it difficult even for learned men to protect the Pope's honor and dignity against the calumnies, or at all events against the searching questions, of the laymen. As for instance: - Why does not the Pope deliver all souls at the same time out of Purgatory for the sake of most holy love and on account of the bitterest distress of those souls - this being the most imperative of all motives, - while he saves an infinite number of souls for the sake of that most miserable thing money, to be spent on St.

Peter's Minster: - this being the very slightest of motives? Or again: - Why do masses for the dead continue, and why does not the Pope return or permit to be withdrawn the funds which were established for the sake of the dead, since it is now wrong to pray for those who are already saved? Again: - What is this new holiness of God and the Pope that, for money's sake, they permit the wicked and the enemy of God to save a pious soul, faithful to God, and yet will not save that pious and beloved soul without payment, out of love, and on account of its great distress?


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Again: - Why is it that the canons of penance, long abrogated and dead in themselves, because they are not used, are yet still paid for with money through the granting of pardons, as if they were still in force and alive? Again: - Why does not the Pope build St. Peter's Minster with his own money - since his riches are now more ample than those of Crassus, - rather than with the money of poor Christians?

Martin Luther’s 95 Theses in Latin and English

Again: -Why does the Pope remit or give to those who, through perfect penitence, have already a right to plenary remission and pardon? Again: - What greater good could the Church receive, than if the Pope presented this remission and pardon a hundred times a day to every believer, instead of but once, as he does now? If the Pope seeks by his pardon the salvation of souls, rather than money, why does he annul letters of indulgence granted long ago, and declare them out of force, though they are still in force?

To repress these very telling questions of the laymen by force, and not to solve them by telling the truth, is to expose the Church and the Pope to the enemy's ridicule and to make Christian people unhappy. Therefore, if pardons were preached according to the Pope's intention and opinion, all these objections would be easily answered, nay, they never had occurred. Away then with all those prophets who say to the community of Christ, "Peace, peace", and there is no peace.


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  • But blessed be all those prophets who say to the community of Christ, "The cross, the cross," and there is no cross. When a person comes to confess their sins, the priest questions them regarding whether or not they are genuinely repentant. If they are, then the priest is to absolve them. Through absolution he makes the sinner free of eternal punishment. Nevertheless, in spite of the fact that the sinner is free from eternal punishment, he is still subject to temporal punishment. Temporal punishment is simply the temporary suffering that all sin merits irrespective to forgiveness.

    The 95 Theses

    In order to fulfill temporal punishment due to sin, the priest assigns penance after he has absolved the believer of sin. The priest decides how much penance to assign on the basis of an educated guess regarding the level of contrition experienced by the sinner.

    The more contrition the sinner feels as opposed to mere attrition , the less penance should be assigned. To the extent that the sinner does not complete all penance given to him, or the priest makes a mistake regarding how much penance should be assigned, the sinner will have to endure the sufferings of purgatory in the next life to fill in the deficit.

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