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Newspapers and magazines except for covers , editorial broadcasts and documentaries. Exclusive use licence bundles. Our observations of bloom extent give lower bounds, as gaps in the chlorophyll dataset due to cloud cover prevent observations of some blooms. Normalizing the bloom area to MIZ area with valid chlorophyll data likely gives a better estimate of the region within the MIZ that blooms.
Mean MIZ chlorophyll concentrations are elevated over these same months Figure 4. Eight year monthly means show high mean concentrations from December to February, and then a sharp drop at the end of the growing season Figure 4. The February MIZ is largely restricted to small areas on the fringes of areas with permanent sea ice cover.
As the most significant blooms in terms of areal extent are seen in December and January, we focus our analysis on these months. The December MIZ is the most variable in mean chlorophyll concentration, especially compared to the other main bloom months, January and February Table 1.
This is likely related to interannual variations in sea ice retreat. The minimum December mean value was during at 0. Arrigo and van Dijken  showed that Southern Ross sea blooms were depressed and delayed from December into February during our low chlorophyll year of by heavy sea ice cover also in Highest February chlorophyll was 1. In Figure 5 , areas in gray were part of the MIZ where no valid chlorophyll data was observed, and areas in blue had some valid MIZ chlorophyll observations, but no blooms were observed.
Blooms are consistently seen near the Antarctic continent, most often in the Weddell and Ross shelf regions, likely driven in part by increased iron availability Figures 1 , 2 , and 5. Indeed nearly all coastal areas had at least one observed phytoplankton bloom Figure 5. Blooms are seen more sporadically in the offshore waters, mainly in portions of the Weddell and Ross seas. Six year averages shown in Table 1 reveal an inverse pattern to that of MIZ area. The variability of wind speed strength is elevated in early spring, with less variability in December and January smaller standard deviation relative to mean value , and ending with a more variable February and March, likely driven by early and late season storms Table 1.
The lowest wind speeds are consistently seen in the eastern portions of the Weddell gyre Figures 6 and 7. Mean December winds over all years are considerably lower in the high productivity regions of the southern Weddell and Ross seas relative to more open ocean waters Figure 6.
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There was a strong correlation between mean MIZ chlorophyll concentration and the distance from the Antarctic continent Figure 8. In some cases the error bars are smaller than the plotted symbol, due to the large number of observations in those bins Figures 9A and 8C. Mean chlorophyll may not be the best metric to evaluate the influence of wind speed on bloom dynamics due to photoacclimation by the phytoplankton.
As wind speed increases and mixed layers deepen, the mean light level experienced by phytoplankton will decrease. As this leads to light stress the phytoplankton will synthesize more chlorophyll to adapt to low light conditions. Thus, under increasing wind speeds, phytoplankton carbon biomass and productivity could actually decline without an observed decrease in chlorophyll.
Thus, the percentage of observations in each bin where high blooming chlorophyll levels are observed is a better metric of wind influence on bloom dynamics.
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This metric shows a strong inverse relationship between wind speed and bloom occurrence Figure 9B. The mean chlorophyll concentration at lower wind speeds was 0. Thus, they were mostly within the zone of generally elevated chlorophyll near the continent Figure 8. The strong winds may have resulted in enhanced entrainment of iron from sedimentary sources into surface waters, leading to a bloom. Alternatively, in areas of high meltwater inputs and very strong vertical density gradients, these winds may not have led to the deep mixed layers one would expect in other areas.
The open squares in Figure 10D are from the low chlorophyll areas Figure 10A and the solid diamonds are from the higher chlorophyll areas Figure 10B. A similar process accounts for the relation between iron limitation factor and mixed layer depths across both high and low chlorophyll regions, with the high chlorophyll regions having generally shallower mixed layer depths. Where mixed layers are deeper, light limitation is stronger Figures 10A and 10B and this reduces the uptake and drawdown of dissolved iron, resulting in relatively higher iron limitation factors Figure 10D.
Where mixed layers are shallow, light is not limiting and the iron depletion is much greater leading to much lower iron limitation factors Figure 10D. This would correspond to mixed layer depths of about 40m in this region Figure 10C. Thus, the model results are consistent with the interpretation that increasing light limitation inhibits blooms at higher wind speeds with deeper mixed layer depths.
This suggests that wind forcing plays an important role in driving the considerable spatial and temporal variations in MIZ phytoplankton bloom distributions Figures 1 and 2. Another likely key factor is the degree of iron stress of the phytoplankton community. Blooms were much more common close to the Antarctic continent Figures 1 , 2 , 5 , and 8 where higher dissolved iron concentrations are often observed [ Sedwick and DiTullio , ; Schoemann et al.
Phytoplankton are better able to adapt to low light conditions when iron is not limiting, and iron stress will exacerbate the sensitivity to deeper mixed layers [ Sunda and Huntsman , ]. Smith and Nelson , ; Moore and Abbott , ; Buesseler et al. The water column stability and shallow mixed layer depths imparted by the melting sea ice, and iron release from melting ice appear to be the main drivers of these phytoplankton blooms.
Wind forcing has long been suggested as a potentially important factor in governing phytoplankton bloom distributions through impacts on the mixing and the irradiance regime, and on the input of nutrients to surface waters through mixing or upwelling. This study demonstrates a strong impact of wind forcing on phytoplankton bloom distributions throughout the Southern Ocean marginal ice zone.
Cloud cover severely restricts chlorophyll coverage in this region. Thus, our monthly images often include only a couple of data points at any one location. Abbott et al. Arrigo and Weiss  suggested intense offshore winds in the Ross Sea could be lead to substantial upwelling in the spring and early summer polynyas.
The distribution of blooms found here was similar to that described in previous studies [ Sullivan et al. MIZ sizes for this season match up fairly close considering there are discrepancies between definitions. Chlorophyll concentrations between the two studies show discrepancies. Wind forcing accounts for some of the variability within the MIZ, with iron also likely playing a key role.
Maximum bloom areal extents are in December and January, but the highest mean MIZ chlorophyll concentrations are often not seen until January or February Figure 4. While mean chlorophyll concentrations can increase later in the melt season, it should be noted that in terms of integrated primary production, biogeochemical cycling, and ecological value for higher trophic levels, December is the most important MIZ period due to the large areal extent and frequent phytoplankton blooms. Data are available at www. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.
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