At the time, the genuine Macanese folklore non Chinese would have had no great vitality. And it would have been difficult to find any real popular source willing to provide, with no restraints, such information.
Somehow, I was lucky to meet, among the very old ladies of Macao, some good friends full of patience and goodwill, who were precious sources of information, either during my written enquiries or tape-recordings. But they are all people with some education I never met an illiterate Macanese , and so they would even correct their own statements occasionally. And being well-on in years, in their Eighties or Nineties, their memories were already fading. It would be very hard for them to completely recollect a poem, a riddle or a song, as all those things were also long-one.
I must acknowledge also the many middle-age people, impossible to mention all by name who, recalling expressions heard in their youth or eventually still in use today, report them to me and help me in trying to find their meaning or origins. Curious enough is the fact that the oldest source known for the study of the Language of Macao, is of Chinese origin. As the people say in their unfailing wisdom: 'No one is a prophet in his own Country'. For over three-hundred years, and not before the nineteenth century Romantic Movement had awakened an eagerness for National Language and folklore, no Portuguese ever remembered to put into writing his knowledge, present or past, of the Language spoken in this remote Portuguese tract of land 5 Such Language, more or less identical in any land discovered or conquered by us in the sixteenth century, was undoubtedly so common in those days to anyone travelling overseas, that no one ever bothered to record it.
And it took a foreigner to provide us with the first description of the way of life in Macao. Not a very precise report, written by an outsider, but of great interest anyway. It has been said that the worn-out Portuguese negligence, of which Garcia de Resende already complained about in the fifteenth century, has stuck by itself everywhere and at all times.
Tesa in his work Indoportughese [ Such information was later compiled into the mentioned Monograph, with the cooperation of Ying Guangren. In the last pages of this work there is a list of words and sentences, probably those most commonly used during the contacts between the Chinese and the Portuguese from Macao, reproducing the Macanese pronunciation in as much as could be achieved by Chinese ears and characters.
This makes it obvious that such record is far more important because of its primitiveness, than its accuracy. Nonetheless, it does provide some very enlightening references, especially with regard to the structure of sentences, such as: pequenino chuva Port. However, and confirming once more the afore-mentioned proverb, the translation and the original documents were rather ignored among us, until someone, in some other Country, realized that they had more than mere historical importance. Bawden, from the University of Cambridge, an expert on Chinese and Portuguese Languages, studied the original Monograph from a linguistic point of view, trying to reestablish the genuine Macanese forms through Chinese transcriptions.
However, he did resort to the Portuguese translation for comparison purposes. His attention to the latter, nowadays as rare as the original, was drawn by another prominent Orientalist, the famous Prof. Charles Ralph Boxer, who has dedicated great interest to Portuguese matters in the Orient, as we all know. There are still several other studies by foreigners in connection with this matter of the Vocabulary, but the work that best completes those afore-mentioned was the one presented by R.
Wallace Thompson, former professor at the University of Hong Kong and a distinguished Hispanist who has also given a large contribution to the study of Portuguese Language and our Creole Dialects, namely the Hong Kong Macanese. This author compared the words and expressions recorded in the Ou-Mun Kei-Leok Glossary with the corresponding current Portuguese terms spoken in Hong Kong, that is, the still active remainder of the old Dialect, brought to the neighbouring Colony by the families from Macao seeking residence soon after the British occupation in Families who, amidst the English Language that in fact they speak have preserved up to now their native 'tongue', with the exclusion of the younger generation.
This way, Thompson clarified many doubts raised by the intricate Chinese transcriptions and, at the same time, gave precious indications about the old Creole of Macao, through its remnants in Hong Kong. As we can understand, there are many studies on the 'old Language of Macao', while as far as the current Language is concerned, nothing was published until All that has been done so far are copies or simulations of the old texts that no longer correspond to the actual facts. When we arrived in Macao in we also thought that the Creole Dialect, taught at the University, was the local popular Language.
But, we soon found out how old-fashioned was our knowledge and how such Language, though different to that spoken in the Motherland at the same level urban-popular , was no longer the same revealed to us by Leite de Vasconcelos and his contemporaries. Since then and up to the present moment, due to closer contacts with the Motherland, the Dialect has been improving rapidly towards a greater approach to the current Portuguese, particularly with regard to the Vocabulary and pronunciation.
Notice, however, that the Language of the elderly is not yet identical to that of their children, that is, to those in their Fifties.
The Language of the very old if they are not very educated, of course is almost unintelligible to a newcomer, while that of the average generation is understood almost immediately, although requiring some attention at first. On the other hand, the Language of the middle-aged is also not the same spoken by the children and youngsters, in other words by the student population. If it is a fact that the other two Languages undergo a normal transition period, the consequent instability becomes manifest in the truly chaotic speech of the young population.
This happens when they are alone with no prying ears close by. Or else they will solve the problem by speaking Chinese, popular Guangdongnese or 'mother tongue', all too familiar to both of them. But when they have to speak Portuguese during classes, especially the very young, they manifest the confusion in their minds with phrases such as: eu caiu Port. Quem com os porcos se juntam, farelos comem Port: Quem com os porcos se junta, farelos come; or: If you lie down with dogs you get up with flees.
We believe that only by the end of the next two or three generations will the Language adjust itself to new patterns. With the following series of chapters we do not wish to correct or criticize the present state of instability that characterizes the current Language of Macao. All we want is to give our modest contribution in the phenomena as it continues to reveal itself in this obscure land of ours - and to which we are so mysteriously attracted by its strange mixtures.
The building and development of any Language is a dramatic experience, as thrilling as a human history. As people do words have their own migrations and conquests, their fights for survival, their improvements and setbacks in space and time, their youth, old age and death. Often enough an apparent death, taking into account that a word that dies here may reappear somewhere else with a new form or a new sense, both of which may in turn change to give way to further new creations.
Linguistic Geography, establishing in geographical charts the area corresponding to a certain word, has led to surprising conclusions, not only from the linguistic point of view but also the historical and ethnographic as well. The study of words, in the abstract, brought about some unknown human problems, and the solving of others considered unsolvable until then.
Words are motivated by people, following peoples' trails and marking their presence, even where such presence has long been forgotten. Therefore, it is impossible to make the history of a people without the inclusion of a chapter dedicated to their Language; much less to have a profound knowledge of a Language without studying the people who created it. However it will not be here that we shall retell the history of Macao, as it would not fit the sphere of this modest article.
We will not even linger on the initial question, already much discussed and always so unclear, regarding the date and the conditions found by the Portuguese when they first settled here. We shall start from the undetermined moment when our pioneers felt, under their heavy boots, a sufficiently stable ground on which to settle with their families. We shall try to identify what was the Language that followed the vertiginous days when the small trading post expanded and became a City; and what happened to such Language, since then and right through the centuries, up to the present days.
We have heard, even from learned persons, that the Macanese Dialect was the result of a mixture of old Portuguese and Chinese Languages. This is today's notion of Colonial Dialect, a mixture of Languages. However, studies made by prominent philologists show that the processing of such Dialects did not consist essentially of a mixture of Languages, but rather the hasty and imperfect assimilation of a foreign Language by the native people, having in view the basic needs of communication with the colonizers.
But, the building of the Creole Language of Macao has a peculiar history, taking into account that not much was to be expected from half a dozen Chinese families living in the Territory, before our arrival, if in fact the Country was inhabited. Some historians say that only a few Chinese families lived here, others say that there were no permanent residents but only the floating population of seamen who would temporarily seek the port for shelter.
Whatever the case, it is obvious from its study that the foundation of the Dialect has nothing to do with the native Chinese. If it was at all influenced by the Chinese, such influence is much more recent than could be imagined. It goes without saying that the Dialect happened to assume its personal characteristics from the Macanese people's own lips, but it was a Language already in full progress here when it was first introduce, bought partly by the Metropolitan pioneers, mostly from Southern Portugal, thus contributing with their regional peculiarities: also, partly and mainly, by the heterogeneous population that came along with them.
In , according to Montalto de Jesus in his Historic Macao [1st edition: ], there were already nine-hundred Portuguese in the City, besides "several thousands of Malays, Indians and Africans, most of them domestic slaves. What sort of Portuguese was that, spoken by so many, we shall see right away. We have seen that the foundation of Macao was not followed by the sudden appearance of a 'free-spoken' Language, the basic means of communication with the native people, similar to what had happened in other Countries where the Portuguese were the first settlers. As all dominating peoples do, we imposed our Language wherever we settled, though using many of the natives words.
These natives, on the other hand, learnt our Language as is always the case of people who, with no grammatical studies, start to speak a foreign Language.
Portuguese: A Linguistic Introduction
Thanks to some short dramatic plays by Gil Vicente and his followers, who used the African slaves talk as a comical ingredient in their shows, we have an idea of what was the former Portuguese Language spoken by the colonized natives. It is odd that expressions such as nam sa cativo Port. Because of these and other common remnants that can still be found scattered over Portuguese speaking Countries, we can assume that such former Afro-Portuguese talk might have experienced a rather lasting state of sensitive constancy, at least until our settlement in India. When the Portuguese arrived in Macao, almost a century later, already a more mature Language, enriched with various other vocables mainly from the first non-European inhabitants, had been established here.
As there were native Africans among them, as described by Montalto de Jesus and other historians, such fact would partly explain certain similarities, surprising at first, between the old Creole of Macao and the Afro-Portuguese Creole Languages, mainly those from the Cape Verde islands. It will even explain some coincidences with Brazil's popular talk, considering that this country took a large number of African labourers during its colonization.
But only partly, as we have said, because certain phenomena frequent in other Creole Languages did not 'travel', but are the result of psychological principles identical to all peoples, such as the tendency to simplify things. Therefore, this tendency in Macao to conjugate verbs in one single form for all grammatical persons is not necessarily of African origin. Another feature very common in Creole Dialects and something that can always be detected in the deficient assimilation of a foreign Language, is the confusion of grammatical genders.
This particular had already been revealed by the Negroes in Gil Vicente's plays and is still much alive in Macao. Many feminine words in current Portuguese are used in the masculine in the Dialect of Macao, and vice-versa. Frequently they have no definite gender and are either masculine or feminine depending on the fancy of whoever is talking.
This exasperates any teacher of Grammar, but the linguist will simply consider that the grammatical gender, as far as the inanimate nature is concerned, is a mere arbitrary creation established according to each persons own liking, for whatever reason. Furthermore, as time goes by, there are changes in the gender of many words in one Language, such as fim end and mar sea , which in former Portuguese used to be of the feminine gender: a fim presently: o fim - masculine gender; or: the end , a mar presently: o mar - masculine gender; or: the sea , same as in French: la fin, la mer.
This being the case, we can understand, in Macao, people may say caiu na mar Port. Surely, this must be the case of Chinese influence, considering that they make no distinction of gender in pronouns. One day, a Chinese mother's little boy from Primary School was telling me about a family problem, and repeatedly said ele We have said that the Macanese Dialect, even from the very beginning, had already excelled the Afro-Portuguese and had been largely enriched with vocables from various sources.
It is clear that the majority of these words, the basis of such relative richness in vocabulary, were Portuguese, the Portuguese spoken at the time, that had already grown strong roots in our Colonies of India and Malacca, later coming to Macao. That is why many of the Dialect's vocables and grammatical forms that seem so strange to us now, are nothing but reminiscences of the old sixteenth century and even medieval Portuguese Language.
Let us not forget that the main part of our colonizers were not the learned people of the menfolk, whose Language, besides revealing some small differences to the Motherland's Dialect, also had an archaic character - an ever-so common factor in popular Language. It is even possible that Indo-Portuguese may have been the current Language during the early stages of Macao's foundation. There are many traces, either in expressions of Indian origin, or in our own words with similar pronunciation here and in India, probably because that is where they came from.
However, in the Creole texts of the nineteenth century the old ones that still prevail, as we have seen words of Malay origin are more frequently found. This should not come as a surprise considering that, due to a greater proximity to Malacca, the long term relations with this City were undoubtedly much closer than those with India. Let us bear in mind that Malacca was conquered by Afonso de Albuquerque almost half a century before the foundation of Macao.
The lexical variety of the Portuguese Language spoken in Macao had been improved, in the course of time, with the introduction of some foreign European terms, especially English from Hong Kong. Strange as it may seem, Chinese influence in the primitive Creole was minimum, with a substantial increase in recent years. Quite natural though, considering that in a large number of today's Macanese families, the mother is Chinese.
And, as we know, it is always the mother, with her exemplary contribution to society, who has the greatest influence in a Language, a social phenomenon by excellence. Here we come to a question that has not been discussed, but is far from having a mere historical interest. However, such assumption cannot be confirmed either by the testimony of the Language or by what historians say with regard to the original relations with Chinese people. Even after the achievement of a mutual trust between the two people, there must have been a period of time before a Chinese woman would willingly accept to couple with a 'foreign devil'.
So, if they were not Chinese, or mostly Metropolitan, for obvious reasons, then who were the first wives and mothers in Macao? The answer is given by the Country's Language. Such vocables undoubtedly reveal the woman and are an indication that the first wives and women of a large number of the founders of Macao must have come from Malaysia. Besides, we know that a large number of Portuguese people got married in Malacca then. Soand so, married in Malacca [ Of course, there were then women of other races as well, including Chinese and even Japanese.
But the majority seem to have been the lovely brunettes from Malaysia and nearby islands. Their remote descendants must be proud of them, of those brave women willing to follow men of a different race to a common strange land, a more or less hostile land. Here, their traditional beauty and tenderness must have greatly contributed to soothe the harsh-ness of their husbands' lives in those days.
We have referred to Vocabulary as a curious feature of the Macaista Dialect, by revealing this Country's cosmopolitism during the various stages of its life, a cosmopolitism that did not prevent a determined conservatism of the old Portuguese legacy.
Nevertheless, it is not the Vocabulary that defines a Dialect or even a Language, but rather its phonetic and morphologic characteristics. As far as phonetics of Macao's Dialect is concerned, there are many differences in relation to Lisbon's or Coimbra's pronunciation. But many of such particularities, especially with regard to vowels, can also be found in the provincial speech of the Motherland. Similar diphthongizations must have surely been noticed by any educated person, with regard; to Brazil's half-breed and negroe speech, so realistically handled by the modern Brazilian writers.
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I can still remember a popular march, familiar to many others, sung by Lurdinha Brasil, with the following refrain:. This example, and the detection in Brazil, obviously not influenced by Macao, of the same diphthongization such words where the last vowel is "a", "e" and "o", leads us to believe that such pronunciation formerly comprised a much larger area than it does nowadays;. Orally, an even more important fact is the deletion of the sound "r" in all verbs in the infinitive and, in a general way, in every word ending in "r".
But the general deletion of the "r" in all or almost all of our Creole Dialects, in addition to the fact that in some of the Indo-Portuguese Creoles all ending sounds fall as in minh Port. At a first glance, the only phonetical characteristics that seem to be due to Oriental influence, probably Malay, are the tones "dj" and "tch" still used by the elderly in words such as djambo Mac. But it is very difficult to prove such influence, at least not until a study of the Portuguese speech and Dialects has been completed.
We have no definite information as to our overseas Dialects. Some of them, under the pressure of cultivated Language, have vanished completely or almost so from Portugal, but others are still very active indeed. We could mention quite a few examples, but we do not wish to prolong this matter any further. The main changes, what are we shall see in the next chapter. The most important and characteristic change in the chapter of morphology is the forming of the plural, which in old Creole and Malay-Portuguese Creole, was achieved by a process called 're-duplication', that is, by repeating the noun.
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Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. Item specifics Condition: Very Good : A book that does not look new and has been read but is in excellent condition. No obvious damage to the cover, with the dust jacket if applicable included for hard covers. May be very minimal identifying marks on the inside cover. There is also a covered games area with pool table and darts and a table tennis table.
Stunning 6 bed villa with pool near the beach. Alles is op loopafstand. De villa is luxe ingericht en van alle gemakken voorzien. Er is free wifi. Stunning 6 bedroom four ensuite house with large outdoor pool, and Games room, in the unspoilt East Algarve. Casa Elouise backs onto a national reserve of pine trees. Casa Elouise is luxuriously furnished throughout its six bedrooms, large living room and dining area. It also has a games room with air hockey, bar football and darts. Lovely 6 bed 5 bath house, pool, m to beach. A cerca de 50km do aeroporto de Faro. Quinta dos Migueis Moradia 5 quartos Praia e Golfe.
E depois Espanha a 5 minutos. Casa do Tomilho. A sua ampla e vasta area de jardim proporciona uma extensa privacidade em torno da propriedade. Altura Villa Duartes. The villa is furnished to a high standard inside, and outside, has sunbeds, a gazebo and al- fresco BBQ dining space. The gardens and pool are enclosed making this a safe space for children!
Great location - the use of a car is not essential when staying here: The Supermarket is just 2 minutes walk and the village and beach minutes walk. This villa offers a fantastic holiday experience. The rooms are comfortable and well appointed. On the ground floor there is a large kitchen, fully applianced and a sepreate dining area with a large table for 8 guests. The lounge is bright and airy with 2 comfy sofas and a separate double sofa bed for additional guests if required.
Onthe frist floor, there are 3 bedrooms. The master bedroom has a king sixe bed and enuite bathroom.
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The seond edroom is perfect for a family with a kingsice bed and single bed. There is also a cot if required. The third bedroom has 2 single beds, and a lovely sunny balcony with comfy sofas, ideal for relaxing with a glass or 2! The outside space is ideal for chikdren and is fated and exnlosed. There is grassy area, pool terrace, sunbeds, BBQ, Dining furniture and a ,ovely gazebo wiht comfy sofas. Ideal for taking shade by the pool during the hot sun! Private parking is also avialble on the premises. Wifi and Air conditioning in every room is included.
Altura is a lovely beach village, still with a traditional Portuguese charm. There is a large supermarket just 2 minutes walk from the villa, and the main village can be reached in around 10 minutes. Here you will find a great selection of restaurants to suit all tastes and shops to browse around. The beach is simply spectacular! Gorgeous, long white flat sands and warm ocean. You can walk for several kms to neighbouring resorts along the sands. Casa Brian 1 is within a few minutes drive of five superb golf courses, including the new Jack Nicklaus, Monte Rei course, and backs onto a national reserve of pine trees.
Casa Brian 1, laid out over three floors with large terraces overlooking the large swimming pool. In addition it boasts a roof terrace with views over the national park and the sea, and is luxuriously furnished throughout its five bedrooms, large living room, conservatory dining room together with a large luxuriously appointed, open plan kitchen. The linked house is air conditioned and is luxuriously furnished to a very high standard. The beautiful Ria Formosa! It is one of the most important nature reserves in the network of wetlands that links Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.
The Ria has an enormous variety of natural habitats that provide refuge, feeding and breeding areas for an infinite number of flora and fauna and is a haven for birds. Behind are the dunes, sometimes just a narrow strip and sometimes wider and then come the labyrinth of lagoons and small sand islands and channels.
At low tide other salty habitats are uncovered forming marches and salt marshes. A wintering ground for many migratory birds. The Estuary has an enormous variety of natural habitats and biotopes that provide refuge, feeding or breeding areas for an infinite number of organisms. Golfers to the East Algarve! With it's brilliant, sunny climate and dramatic courses throughout the region, it's easy to see why the Algarve is the most popular golfing destination in Europe.
There are over 30 golf courses in the Algarve, ranging from 9-hole courses stretched over the Algarve grassland, to dramatic coastal hole courses set amongst the picturesque cliffs. This makes golf here enjoyable for everyone, regardless of ability, and guarantees that you will find the perfect course for you. Athletes and sportsmen note! The mild climate of the Algarve, combined with the natural surroundings of pine forest and beach, is conducive to improved performance by athletes.
The complex at VRSA and the golden sands of Monte Gordo attract a number of professional teams and national squads to the region for warm weather training. A huge number of sports are catered for.
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Whether you are preparing for an important event or simply looking to have a well deserved relaxing warm weather training break with friends, VRSA is the ideal location to prepare for competition or to simply wind down. Stunning 5 bed 4 bath villa with pool, near beach.
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All rooms are spacious and well decorated, with modern furniture and plenty of natural light. It is located nearby Monte Rei Golf and Country Club, about 10 minutes to the beach and about 20 minutes by car from the center of Tavira. Casa Rosa is entered via electric gates from a private track off the road. There is ample parking adjacent to the property. The villa, pool and terraces are south facing. Plenty of outdoor furniture and sun loungers are present.
When entering through the door into the hallway you come into the very light and spacious living and dining area where large patio doors give a magnificent view on the garden and the ocean. The adjacent kitchen is top quality and of course fully equipped. From the kitchen you also have easy access to the terrace and pool area as well as the dining and built in BBQ area with sink and water supply. There is also a large mobile barbecue available. The ground floor also had one twin bedroom and a bathroom.
Upstairs are 2 king size bedrooms with ensuite bathrooms. Both bedrooms have access to the first floor terrace which runs along the front of the villa on which is an external daybed. All rooms in the villa are air-conditioned. The villa is just superb and with the high end furnishing, it makes it a truly fantastic holiday villa for people who like spending their holidays relaxing in luxury and total privacy enjoying the wonderful weather that the Algarve is blessed with.
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A lovely countryside villa with sea view in a farm, just 1,5 km away from the nearest beach from several and 57 km from Faro Airport. Wonderful to enjoy and relax like the old days.
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