This was used as a measure of prestige. Lorge found that the participants rated the same statement differently when it was referred to a different author. More specifically, the rating of a statement tended to rise when it was referred to a more "prestigious" author. One of Lorge's main conclusions is that "an unchanged object of judgment undergoes a change of evaluation". Therefore, the prestige of the author is viewed as acting arbitrarily on the statement regardless of the content or merit of the statement. Participants simply view the statement as having higher value when the author has higher prestige.
Asch, however, reinterprets Lorge's findings and suggests that there was "a change in the object of judgment, rather than in the judgment of the object" Asch, He suggests that a person will redefine the object of judgment based on the content of the evaluations. In evidence of his claims, Asch conducted an experiment in which college students read statements with the name of one author below each statement. They were instructed to describe what the statement meant to them.https://elrimworkwarccool.ga/map19.php
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Two groups of students read the same statements but with different authors associated with them. The main finding was that there was a "cognitive reorganization" of the statement based on what was understood about the author of the statement. Participant's felt the meaning of the quote differed depending on who wrote the statement. For example, the following quote was presented to both groups of subjects: "Only the willfully blind can fail to see that the old style capitalism of a primitive freebooting period is gone forever.
The capitalism of complete laissez-faire, which thrived on low wages and maximum profits for minimum turnover, which rejected collective bargaining and fought against justified public regulation of the competitive process, is a thing of the past. However, when Johnston president of the U. Chamber of Commerce at the time was the author, they interpreted the passage to be "a perspective of policy in the interest of business, especially of 'enlightened' business".
Asch conducted a very similar and classic study with participants reading statements either attributed to Jefferson or Lenin.
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One of the major points that Asch makes is that participants are not completely blind in the experiment and making arbitrary choices based on this bias. Asch claims that participants were acting reasonable in their change of evaluation of the judgment because the context of the judgment and thus the meaning of the judgment had changed. Lorge, however, suggested that if the participants were behaving logical, their evaluations should have remained the same despite the change in author. Muzafer Sherif conducted an experiment, very similar to Lorge, in which he investigated how prestige affects the evaluation of literary materials.
College students were asked to rank a set of prose passages according to their literary quality. Each passage also included the name of a well-known author. However, all of the passages were actually written by the same author. Participants rated the authors earlier in terms of their literary standing.
Sherif found that passages that were identified with highly acclaimed authors received higher rankings. Asch suggested that Sherif's results could be largely influenced from the environment of a laboratory experiment.
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Because the experiment was designed to have each of the passages have very few differences between them, participants were faced with a dilemma when asked to distinguish between them. The experimenter and other neighboring participants may appear to find the task obvious, so the participant attends to any clues that might help him make the decision. In fear of looking ridiculous, the participant might now approach the task as, "Which of these am I expected to like and dislike? Asch is best known for his conformity experiments.
His main finding was that peer pressure can change opinion and even perception. Asch asked: 1 To what extent do social forces alter people's opinions? Asch's conformity experiment was conducted using male participants who were told that they would be part of an experiment in visual judgment.
Each subject was put into a group with 5 to 7 confederates people who knew the true aims of the experiment, but were introduced as participants to the naive "real" participant. The group was shown a card with a line on it, followed by another card with 3 lines on it labeled a, b, and c. The participants were then asked to say which line matched in length the line on the first card.
Each line question was called a "trial". The "real" participant answered last or penultimately. For the first two trials, the subject would feel at ease in the experiment, as he and the other "participants" gave the obvious, correct answer. However, after the fourth trial, all of the confederates respond with the clearly wrong answer at certain points such that in 12 of the 18 trials they all gave the wrong answer.
The Legacy of Solomon Asch: Essays in Cognition and Social Psychology
The 12 trials in which the confederates answered incorrectly were the "critical trials". The participant could thus either ignore the majority and go with his own senses or he could go along with the majority and ignore the clearly obvious fact. The aim was to see whether the real participant would change his answer and respond the same way as the confederates or stick with what his eyes plainly told him.
Asch suggested that this procedure created a doubt in the participants' mind about the seemingly obvious answer. Participants reported that the correct but rejected line was almost but not quite equal to the standard line. Asch also found that the effectiveness of the group pressure increased significantly from 1 person to 3 people unanimously responding incorrectly.
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However, there was not much increase after that. He also found that when one confederate responded correctly, the power of the majority to influence the subject decreased substantially. Asch told his colleagues that his studies of conformity were informed by his childhood experiences in Poland. He recalled being seven years old and staying up for his first Passover night.
He recalls seeing his grandmother pour an extra glass of wine. When he asked who the glass of wine was for, she said that it was for the prophet Elijah.
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He then asked her whether Elijah would really take a sip from the glass and his uncle assured him that he would. His uncle told him to watch very closely when the time came. He found that there was a similar meaning for the sensory term, such as "cold" in English, and the corresponding personality trait. He concluded that metaphors, and thus language, reflects a person's attempt to understand the true properties of a person or object. Asch showed that simple properties would enter into associations much easier when they are part of the same unit than when they are from different units.
Asch was Stanley Milgram 's advisor at Princeton University, and Milgram completed his dissertation on national differences under conformity under Asch. According to Levine , Asch's research has led to four critical ideas that persist in social influence research. First, Asch believed that social interaction reflects the ability of individual people to synthesize information about group norms, the viewpoints of others and their own perceptions of themselves as group members. Second, Asch emphasized that independent thought and disagreement among group members is a cornerstone of group functioning.
He believed that only by settling our differences with other group members can we actually understand the shortcomings of our own beliefs Levine, This notion has been embraced by social scientists like Moscovici, who has pursued this rationale as the basis for his theory of minority influence in group situations, and has also been incorporated into sociocognitive conflict theory. Asch also believed the relationship between conformity and non-conformity was not as simple as one being the opposite of the other.
This was Asch's third influential idea, and he suggested that conformity and resistance might be explained by their own unique social psychological processes. Conformity, for instance, could be a function of how aware a person is that they are being influenced by the group distortion of perception , the degree to which the person believes that the group consensus is correct distortion of judgement , and how badly the person wants to be accepted by the group distortion of action.
Although these exact terms have not been directly ported over to the literature, researchers such as Moscovici and Nemeth have adopted the perspective that majority and minority influence are moderated by multiple processes Levine, Lastly, Asch suggested that group influence can change how people perceive stimuli See Asch, for an example.
This is the most obscure of Asch's major ideas, in large part because it has not been cited frequently Levine, , but is none-the-less important because it speaks to the power of group influence. The artifact known as the Legacy of Solomon is an unrivaled horror, a weapon built in a forgotten age that has unfortunately fallen back into the hands of mankind. It is a huge suit of exo-armor almost 13 feet tall. The most advanced and destructive weapon built during the Solomon Empire, its original name has been lost to the mists of time, its current name is reference to its origins and its role as the true legacy of a dead civilization.
Anima Tactics Oracle. Create account or Sign in. Click here to edit contents of this page. Click here to toggle editing of individual sections of the page if possible. Watch headings for an "edit" link when available. Former students and colleagues honor Asch with essays that either expand on his research or describe original research on new topics of related interest. An interesting and informative text for faculty and researchers in the fields of cognition and perception as well as social, experimental, and personality psychology.
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