Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges

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One of the young farmers has been selling local, organic food baskets to the cottagers in an adjacent community of Val-des-Monts and another is selling at the larger farmers market in Ottawa, Ontario. To support the continued take-up of new entrepreneurial incubator farms, at La Plateforme Agricole, specifically, and rural revitalization, more broadly, we recommend the following actions.

The pride that the farmers take in the quality of their product, the socio-ecological relationships they build, and the values they uphold are representative of the characteristics of alternative agricultural food systems. The participants are regaining control over their respective roles within the food system while building relationships of reciprocity amongst their fellow farmers, their customers, and a larger network of organizations with shared values. La Plateforme Agricole has played an integral role in the relative successes of each farmer interviewed, providing the necessary space, social infrastructure, resources, and support.

Outreach attempts to these farmers did not prove successful and were abandoned. However, it can be gleaned from interviews that lack of income from farming often plays a role in a farmer leaving or not returning to the project. However, it is important not to conflate sample size with the quality of the research. Case study research is used to study the in-depth nuances and contextual influences of a single instance or a small number of instances.

Subsequent recruiting was used snowball sampling, that is, when the same names kept emerging during interviews. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Categories of analysis were developed throughout the transcription and coding process, allowing the analysis to be grounded in the data and not a pre-conceived framework.

Key themes were identified by analyzing the frequency of particular themes and patterns in the interviews and, at times, the level of emotion expressed by participants regarding certain topics. The seven participants for this research were diverse and varied in their relationships to La Plateforme and their farm enterprise. It has 78 acres and supports 20 farming start-ups and provides shared equipment cooperatively. The CREDETAO, a non-profit organization founded in , focuses on applied research and technology adapting to the needs and reality of agribusiness in the Outaouais region.

More recently their focus has been on the development of their agri-food incubator model supporting the foundation, expansion, and diversification of a range of agricultural enterprises. The incubator model also promotes and supports farm transfer transferring a farm to the next generation of farmers. La Plateforme Agricole has four main goals:. Globalization of the agricultural sector has made it difficult for small- and medium-sized farms to compete with large-scale farms Caldwell and Temple, In fact, the price of food is not increasing at the same rate as operating costs.

Operating costs for conventional farm production have increased significantly with the price of fuel and oil-based inputs notably, fertilizer and pesticides. Farmers are being forced to become more efficient and use modes of production that are ecologically unsustainable in the long term. Increasing petrochemical-based inputs, and relying on monoculture crops degrades soil, reduces biodiversity and decreases agricultural resilience Weis, ; IAASTD, ; Holt-Gimenez and Kenfield, ; Busch, Larger farms have more potential to earn profits sufficient to cover their expenses.

As a coping strategy, many new and small-scale farmers have off-farm jobs to cover their expenses and ensure an adequate income Caldwell and Temple There has been a significant decrease in the total number of farms in Canada and that decrease is seen, mainly, in the small and medium size farms. The number of large farms has actually increased in both numbers and in profits due to the large demands for agri-products such as grains and oilseed ibid.

Table 1 demonstrates the lack of diversity amongst the top 5 farm types in Quebec as of Table 1. Another trend affecting both the availability and accessibility of prime agricultural land is the encroachment of low-density development due to proximity to urban centres de la Salle and Fix The encroachment of suburbia into rural areas is swallowing up prime farm land that has the potential to feed the NCR or at least supplement the NCR food supply with local produce. Those with the capital to purchase rural land in proximity to urban markets are those with full-time careers outside of farming , developers, and retirees.

Agricultural land that was once diverse with productivity is now being left to fallow or being sold to developers. Producing, processing, and selling local, organic food can contribute to the social, economic, and ecological revitalization of a rural community. An ageing farmer population and a lack of diversity in farm products is threatening the vitality and sustainability of agricultural production in Quebec. Even with the concern and demand for local and organic produce, new farmers do not have the capital to buy land, let alone start an agricultural business.

The Plateforme Agricole incubator farm provides a number of benefits for new farmers who are striving to carve out a place for themselves and their business in an industry dominated by large agri-business. The incubator model provides a number of benefits and challenges on the road to success success being measured differently for each farmer and for some farmers the challenges outweigh the benefits. According to Mayor Robert Goulet, the decrease in agricultural productivity is a result of several factors: provincial laws and policies that are more conducive to large farm enterprises; its proximity to the National Capital Region NCR that offers more lucrative employment than small-scale farming; and retiring baby boomers buying up farm land and not farming.

One of the key advantages that helped in establishing La Plateforme is the political context of Quebec. Quebec is well known for its social economy that includes credit unions, not-for-profits, and cooperatives that foster innovative solutions to local and provincial issues of economic decline and sustainability issues. The general purpose of the PNR is to.

In , the municipality selected and purchased the 78 acre site on River Road that would become La Plateforme Agricole. Another key element to the success of La Plateforme Agricole is its geographical location that is both in proximity to large economic centers and rooted in a supportive rural community.

Both cities have a diverse range of farmers markets and a growing consumer base for local, organic produce. Simultaneously, La Plateforme is established on prime agricultural land that has been carefully tended by the previous land owner. The previous farm owner still owns an adjacent plot of land and shares his advice and insights on the historical and geographical context of the land, as well as farming practices. All the participants shared similar responses on the benefits and challenges of farming at La Plateforme, with some variations. The two most significant benefits to farming at La Plateforme were access to financial capital and social capital.

Ironically, the responses representing the most significant challenges were also associated with money, financial support, and social proximity. For many farmers money and financing is a challenge. The cost to buy a farm, equipment, and resources often requires a new farmer to enter into debt for a significant amount of time, especially, since a farmer will not see a return on their investment in terms of profit for at least four to five years.

Revitalizing the rural agricultural landscape requires new innovations and a younger generation. However, the start-up cost for buying land, equipment, and resources often prohibits young farmers from successfully starting a farm enterprise. The mayor of described the difficulties of revitalizing agriculture in smaller communities. Particularly in the situation like ours and a lot of others around the city, speculation makes it cost a fortune to buy a piece of land here.

The Plateforme provides new farmers with the time and financial support to make mistakes, grow, and learn with minimal financial risk, with a ready made network to learn with and from. The farmer who graduated from the project one described the benefits as:. To have a Plateforme it's really useful because it allows the producer the future or potential producer to start with minimal financial risk.

For sure without the Plateforme I would have never bought a farm in Quebec. I would have rented land maybe but not just go and buy a farm that's impossible. Buying a farm requires not just risk on the part of the farmer but also the investors. One interviewee who has been at La Plateforme for four years and will be entering his fifth and final season there in explained that the financial benefits of farming at the Plateforme allows a farmer to build up their revenue, establish a market, and demonstrate that they can move product over the years, thus making their farm enterprise more interesting for potential financial investors:.

They want to bet on numbers. And so you have a business history that really, really helps. For some farmers the major challenge is in making a livable income even with the minimal financial risk at La Plateforme. Many of the farmers still need to have part-time, or in some cases, full time work in order to pay themselves and cover expenses. Also of financial and social significance is the ability to save money through knowledge sharing and having other farmers watching your field for pests and blight.

Sometimes you need help with things and so it can be helpful in the way of advice or passing on information. Many of the young farmers have access to grants focused on revitalizing agriculture in Quebec. However, these grants are mainly for new farmers under the age of 35 or The grants make a significant difference in the viability and vitality of many of the young farm enterprises.

Three of the participants stated that without the grants and micro-loans they received from the government of Quebec they would not have been able to start their farm business and cover living expenses. Unfortunately, finding the financial support to continue running La Plateforme is challenging. The government of Quebec is clawing back funding on rural revitalization programs. The policy was aimed at stimulating the vitality of rural communities by promoting local ownership of development through citizen engagement and empowerment for the use of resources.

PNR supported community development programs with a network of agents, rural pacts, and financial allocations. Unfortunately, the Rural National Policy funding has been greatly reduced and the program is closing down Solidarite Rural du Quebec The closing of programs and the end of funding to agricultural projects and local rural development may have significant consequences for rural revitalization.

Many young rural entrepreneurs and programs depend on the micro-loans, grants, and subsidies that were funded by the PNR. The Plateforme Agricole does not make a profit off of the rent from its members; the money from rent goes into buying more equipment, resources and preparing plots for more future farm enterprises. Even with financial challenges, the Plateforme is still successful in helping young farmers meet their goals of graduating from the program and buying land of their own.

Working in close proximity to other farmers and sharing resources offers its own set of benefits and challenges. However, all participants felt that the benefits outweighed the challenges. All the farmers expressed the social benefits of having access to farm neighbours close for knowledge and resource sharing. The social challenges were both spatial and temporal. Temporal social challenges were the most significant for some farmers with the mismanagement of fields over time by previous farmers.

Mismanagement usually means letting it go to weed so not cover cropping in an appropriate way. If I had done some due diligence I would have known to stay away from the plot that we are farming now — like getting the full history of it from other farmers and maybe a bit more of a truthful history. It took this interviewee the a good part of the growing season to learn that his fields were mismanaged over time by previous farmers and then took the rest of the season to prepare and fix his soil for the next season.

The time he lost in weeding and fixing his soil cost him in produce quality and quantity as well as time lost in marketing. Other than the extreme challenge of dealing with the mismanaged fields, he did feel that the social proximity of the other farmers was beneficial and other challenges can be resolved with proper communication. Some of the key social benefits from being in close proximity to other farmers included: sharing of knowledge and resources; splitting of costs, and engaging with diversity in people, practice and produce.

One interviewee described his number one benefit with the following:. The first big benefit is that you work with different people, with different information, different knowledge and you share that. Because we're close, and that's not common in farming, usually the farms are big and you're spread out. You won't have your neighbor nosing around your plot. It's great for that because it's a way to learn around it. Another interviewee stated that knowledge sharing was an important part of his experience at the Plateforme made possible by the social proximity of other farmers:. By working alongside other farmers that have all sorts of different experience ranging from one or two years up to 8 years of experience in vegetable farming you learn a lot just from everyday interaction or if you have a question there are four different people you can ask especially in vegetable production.

Another interviewee shared their social experience as an employee of a farm enterprise with a particular focus on diversity. There is a diversity of producers. Not all are doing the same thing. There is less competition, and a great opportunity to learn and see other things. Something that is nice to see is how they start out — everyone uses their land differently and the amount of land they use is different. Everyone does different vegetables depending on how much time and land they have.

Another young farmer described the social benefit of having neighbours to share in time and labour :. Often we can scratch each others backs. Sharing in watering duties, might save some time. It works well because you help each other to some degree. The Plateforme connects you with your neighbours , weeds out the middle man, and brings community back. Many of the farmers prioritized the social benefits over the financial benefits claiming it to be a significant factor in learning and preparing for the next step of farm ownership.

The social and financial benefits are intercropped together growing social capital built on relationships of reciprocity, knowledge, and resource sharing. There is a strong network of support and collaboration between these organizations that align on values of rural revitalization and community socio-ecological resilience.

Discussion There are multiple layers and definitions contributing to the scholarly literature on social capital. Dale , pp provides the following comprehensive definition of social capital, incorporating perspectives from various leading authors. The shared knowledge, understandings, and patterns of interaction that people bring to any productive activity Coleman ; Putnam It also refers to the organizations, structures, and social relations that people build up independently of the state or large corporations Roseland It contributes to stronger community fabric and, often as a by-product of other activities, builds bonds of information, trust, and interpersonal solidarity Coleman Onyx , p.

La Plateforme draws and builds upon a diverse social infrastructure that includes relationships of reciprocity between farmers, non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations, and consumers. This social infrastructure is built upon a common ground aimed at fostering ecological integrity, economic development, and social change within the agricultural sector. One of the most notable successes of La Plateforme came from the farmer who had graduated from the project, who is considering inviting small-scale farmers to his own farm as an informal incubator farm.

I think it can be done at a community level on a smaller scale. I think farmers could do it by inviting some people to settle in for a couple years if they want to. I think it something that should be discussed and presented and maybe an almost retired farmer in a way to get a potential buyer in a couple years…just open the farm and invite 4 small-scale producers and one of those 4 might just buy the land in 5 years right? I think it's a nice avenue to look at for transition…. Resilience is based on the principles of ecosystem health, inter-dependent with diversity in both the human and non-human realms.

A resilient ecosystem can withstand shocks and rebuild itself when necessary. Similarily, resilience in social systems has the added capacity of humans to anticipate and plan for the future Resilience Alliance Both biodiversity and social diversity play crucial roles in the resilience of a socio-ecological system. A diverse socio-ecological system is more resilient to environmental, economic, and social stresses or events.

La Plateforme can be seen as a combination of diverse ecological, social, and intellectual capitals. Diversity among the members of the Plateforme is one of the key elements to the success of the program. When asked what is the main contributor to the success of the Plateforme, Mayor Goulet exclaimed that it is the involvment of the all stakeholders and innovators, from the director of the municipality, the selection committee, the members of CREDETAO, and the members of the Plateforme.

The social system of the Plateforme is resilient insofar as it has a diverse range of stakeholders that have a shared interest in re-establishing farming built on values that are less intrusive and more sustainable than large-scale conventional farming. Alternatively, resilience is lost or degraded by a wide range of factors including the loss of biodiversity; toxic pollution; inflexible, closed institutions, perverse subsidies that encourage unsustainable use of resources, and a focus on production and increased efficiencies that leads to a loss of redundancy Resiliance Alliance, These factors comprise most of the socio-ecological problems that are characteristic of conventional large-scale agri-business.

Adopting a certified organic approach to farming at La Plateforme creates a healthy and diverse socio-ecolgical system that is more resilient to stresses. Alternative agriculture systems such as small-scale, permaculture, and organic farming, that practice high levels of diversity, productivity and efficiency may likely be the only system that will be able to confront future challenges of environmental and economic instability Alteiri One farmer spoke to the importance of diversity in being able to adapt to environmental stresses such as pests and blight.

He argued that selling wholesale by producing larger quantities of lesser varieties of vegetables is extremely risky because organic producers do not use the same chemical inputs that conventional farms do:. All the interviewees clearly valued their production and the organic principles they practiced. Even though some participants were struggling financially to make a living wage they all expressed pride in their work, values, and product.

Sense of Pride and Place Many of the participants expressed a sense of pride in their products and their work, claiming it was a necessary element for success. Their sense of pride is based on the sacrifices they perceive, the commitment to organic values, the quality of the products and the contribution they make to community sustainability. The pride in their work is grounded in place, giving customers a sense of where their food comes from, and setting food apart from the limited and standardized products of conventional agriculture.

In a similar study by Ross , quality of product was identified as one of the key elements to success in small-scale farmers engaged in direct sales farmer markets and community shared agriculture. All of the farmers interviewed by Ross saw that excellence of product as a necessity.

According to Ross p. It requires personal attention to, and supervision of, all aspects of production. However, they all confirmed that with or without certification, they would not change their production methods, whether it is for health and safety of labourers, consumers, or environment. All participants concurred that they were proud of the quality of product that they had to offer through the adherence to organic principles.

The participants were all proud to, not only offer a product of quality, but to build relationships of regard and trust with the consumers and with their neighbouring farmers. Being there was like being part of something that people were proud of and that's really valuable. You need to be proud of what you're doing. That's the first obstacle that you have to stop. So it's more than just money.

Biological: the living processes used to produce food and their ecological sustainability. Economic and political: the power and control that different groups exert over the different parts of the system. Many have been implemented directly by individual communities, while other provinces, notably British Columbia and New Brunswick have adopted a provincial coordinating role for the distribution of the federal gas tax funds.

Municipal planning processes in New Brunswick are mandated by provincial policies with a focus on infrastructure. Even without the flexibility to plan individually, however, local governments in New Brunswick to varying degrees have incorporated the imperatives of sustainability within their planning processes. These processes may not be as formal as an Integrated Community Sustainability Plan would advocate, signifying a more relevant solution to advancing municipal sustainability might be a sustainability planning framework that creates the capacity for local ownership and management.

Removing the hierarchical governance barriers currently limiting the implementation of municipal sustainability planning in New Brunswick is a critical first step. Sustainable Development Characteristics More than 30 years after the Brundtland Commission the implementation of sustainable development locally remains challenging for some communities, as seen in the New Brunswick case studies.

Evaluating sustainable development at a municipal scale remains a challenge in most if not all regions of the world Sustainable Cities International, Local government bodies, such as cities and municipalities, have the opportunity to provide leadership and advance sustainable development. It specifically explores the role that the first decade of the Gas Tax Funding Program played in New Brunswick. Previous research has demonstrated that to realize sustainable community development, municipal plans must be:. In response to inquiries from small communities in B.

V9B5Y2 Tel: One reason may be that the benefits of long-term collaborative participation and commitment of citizens and institutions to sustainable development planning processes through policy change, active engagement and allocation of resources needed to incentivize communities has yet to be recognized Braun, Another reason may be that consultants were used to conduct both the regional plans in — , incorporating sustainability as well as the ICSPs.

Consultants are employed to achieve a plan within a set time and budget, which mitigates against the need for the time and resources required for meaningful community engagement and long-term commitment of citizens. Still viewed as a challenge and a barrier, community engagement is seen as taking too long, too expensive with too many diverse perspectives and subsequent actions to be incorporated by those charged with developing and implementing final plans. Additionally, municipalities that do want to conduct more integrated local planning find their efforts once again strangled by outdated policies that require provincial oversight and permissions to complete, if started.

This is evident even in the newly updated Municipalities Act R. B, that still advocates provincial control over municipalities. Additionally, there is still a one-size fits all municipal plan outline developed at the province level, to which each municipality must adhere with little flexibility to meet local unique contexts. This research demonstrated that if municipal planning processes are dictated at the provincial level and this centralized control over planning processes continues, local sustainability planning and integration will not effectively occur.

As a Federal — Municipal Government policy instrument, the GTFP supported municipal level sustainability planning in the development of healthy and vibrant communities through the integration of economic, environmental, social and cultural sustainability objectives Canada - New Brunswick, Administered by Infrastructure Canada, it currently provides two billion annually to provinces and territories responsible for allocating the funds to Canadian municipalities to help build and revitalize their public infrastructure assets Government of Canada, The Government of Canada reported over 3, municipalities and 13, projects across Canada had benefited from the financial support and flexibility of the program since its inception in On December 15, , federal legislation made the payments under the GTFP a permanent source of federal infrastructure support Government of Canada, , p.

As the result of a program review Government of Canada, , municipalities are no longer required to develop an Integrated Community Sustainability Plan. Currently administrative agreements to access the GTF are developed based on the submission and approval of a provincially specified five-year Capital Asset Plan template outlining the priorities of the municipality.

Introduced to encourage communities to plan and develop action plans, the ICSP was a requirement of bilateral agreements between the Government of Canada and each province for Gas Tax Funding transfers. Even though the Province funded these regional strategies, municipalities could still conduct an Integrated Community Sustainability Plan process, if they chose to find their own funds.

Once a plan has been submitted, evaluated and accepted by the Province an agreement contract is finalized with the Department of Environment and Local Government Ibid, This portion of the Gas Tax Fund is distributed on a regional basis and not a per capita basis. The province identifies regions that encompass the unincorporated areas of the province and funds are distributed within those regional boundaries on a project-by-project basis.

In May p the province commenced a series of pilot projects intended to promote sustainable community development as part of the New Brunswick Public Engagement Initiative and the agenda for achieving self-sufficiency by Province of New Brunswick, Contrary to the centralization of services, the messages received during the consultations suggested that decentralization and support of small communities was more sustainable. A key recommendation called for a comprehensive regional planning process for all areas of the province highlighting the environment, sustainable development, land use, housing infrastructure, and social and economic development.

Council of Ministers of Education-Canada, In , more than 30 groups across New Brunswick collaborated, without provincial or municipal government involvement, to develop the Green Print: Towards a Sustainable New Brunswick New Brunswick Environmental Network, Finally, communications accessed on the Government of New Brunswick website Province of New Brunswick, reflect an enthusiastic promotion of citizen-based sustainability planning offering a toolkit that included an indicators fact sheet and referred users to one of the case studies used in this research, the City of Saint John.

Consultants were tasked with incorporating sustainability principles in regional plans that encompassed unincorporated as well as incorporated i. As previously mentioned, each municipality had to find their own funds to conduct the ICSP planning process as resources to do so were not specifically allocated by the province in the Gas Tax Funding transfers to municipalities Province of New Brunswick, That legislation, known as the Baldwin Act , established the role, function and structure of local authorities in the British North American colonies.

In , the Canadian Constitution Act SC, created provincial governments granting them responsibility for making rules related to municipal institutions. At that time, less than 20 per cent of citizens lived in municipal areas compared to the approximately 80 per cent today Lidstone, D. Municipal authority to regulate use of land is a provincial power under the "property and civil rights" heading in Section 92 13 of the Constitution Act SC, That delegation of land use planning to local governments is subject to powers retained by the provinces.

Consequently, the laws controlling land use are primarily provincial, although there are exceptions created by federal control over land used for First Nation reserves, airports, railways, harbours and other purposes regulated by federal law SC, New Brunswick has delegated minimal powers to local governments to control local matters but not concerning planning which remains in the control of the provincial government R. B, The 12 Commissions have five main objectives including strengthening the capacity of local governments while maintaining their community identity, increased collaboration, communication and planning between communities, and modernized legislation supporting local and regional decision-making Province of New Brunswick, Their mandate includes regional planning, local planning in unincorporated areas, solid waste management, regional policing collaboration, regional sport, recreational and cultural infrastructure planning and cost sharing, as well as regional emergency measures planning The Commissions, comprised of incorporated as well as unincorporated areas, were charged with ensuring communities receive services but were not assigned the legislated authority to tax for said services, in the Regional Services Delivery Act R.

The municipal members of the Commission have retained the authority to tax and continue to do so within their legislated boundaries Telegraph Journal, to provide the services they are responsible for and given authority to manage in the Municipalities Act R. As a result, in New Brunswick there are three legislations directing municipal planning activities, the Municipalities Act R. B, , the Community Planning Act R. Interestingly, the use of the term sustainable development, or some variation of, is not included in any of these policies.

Incorporated in , the city has a census metropolitan area CMA population of , with 70, living within the city core Statistics Canada, The population density per square kilometre is 38 on a total land area of 3, The primary occupations employing Contrasting these recent accolades, Saint John was most recently presented in the media as having one of the highest child poverty rates in Canada Telegraph Journal , Community services available in the city include a multi-modal public transportation system i.

Additionally, a multicultural centre is accessible providing integration services for immigrants. The population density per square kilometre is Employment in the education, law and social, community and government and health sectors comprises Community services available in the city include a multi-modal public transportation system bus, taxi, and train , an international airport, two hospitals, two universities and two community colleges, and a downtown multi-use sports and entertainment centre in early development phase.

Additionally, the city has developed an immigration strategy City of Moncton, providing integration services for newcomers. Town of St. With a population of 1, and a population density per square kilometre of There is a significant seasonal flux in population due to the large number of residences owned by non-residents, as well as the students who take up residence during the academic year at the college, and who do not stay during the summer months pers. Community services available in the town include two primary schools, a community college, a recreational facility, as well as the Huntsman Marine Science Center, the Fisheries and Oceans - St.

Andrews, A regional multicultural centre located in an adjacent municipality serves the town Charlotte County Multicultural Association, Additionally, the town is leading the development of a multi-modal transportation system to integrate bus- dial-a-ride- taxi systems, to connect the various county communities with essential services that are being increasingly centralized to larger municipalities Hanson, Village of Grand Manan The Village of Grand Manan is an island community, located in the lower Bay of Fundy, accessible only by boat two ferries service the island and air.

It was incorporated in , as a single village, as a result of an island wide amalgamation of several small communities, most notably Seal Cove, that was designated a National Historic Site remaining relatively unchanged since the 19th century St. The island is 24 kilometres long and 11 kilometres wide Village of Grand Manan, with a population of 2, and a population density per square kilometre of The primary occupations, employing Community services include a transportation system, ferry and airport providing transportation to mainland areas , one hospital, a LEED certified community and recreational facility, and two privately operated parks.

Analysis Provincial agreements with municipalities, requested during interviews with provincial staff, for the transference of Gas Tax Funding were not considered public and not accessible from the province for this research. All case study communities had filed a current municipal plan with the Province in accordance with the Community Planning Act R. The same consultant developed both plans incorporating a community consultation process, which included online surveys and public meetings, as well as in the case of Saint John, two stakeholder workshops to develop objectives, actions, indicators and targets.

The Town of St. Andrews conducted a background analysis Resource and Educational Consultants, , which included a community consultation process before completing their municipal plan in , with a purpose of providing policies and proposals to guide and control the economic, social and physical development of the town Town of St. At the time of this research, only one report was publicly accessible on the provincial website.

Email inquiries to the Province in August , as a follow up to interviews conducted with provincial staff, to access the report indicated that the report was in the final stages of review and would be posted to the Government of New Brunswick website in the near future. GTFP capacity building dollars were assigned to only local public service providers. As a final point, without an updated provincial planning framework that revamps and potentially integrates the Municipalities Act, the Community Planning Act and the Regional Services Delivery Act transferring authority to local government institutions, the flexibility required to conduct and implement place-based sustainability planning will remain a challenge.

This research suggests that the original intent of the Gas Tax Funding agreement was to provide the confidence of long-term resource and political commitments to municipalities, but that critical piece of provincial policy change has not yet occurred in New Brunswick. The research further suggests that commitment must come from the provincial government in the form of legislative change and transference of authority back to the regional communities in order to reduce the mistrust and barriers to sustainable community development progress, due to lack of local decision-making authority and autonomy.

This is supported by recent climate change research that has shown that the most innovative communities are those that have policy alignment within local municipal departments and policy congruence between levels of government Dale A. It is not too late. Now that the fund has become permanent, the province can choose to use those funds to encourage sustainable community planning and long-term implementation through the newly formed Regional Service Commissions that create a forum for municipal and non-municipal regional collaboration.

Finally, if the Province is to continue to distribute the GTFP funds based on a population criterion, then the Regional Service Commissions, similar to the County Councils Province of New Brunswick, operating before authority was transferred to the Provincial Government, would seem a more efficient system. This too, supports the concept of flexibility noted as a result of this research as essential to supporting the creation of sustainable communities bounded by locally determined needs. Table 4: Performance Measurement Framework Indicators. These individual reports were not accessible, so content could not be reviewed for the purpose of this research.

Conclusions The need for flexibility in sustainability planning processes is conclusively proven from the results of this data. All participants noted that the tools dictated by the province employed within antiquated legislation negates the flexibility required for unique communities and sustainability as an evolving process Dale A.

However, even staff influence on planning processes was seen as constrained by the province due to legislation that dictates municipal planning limiting their capacity to expand on planning processes applicable to their local needs. Contrastingly, one case study did find the GTFP to be flexible in its application, permitting its use to fund a development project in response to a social issue that was gaining negative national media attention. Although this too was noted as being due to the role of the individual provincial leadership and political influence at the time, not due to an effective distribution model.

Other than British Columbia, New Brunswick is the only other province that has chosen to employ this centralized system of GTFP distribution inhibiting the ability of municipalities to develop their own plans based on localized needs. This recognition of localized needs in each municipality was evident in the cases of Saint John and Moncton that developed very different ICSPs even though they used the same consultant.

This uniqueness was most likely due to the benefits of sustainability planning which recognizes the flexibility requirement for each municipality to develop a plan without a one size fits all planning approach. Further supporting the need for flexibility in municipal planning processes is the fact that processes to evaluate locally plans were found to be unique for each case study community. These ranged from a simple internal annual review by Council to reporting from all municipal departments on the status of specific objectives.

Although the Province was given flexibility in the distribution of the Gas Tax Fund Program, in both the initial GTFP agreement and the new year agreement going forward as summarized in Appendix 5, the province did not cede that same degree of flexibility to their municipalities. In fact, there are a number of changes, in the new administrative agreement with New Brunswick Government of Canada, highlighted in Appendix 5, that emphasize the provincial jurisdiction over municipalities going forward versus the language in the original agreement suggesting collaboration with all levels of government in the original agreement.

Furthermore, both the current and original agreements recognize the need for investment in smaller jurisdictions; however, the new agreement now incorporates a population criterion Government of Canada, suggesting sufficient investment in smaller jurisdictions will not occur. Overall, this research found that the Gas Tax Funding Program GTFP played a minimal role in the advancement of sustainability in New Brunswick due to the inflexible provincial planning and implementation models.

Integrated Community Sustainability Plans, or the incorporation of sustainability in municipal plans, was found to be conducted for one of two reasons: 1 it was anticipated to be a future legislated requirement or 2 to access funds. In the case of the latter related to the GTFP, municipalities anticipated that even though it was not a requirement in New Brunswick initially, it would become so in the future in order to access the program.

All interviewees seemed to recognize the value of sustainability in their planning processes, describing it in all cases, similar to the Brundtland Commission definition but interestingly with an emphasis on tangible developments i. The need for flexibility in sustainability processes is an imperative reinforced as a result of this research. All participants noted that tools dictated by the Province employed within antiquated legislation negates the flexibility required, recognizing each community is unique and that sustainability is an evolving process Dale A.

This prescriptive approach to planning seen in those that did submit an ICSP, suggested there is an influential role of the individual in sustainability processes as noted by Dale This was noted in all cases, whether an ICSP was completed or not. On the other hand, every individual can be viewed as a driver for change, engaging elected individuals in a position to effect legislative change to understand the benefits of sustainability planning.

However, even staff influence on planning processes was seen as constrained by the province due to legislation that dictates municipal planning limiting their capacity to expand on planning processes to make them applicable to their local needs. Overall, this research found that the Gas Tax Funding Program GTFP played a minimal role in the advancement of sustainability in New Brunswick due to the inflexible provincial implementation model. There is a decentralization trend in federal and provincial legislation and case law, reflecting an increasing stature of municipalities and the role they play Lidstone, D.

However, a corresponding transfer of resources has not accompanied this devolution. The RSCs have created an opportunity to increase the capacity of municipal governments to collaboratively plan and take advantage of resource sharing opportunities on a regional basis, bringing incorporated and unincorporated areas to the same table to develop a regional strategic plan and to make decisions collectively. To date, provincial policies have not been updated allowing for the transfer of real authority to the Commissions and subsequently local governments for planning and resource management decisions or the administration of local resources i.

This may be related in part to the current political structure in New Brunswick that continues to sponsor a semi—quasi decentralization of power to local authorities, as in the case of the Commissions. Whatever the reasons may be, this move is very counterproductive, it goes against the freedom of speech and freedom association enshrined in the Constitution.

It deprives young men and women who are preparing to take up leadership role in the society the opportunity to engage in social and political debate that will guide them when they leave college. Costa woke us up from sleep to narrate a story that was on his mind: Liberian President Dr.

Costa could not understand why there is a paucity of moral outrage in the wake of these robberies administered by the President Forky Klon Jlaleh Weah administration But then, few hours later, we have this chap who claims to be Amb Augustine M Manoballah on the Facebook. And his twisted logic is supported by Information Minister Nagbe. The strange thing about the Ambassador is that it does not look like he has any clue of what is going on.

But President Weah is not President of Senegal, and why will his interest be in empowering the people of Senegal and not in empowering the Grebo, Bassa, Vai and Kru fishermen of Liberia? So, is the pro-poor agenda put in place was intended for the poor people of Senegal? It is said that every nation deserves the leaders it has, so are these the leaders our beloved country deserves. So, the statement made by this so-called Ambassador defies logic and one wonders as to what kind of Ambassador he is? A motorbike operator driving from Harper to Fishtown Beach was killed and it is alleged that it is Maryland again: Ritualistic killings?

So, the situation was very tense in the county today. But the prevailing culture of corruption, impunity, and clamp down on campus politics coupled with lawlessness have contributed to a tense situation in the country. To add insults to injuries, The Perspectives is alerted by credible sources that Dr. Fahnbulleh, the man who intends to bring the Weah Government down via a Socialist Revolution is on the ground So, therefore the omnipotent war-maker is determined to cause trouble in the sub-region.

And, as the sources intimated, this has nothing to do with corruption, neither does it have anything to do with impunity. Gongloe By the nearly unanimous support, evidenced by nearly eighty percent of the votes cast, members of the Liberian National Bar Association have given me a very strong mandate to serve the LNBA for the next three years.

The answer is simple. I will do what I promised to do during the campaign because it was based on those promises that I was elected by my colleagues. During my campaign, I promised that in addition to continuing the current programs and projects of the LNBA, I will start a Bar Journal to serve as an avenue for lawyers to critically examine the opinions of the Supreme Court through scholarly articles, work on an insurance scheme for members of the LNBA, and to lead the Bar in serving as a general counsel for the Liberian society on all contentious legal issues.

Alon Ben Meir Over the past three decades I wrote more than two hundred articles about Israel, envisioning it to be a democratic state, independent and free, a champion of human rights, a force of unity for world Jewry, united in its citizenry, admired by its friends, envied by its detractors, and above all at peace with the Arab states and especially with the Palestinians.

Alaric Tokpa has strongly condemned the recent gun attack on the residence of Hon. Yekeh Kolubah, Representative of District 10 in the national legislature of the Republic of Liberia and denounced the earlier violence carried out against innocent citizens who had been call together by Hon. Kolubah for a children party. Tokpa believes that the attack on Hon. Kolubah who is a lawmaker is not only sufficient evidence that a dangerous dictatorship has appeared in Liberia but also a clear sign that citizens of Liberia and opposition politicians have no protection under the George Weah dictatorship.

Karweaye contains several inaccurate factual statements and a clearly misleading statement First, the writer's statement of estimated production of fourteen trillion ounces of gold is simply ludicrous, as anyone can easily tell, and therefore is more likely to be a fabricated number than an honest mistake. This number is about times Seven Hundred times, not merely seven times bigger than the annual gross national product of the United States. By Seltue R. There is no doubt why it, like almost all agreements of this kind of, was kept secret from the Liberian people.

The Hummingbird Resources Inc. Further according to reports, the company is expected to mine about 14 trillion ounces of gold over the yr life span of the project. One would think, however, that after 10 continuous years in power he would relinquish his role as the leader of the Likud party and leave the political scene with some dignity, especially now that he may well be indicted on at least three counts.

The Demise of Dr. Emmanuel T. It served as an education Mecca.

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Nationals of other countries flocked to Liberia in search of greener pastures, an excellent educational system, and an intellectual culture steeped in free expression of ideas. These inducements encouraged many thinkers to visit. Dubois, Edward W. Blyden, Marcus Garvey, and Paul Cuffee came calling as visitors to and even as residents of the first independent black nation in the world. These great men viewed Liberia, with a deep sense of racial pride, as an outpost for their aspirations of cross-continental migration.

Paradoxically, one day, Liberia would become a place of emigration. SUP considers such unjustified action, which was mainly influenced and engineered by government and pro-regime stooges, as thoughtless, undemocratic, and a provocation for mass civil disobedience and uproar across Liberia. Our striving democracy is under attack and those democratic gains made so far are fast diminishing under President George M. Weah — a Head of State who has grossly violated almost all of our laws including our Constitution in less than a year.

Some are even drawing the conclusion that with the massive scandal that has engulfed the regime, its lifespan will not exceed two years. This perspective of the people is a slap in the face of the cynics in government who echoed the lies that the ruling CDC has the explicit confidence of the Liberian people and those who oppose the regime must accept that the political dynamics will remain unchanged for a very long time.

To make such a decision, which has major implications that directly and adversely affect our allies in and outside the region, through a simple tweet and against the advice of his senior advisors is nothing short of outrageous. What on earth did he base his decision on, as from every angle we examine it there seems to be absolutely no good that could possibly come out of it. As though these justifiable signs and symptoms were enough to prove me right, another vicious sign has emerged in less than a year.

Doe by Gen. Prince Y. Kpanneh Doe Our previous article regarding Michael P. Doe called for Senator Prince Y. We believe that ending the culture of impunity can only be done if Liberians advocate for prosecuting those who committed these heinous crimes against them. Any New Year can only be happy for you when your mistakes are recognized and corrected so that they are not repeated in the New Year.

Whenever you understand and correct the mistakes that you are making, you win because you are helping to make not only yourself better but also to make other persons better. Winning is not about getting a title because many persons get titles and do not correct their mistakes. Whenever you correct your mistakes and get a title in the process, then you win and become a winner. By Dr.

Sakui Malakpa To some extent, people with disabilities PWDs throughout the world have made progress in various areas of human endeavor. This is partly because governments, some more than others, have striven to include PWDs in varied sectors of society. Such governments have done so by adopting laws and regulations, among other steps, to ensure the equality, human rights, and societal participation of PWDs.

Despite such measures, the truth remains that PWDs face an uphill battle in their bid for equality and full societal inclusion. This struggle is especially onerous for PWDs in developing countries. Bringing that thought back home, I wonder how Liberia would fare if the rating were done today. By Joseph Batuah When last did you apply for a job online? A year, month or week ago? Was it yesterday or today?

Whatever the timeline might be, I have no doubt that you, too, have gone through the tantalizing rituals of the online application here in the United States, especially its so-called diversity questions. Typically, a job is advertised on those numerous mega-platforms and job boards, such as indeed. All those job search platforms usually placard detailed job descriptions and the requisite years of experience, among others.

Applicants are further instructed to upload their resumes. But we can understand that the givers of these awards are bereft of that sense of patriotism that devotes one to the welfare of the republic and its people. They do not experience the emotional pains that patriots feel whenever the collective aspiration, dignity, and culture of the people are being abused and exploited by serial rascals.

Therefore, they have not only chosen the path of sycophancy but have also buried their heads in the sand like the proverbial ostrich, refusing to subject Weah and his handlers to objective evaluation or analysis. To these groupies, it is a taboo to tell George Weah, in the face, that a few years ago he lived on handouts from friends and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf; therefore, his overnight wealth must be scrutinized. Alon Ben-Meir The election of a record number of women to Congress is significant in that Congresswomen are more likely to focus on socio-economic and gender-based issues that have largely been either ignored or resisted by a predominantly male Congress.

As such, women legislators can be extraordinarily effective because they were elected largely on the premise they would be focused on socio-economic issues of great concern to their constituents. Afro-Pessimism and the Question of Biafran Nationalism By Daniel Chukwuemeka Perhaps the intellectual import of Afro-pessimism as a critical method in the evaluation of African nationalism obtains chiefly in its tendency to embody antithetic perspectives. On the one hand, black fundamentalists adopted the term as a way to acknowledge the power and vivacity of the pliability and radical imagination of Africans.

During his campaign in Liberia, candidate Weah in Nimba County badmouthed educated people as those who failed the hapless people of the nation and that the uneducated people had the magic wand to rescue the nation. What is obvious here is that the Liberian people are now a football that is being played by the soccer legend turned Dr. Numerous Liberians have earned Ph.

D was the late Wolor Topor. In any case, we cannot join the author to say that the election of Mr. Weah is a tragedy to the Liberian state. Published below is a view of another Liberian. His boss, President Joseph Kabila's tenure expired in December but has been employing a host of shameless and unorthodox schemes to cling to power. Kabila's refusal to leave power as constitutionally required has occasioned a series of protests in which scores of his compatriots have lost their lives.

He succumbed to cancer in the middle of an engaging life of research and study and leaves a void in the ongoing quest to better understand Liberia. His wife, Mrs. Aba Hamilton Dolo and other family members were by his side as he transitioned Emmanuel was born and raised in Nimba County. He received his undergraduate degree in Economics and Communications from the University of Liberia in He would go on to pursue graduate studies in the United States, obtaining a Masters degree in Economic Development from Eastern University in , a M.

But not before then, the testimony of Mr. Charles Sirleaf Nov. And the silence as a grave, I think, is a sign of their mea culpa due President Weah, the nation, and the people for the irreparable damage done to our national image and credibility. Alon Ben-Meir The retaking of the House by the Democrats will soon allow them to exercise checks and balances and stop the Republicans from going down a slippery slope. During the past two years, Trump and his party have rendered the country a severe disservice with massive domestic and international implications.

Conversely, Erdogan and his Justice and Development AK Party embraced political Islam mostly adopted from the early Sunni Muslim Brotherhood, believing in top-to-bottom change, which they effectuated by usurping authority and forcing people to change through the state powers. The new President insistently refused to declare his assets and audit his predecessor as growing outcry to fight corruption emerged. Up to now, no such action to audit the past government has taken precedence Amidst sharp economic decline I joined them at the New Georgia junction as they proceeded to the campaign headquarters at the Nigerian Shop community Moore In spite of the negative health effects of shisha smoking, its use has become increasingly popular among young people and adults of both genders across Africa.

Shisha smoking has traditionally been associated with the Eastern Mediterranean region, Southeast Asia. The use of Shisha accounts for a significant and growing share of tobacco use globally. It has surpassed cigarette use in some Countries, with growing use by both men and women and, most seriously, among young people and children. Yanqui Zaza Family Planning or Planned Parenthood means different thing to different people living within certain communities.

For instance, some United States citizens, opposing abortion, consider Family Planning as an organization that kills unborn children. Other U. Or, in poorer communities such as Liberia, many patients praise Family Planning because it conducts pregnancy test, cancer test; administers vaccinations; distributes contraceptive pills, etc.

This is a fact that the nation has been lagging behind in all most all spectrums of development, especially, in the area of infrastructures and market-driven human capital. The high unemployment rate has witnessed an increment from 2. Considering these frustrating statistics on the economy and infrastructures, President George M Weah declared upon his popular victory at polls that his administration would be a Pro-poor one.

That means it will place more emphasis on issues and projects that anticipated and aimed at taking thousands of underprivileged Liberians out of poverty and unbearable standards of living through its social and economic projects across the nation. The plan will remain the core development strategy for the Weah —led administration until It is, however, pertinent to state that prior to this new agenda, the former President had also designed the Agenda for Transformation AFT which was not fully implemented until it got replaced by PAPD of the current government.

Most importantly, it suggests Liberia has a good chance to borrow more money since its public debt i. Editorial The recent pronouncement of free public college and university education in Liberia by president George Weah must be applauded by all Liberians and well-wishers of our beloved country. Yet, we at The Perspective cautiously hail the president's pronouncement in principle because it rekindles our longstanding hope for some measures to revitalize our battered education system.

Zazay For a while now, CDCians, and perhaps few Liberians, have been struggling with how to handle legal implications of making appointments to Ministries, Departments, and Agencies MDAs of Government whose leadership is subject to tenures, many of which has exceeded the lifespan of the president that appointed them. The same argument is made of civil servants, who many CDCians believe should now be replaced with members of their party, now that they have won the elections with a national alacrity.

The issue reached a milestone when the President sought to make an appointment that was challenged in the Supreme Court by a tenure appointee. As the public awaited the adjudicatory process of The Court, there again came a political dynamic to seek remedy from the legislature, as if to suggest that the Executive had run out of legal options to justify replacing tenure appointees.

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Thanks for your usual support in our effort to strengthen governance and democracy in Liberia. Sometimes last week, our nation woke up to the sad news of a sad decision by the president to alter the autonomy, independence, and sanctity of certain positions in our governance system — contrary to international best practices in open and good governance.

Well, yes, President Dr. Predictably, the real motive of this action along with previous efforts on the part of Dr. Weah government is to reduce the possibility of prosecuting former President Sirleaf and her lieutenants, if any, stated the consultant. The Autonomy-Tenured Discourse: Legality vs Expediency Every profession has unique sets of principles, jargons and inherent standards to which members are required to operate. Sometimes, what seems apparent and overt from an outsider perspective is completely different when viewed by a professional.

For example, a person reading a political manual may feel adept but when explained by a seasoned political scientist, the grey areas become evidently useful and riveting. This same approach finds its support within the noble profession of law. Meyler knew me by the first name and mentioned that my former boss recommended me to her which others disputed while discouraging me from getting into bed with her It was a sweaty day and Katie did well to run through their issues quickly.

A male teacher had abused some school girls but was incarcerated. A hit job was expected and they needed PR control for the organization. She inquired of my Public Relations experience and interest in the job. We exchanged numbers and planned to meet. In his press statement, which in our opinion was overloaded with subterfuge and blatant blame-shifting on ex-President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, Chambers said that Lawmakers would never be subjected to any form of probe by foreign investigators.

COCUBOMB considers such statement as an unwarranted display of arrogance, crudity and scare tactic only intended to prejudice the ongoing forensic investigation. Also, bad record keeping invites fraud. Hence, the record is crucial. With less than 2 million people, Kosovo, which declared its independence from Serbia in , is the home of over mosques.

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Breaking the chain of dependency in Liberia- a necessary condition for national development, progress and prosperity By Clr. Gongloe It is always a pleasure for me to speak to young people because it provides me the opportunity to share my thoughts about various issues in our country. This is why I most often find time even with my busy schedule as a courtroom lawyer and a lecturer at the Louis Arthur Grimes School of Law to honor invitations by young people, whenever they invite me to speak to them.

Today, I want to speak to you briefly on the topic: Breaking the chain of dependency in Liberia- a necessary condition for national development, progress and prosperity. President, it was my intention to wait a year, at least, before engaging this conversation with you, but the acceleration of events has precipitated my appointment.

Thus forgive my insistence. And believe me, you have already engraved in the mind of every Liberian your development agenda by clearly associating our mass poverty to the lack of massive infrastructure development. Simple wisdom: without roads citizens cannot get to the hospitals; without roads our rural farmers cannot sell their products; without roads our majority poor citizens travel in horrible conditions at the risk of their lives; without roads majority of our people are totally isolated; without roads there are no substantial commercial activities, etc.

In essence, road connectivity is a key element to the genuine, independent economic development of a nation. America is great because of immigrants! By Elder Siahyonkron J. Nyanseor, Sr. America is great because of Immigrants! The greatness of America comes from it being a beacon of hope for the helpless, the deprived, the brightest and the most talented. The United States of America has offered hope and opportunities to many immigrants. The Irish came from Ireland during the great potato famine of the s; the Jews emigrated from Europe during and after the 2nd World War, and the English escaped a depressed English economy in the s.

They came to a land that offered a chance for the future. The Vanguard Students Unification Party: A lost generation of militants—what is our mission, comrades? By Kwein W. Kwein II On October 6, , I woke up to a text message that had been sent by a young and conscious militant of our party called comrade Selma. In his text message, comrade Selma cited an incident that occurred on October third that saw militants insulting and assaulting leaders of our party—including members of the Bureau of political affairs and the Central Committee.

He further added that militants should be party discipline and desist from such act. Hence, I write with the sole intent of reinforcing his arguments and further sharpening the apparent or visible contradictions that engulf our party in this dispensation. Under the watchful eyes of Finance Minister Samuel Tweah, are women sporting un-natural and colored hair, not allowed to perform their duties as employees at the Finance Ministry? Is this a crime in eyes of Weah and his point man Tweah? When will the Dr. Weah Government get it right?

The President was at the UNGA when Liberians opted to show their moral outrage about the so-called missing containers of money. Are we missing something? Where is the pro-poor taking us as a nation? This is becoming very interesting by the minute and ironically the President wife is to establish a Brazilian hair factory in Liberia. In any case, published below is a press release from the Gender Ministry which happens to be part of the Dr. Regime elements used threats to scared away the masses. Money was dished out in the media for propaganda in order to break the back of the mass movement of the people.

Opposition leaders were accused of inciting the people. Regime surrogates were spotted in slum communities begging the people to not come out to protest. The thing is, no external subjective factor has the ability to evoke the revolutionary movement of the people. This generation can boasting of having changed the political landscape. At the cost of , lives and a country destroyed beyond imagination The nation survived through the resilience of a people who have been subjected to more than a century and half of the misrule.

The CDC administration has inherited a nation at peace, full of hope, forward-looking and respected in the international community. That legacy is the greatest gift any of good institutional frameworks, forward-looking and hopeful. This is the best any outgoing administration can leave to a successor. Though the president is said to have set up a committee to investigate, the efforts is considered not to be enough for the hapless people of the country who are severely affected by the disappearance and are therefore demanding that President Weah and Former President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf account for the missing 16 billion Liberian dollars.

Sources close to the government say that the Liberian President has asked the FBI of the United States of America for its intervention in the investigation. As we talk about the missing money, there are calls from some intelligentsia of the regime for Liberia to print more money to replace the missing millions. By Abdoulaye W. What if he was right? A few years back Dr. Elwood Dunn told me that power will always be a family thing in Liberia, and for a long time. The colonization has created a class of dominants, who did whatever they could to preserve their wealth and power through lots of means.

In reaction, the oppressed people developed their own system of resistance and strengthened their bounds. The nucleus of each system was the family. The family extends into religious, fraternal and generational cubs. Stop celebrating thieves and demonizing patriots By: Kwein W. Kwein II. A few days ago, some people were seen celebrating an unscrupulous and loudmouth public official who lacks ethic and has a very shallow understanding of his role as a deputy minister of the Ministry of Information, while today the Liberian media is going unnoticed.

However, I'm not surprised why Mr. Rodney Sieh is not being hailed today by the Liberian people for informing them about the devilish and criminal acts that are being meted out against them by people whom they consider to be their heroes and leaders—it is not fond of us to do such things. The founders of Liberia or "founding fathers" as some historians refer to them established a government modeled after the United States of America.

They declared Liberia an independent state, the first on the continent of Africa, and established a constitutional republic as their former slave masters did. The government was 'democratic' in nature with three "separate, but equal branches of government" comprising the Legislature, Executive, and Judiciary. They were wheeler-dealers! Anthony T. Hne, Sr. The late Mr. Hne leaves to mourn his wife, Mrs. Sarah Gono Hne, several children, relatives and friends.

Who is leading this clique of kleptocrats? Yanqui Zaza It is a good idea for a country to obtain debt in order to build infrastructure and reduce poverty, ignorance, disease, etc. Seeking a new debt might compel the country to collect more taxes, sell lucrative at a fire sale i.

Gongloe On March 29, , at about Pm I told the world press at the Roberts International Airport, speaking on behalf of the Liberian Government, as Solicitor General, that the arrest of Charles Taylor was the beginning of the end of impunity in Liberia. Following the trial and conviction of Mr. Taylor, we have begun to see the world arresting and putting on trial, some notorious perpetrators of world crimes during the fourteen-year civil conflict in Liberia. In the United States of America and Europe, the arrest and trial of some of the notorious perpetrators of war crimes in Liberia have clearly shown that the world has clear and cogent evidence on those who committed atrocities in Liberia.

The quality of evidence produced during the trial of Jungle Jarbah and Tom Woewiyu should be a clear signal to those who committed war crimes and have not been brought to justice that justice is on the way and it will make no mistake when it arrives in Liberia. The best that the suspects of war crimes can do for themselves is to begin to seek the services of the best lawyers that they can retain to represent them during their expected trials for war crimes.

In the case of Japan, the government does not just buy shares to make profits, but also it buys stocks in order to influence the market, according to Wolf Richer. It is where gifted fortunes of nature including agricultural come together with dynamic social development Frameworks that could launch the country into a bottom-up haven in Africa and the Near East of community-managed projects and change. Integrating these programs would enable their mutual reinforcement to promote accelerated growth and success of development initiatives.

Kollie On Friday, August 24, , Liberia will bestow its highest honor on two foreign football managers who hail from France. Liberia under ex-Soccer Legend George M. Therefore, the West African nation was neither militarily nor politically occupied by any of the colonizing states to give rise to the penetration of foreign capital for the colossal exploitation and exportation of raw material from the soil and sub-soil of Liberia after the partition of Africa took place in Berlin, Germany from We do not abhor contradictions as they are mutually opposite aspects that exist in all phenomena whether nature, society or human thoughts.

Wherever contradictions exist, the internal struggle of the opposites in those phenomena are what engender a new stage of human development and a new form of contradictions as well as new methods for resolving them. Seequeh There has been much ado about low turnout in the last senatorial by-elections. Most of the reasons are quite amusing. That many did not vote because a barely six-month-old government has failed is just one. And people have their right to say what they think about the elections, and their interpretation of the political inertia evolving amongst the citizens.

Honadle, George

They may not be wrong that they too have their perspectives. It is all just about hurried conclusions—the same more conclusions anyone can reach to spice up their personal feelings and make them authentic by the pitch of their voices and the weight of their pens. The CBL's rate, which is set based on data collected from the commercial banks, parallel market and the licensed forex bureau, has once again started to increase with the speed of light, thus developing the potential to butcher the already declining purchasing power of workers, civil servants, farmers, petite traders, etc.

This is akin to doing more of the same things and expecting different results. Someone once said such is nothing but the product of insanity. By Julia Al-Akkad Decades of conflict and complex power dynamics between Jewish and Muslim communities have resulted in a deep-rooted aversion towards cultural engagement. This continues to hinder multiethnic relationships throughout the Middle Eastern and North African region. Even so, a rich history of ethnic and religious diversity remains an inseparable embodiment of the cultural atmosphere in Morocco.

Concurrently, the question arises whether this Moroccan integration of cultural preservation and sustainable development is able to transcend borders across the Arab region. This July 26 holiday, I would like to know if Liberians who celebrate the Independence Day truly understand the purpose of the celebration. The respondents were Liberians from all backgrounds who were asked to explain their understanding of the purpose or historical significance of the July 26 Independence Day holiday.

Israel has been practicing its provisions for many years. According to our history, twelve 12 delegates from 3 counties gave birth to this new African Republic on July 26, In an effort to firmly uphold those fundamental values and cherishable pillars upon which our nation was formed and modeled, these were inevitable promises made: 1. To uphold the Constitution and the Rule of Law 2. To guarantee human dignity and civil liberty 3. To promote peace, reconciliation, and justice for all 5. Tiawan Gongloe Thank you for inviting me to speak to our children on the occasion of their graduation from the ninth grade.

I have one message that I am carrying around these days, especially when I am invited to speak to students. That message is that education is the only sustainable way to get out of poverty. When a child from the poorest family in a village, town or a community gets educated, his life changes for the better. Learning, both formal and informal provides a better chance to get out of poverty forever. Education provides the opportunity to get trained as a mechanic, a masonry person, radio repairer, a teacher, nurse, medical doctor, engineer, a preacher or a lawyer, amongst others.

However, is the World Bank not dictating onerous policies for poor countries such as Liberia, for example, since it came into existence in ? For example, was it not the World Bank that guided Liberia in awarding 66 fraudulent concessionary agreements such as the ExxonMobil concessionary agreement, according to Mr.

Kollie The Liberian economy is on life-support. There is a huge rush for foreign currency USD by both the private and public sectors. Real income, investment, and employment are being negatively impacted due to rising prices inflation , swelling exchange rate, and global macroeconomic shocks. New York: Lexington Books. The Moral Status of Animals. In Edward N. Zalta ed. The Faces of Animal Oppression. Ferguson and M. Nagel eds. Anthrozoos 21 2 , Singer ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Gruen, Lori and Chris Cuomo. Animals, Intimacy, and Moral Distance. Ferguson eds. Gunderson, Ryan.

Sociological Inquiry 84 4 , Sociological Perspectives 57 3 , Hadley, John. Journal of Social Philosophy 36, — Hamington, Maurice. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 2 , — Haraway, Donna. Cultural Studies. Harfeld, Jes. Philosophical Ethology: On the extents of what it is to be a Pig. Hargrove, Eugene C. Havercamp, Steven J. Are moderate animal welfare laws and a sustainable agricultural economy mutually exclusive? Laws, moral implications, and recommendations.

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Drake Law Review 46 3. Heidegger, Martin. The fundamental concepts of metaphysics: World, finitude, solitude. Heise, Ursula K. The Android and the Animal. Philosophy, ethology, and animal ethics. A test of the declining interest hypothesis. American Psychologist 51 11 : Has public interest in animal rights peaked? American Psychologist 50 11 : Attitudes toward animals: Origins and diversity.

Rowan ed. Animal rights talk: Moral debate over the internet. Qualitative Sociology 20 3 : Herzog, Harold A. Journal of Social Issues, July Holland, Eugene W. Holzer, Henry Mark. Contradictions will out: Animal rights vs. Horta, Oscar. Zoopolis, Intervention, and the State of Nature. Law, Ethics and Philosophy 1, Hribal, Jason. Oakland: AK Press. Hunter, S. Brisbin, Jr. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. Hursthouse, Rosalind. Applying virtue ethics to our treatment of the other animals.

In Jennifer Welchman ed. Indianapolis: Hackett. Ingold, Tim. Humanity and animality. In Tim Ingold ed. Isen, Susan. Between the Species, Iveson, Richard. Toward an Imaginary Animal Studies. Humanimalia , Journal of Cultural Research , Pity on the Offensive. Reviews in Cultural Theory , Journal of Critical Animal Studies , Parallax , Negotiating without Relation: Of Jews and Animals. Jamieson, Dale. Animal liberation is an environmental ethic.

Jamieson, Philip. The legal status of animals under animal welfare law. Environmental and Planning Law Journal 9 1 : Jasper, James M. The American Animal Rights Movement. New York: Free Press. Recruiting strangers and friends: Moral shocks and social networks in animal rights and anti-nuclear protests. Fighting back: Vulnerabilities, blunders, and countermobilization by the targets in three animal rights campaigns.

Sociological Forum 8: Big institutions in local politics: American universities, the public and animal protection efforts. Social Science Information 34 3 : Jenni, Kathie. Dilemmas in social philosophy: Abortion and animal rights. Social Theory and Practice 20 1 : Jones, Robert C. Animal rights is a social justice issue. Contemporary Justice Review 18 4 , Kasperbauer, T.

Kellert, Stephen R. Perceptions of animals in America. Perceptions of Animals in American Culture. Wilson eds. The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press. Kemmerer, Lisa. Multiculturalism, Indian Philosophy, and Conflicts over Cuisine. Green Theory and Praxis 9. Connections, Complications, and Compromise. Winter , Social Justice, Sincerity, and Sustenance. In Will Tuttle ed. Boston: Vegan Publishers, In Nicola Taylor and Tania Signal eds. Leiden: Brill Academic. Just War and Warrior Activists. Leo Tolstoy. In Marc Bekoff ed.

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George Holmes Honadle (Author of Rooster in the Rice)

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Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges
Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges
Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges
Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges
Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges
Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges
Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges
Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges Rooster in the Rice: An Ecological View of Life, Study, and Citizenship along Cultures Edges

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