There is no more intimate and glorious relationship than that of Guru and disciple. In this biography of two of the great Yogis of India, the mysterious ways in which a Guru leads the disciple to Liberation are revealed. The story begins in a coastal village in Andhra Pradesh with a boy named Satyaraju. At the age of fourteen, Satyaraju has an extraordinary experience which leads him to meditate in Samadhi for an average of twenty hours a day over twelve years. The reader comes face to face with the monumental challenges encountered by the young boy in performing this feat, from the harsh elements, to grinding poverty and the ravages of cobras and scorpions.
Die geheime Gesellschaft der Folterer. Keywords : torture , state and torture , Simmel, G. In the name of the state. The secret society of the torturers. Torture is an extreme act of collective violence that is secretly executed in the name of a state. In order to explain the reasons why people torture others, individualist approaches concentrate on individuals' motives or interests. Contrary to that, the article argues that torture should be understood as a social relation. Thus, it takes the social relations of the group of torturers as a starting point.
Firstly, following Georg Simmel's analysis of the secret society the paper argues that the group of torturers can adequately be conceptualized as a secret society; secondly, against this background the article reconstructs the conditions which structure torturers' agency; finally, this article offers an outline of the processes and dynamics that allows for explaining the phenomenon of torture. The thesis of the article argues that a relational sociology helps better explain and understand the social phenomenon of torture.
Kultur, Volk und Rasse. Die deutsche Ethnologie im Nationalsozialismus und ihre Aufarbeitung. Anthropos Keywords : German anthropology , Nazism and anthropology , Frobenius, L. Culture, Volk, and race. German anthropology during National Socialism and its reappraisal. German anthropology has started to deal with ist own role during National Socialism just since the eighties. Although important research has been conducted since then, significant issues remain to be discussed. Therefore, the following article aims at two subjects in order to arouse further debate.
On the one hand, the theoretic and practical conjunctions between anthropology and National Socialism are being analysed. On the other hand, the postwar anthropological examination of the own past itself shows specific reductions and rationalisations which are to be explored. They indicate that form and content of dealing with the National Socialist past still shape today's anthropology. Grounded theory reader. Keywords : Grounded Theory , methodology of Grounded Theory , situational analysis , subjectivity , self-reflexivity , Glaser, B.
This book presents an overview of the development and current situation of Grounded Theory methodology. A central problem of Grounded Theory]. Zu den methodologischen und methodischen Differenzen zwischen Barney Glaser und Anselm Strauss [On the methodological and methodic differences between Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss]. Die Feldpartitur. Multikodale Transkription von Videodaten in der qualitativen Sozialforschung.
Keywords : transcription , video transcription , multicoding , multimedial coding , Grounded Theory , signs , symbols , field score. The field score. Multi-coding transcription of video data in qualitative social research. The author defines the field score as a sign and symbol system for the multi-codal transcription of video data, for researchers in the social sciences and humanities working qualitatively.
Modes of Faith: Secular Surrogates for Lost Religious Belief
Using this method video data are no longer exclusively directly translated into text data as done in current transcription conventions, but audiovisual processual data will be captured by transmitting carriers of meaning in a two-axes system, a score: in their linearity, and by using signs and symbols also in their simultaneity. Thus they can be captured only to a small degree of its components, contained in the medium, with the methods of text transcription. All of this is explicated in theory, with three case descriptions. CouchSurfing als soziokulturelle Praxis.
Alternativer Tourismus im Zeitalter von Web 2. Kulturwissenschaft Keywords : couchsurfing , alternative tourism , tourism , hospitality , cultural sciences , reciprocity , host culture , hospitality communities , dualist realities , leisure , post-Fordism. CouchSurfing as socio-cultural practice. Alternative tourism in the age of the Web 2. In the book this transnational network of hosts is researched — focusing socio-cultural practices of the users. The study is based on empirical work: participant observation, qualitative interviews as well as quantitative online questionnaire.
Magie der Geschichten. Konstanz: University Press Keywords : stories, narratives, magic of stories, Steinthal, H. The magic of stories. World traffic, literature and anthropology in the second half of the 19th century. Of the 27 papers of this volume the following are of special interest for anthropology:. Anthropological knowledge and the societal imaginary in the poetology of Fontane]. Heymann Steinthal and the profession of men].
Jahrhundert [Born leaders? Raabes Verwandlungsgeschichte Vom alten Proteus [The local circulation of anthropological knowledge. Korruption als Ordnung zweiter Art. Keywords : corruption , clientelism , Mafia , political clientelism , Yakuza , illegal economy , informal structures , second order economy , economy and corruption.
Corruption as a secondary type of order. On the specificity of informal institutions in Japanese society]. Geistiges Eigentum oder Kulturerbe? Lokale Strategien im Umgang mit kulturellen Ressourcen.
Keywords : cultural heritage , intellectual property rights , globalization , glocalization. Cultural Heritage or Intellectual Property Rights? Local strategies in Dealing with Cultural Resources. Cultural Heritage and Intellectual Property Rights are two means of protecting cultural achievement. They are western concepts that have been widely adopted by nation states in the course of globalisation and promoted by arguments of the circulation and preservation of cultural goods in the interest of humankind. The international discussion on immaterial cultural property generally neglects the existence of local concepts of rights in cultural institutions and their history.
This article analyses local concepts of rights in immaterial cultural goods in southwest cameroon. It illustrates the importance of their history for the understanding of what exactly is preserved by cultural heritage. In the course of the growing transatlantic trade activities, the owners of localized cults and rituals transformed these institutions into an alienable resource. Since then interested parties were able to acquire them under certain conditions, use them for income generation and sell them to other interested parties.
The sale concerned not the rights of original creators but those of ownership and performance. Since the s, these cultural institutions were increasingly understood as exclusive, traditional cultural goods restricted to specific administrative units. This development has to be seen within the framework of the UNESCO activities of preserving cultural heritage on the national level. In this way, the UNESCO encourages the establishment of concepts of traditional culture owned by ethnic groups even though theses cultural goods may have been acquired rather recently and are owned by groups of individuals who paid others for obtaining their ownership rights.
I felt attracted by the interdisci-plinary perspective of both of these projects and lived to see the growing insight into the inter-ethnical analogies and the concepts of the knowledge to cure "Heilwissen" in other cultural communities. As a doctor in rehabilitation medicine I discovered the psycho therapeutic way of this ethno-medical perspective, especially in the context of family dynamics.
On the other hand I was irritated by the fact, that there was much knowledge with the many disciplines in our society, but no ability and skills to work with the dynamics of our group in using its scientific and personal resources. My paper will show that researchers and their objects in the social fields are building up new group-settings. The developmental chance of this group-setting depends on communicating the experiences of these group members in mutual respect. In this attitude Georges Devereux Paris agreed with us, when we discussed our research with him.
Auf dem Boden der Tatsachen. Keywords : festschrift T. Bierschenk , Bierschenk, T. On a factual basis. Festschrift for Thomas Bierschenk. He has worked on the state and statehood, development, local forms of power, and strategic Fulbe groups, all based on long-term field research, mainly in West African Benin and the sultanate of Oman. Signaturen der Kultur. Marburg: Jonas Verlag Keywords : everyday life , folklore , cultural science , signatures of culture , material culture. Symbols of culture. Studies of everyday life and its analysis. This volume includes several studies on technology and civilization, embodiment and experience, material culture and museum, and spheres of the unconscious in culture and cultural science.
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- List of German films of the 2000s.
Taking the artifact, a gesture etc. Keywords : museology , exhibitions. A good review of an exhibition should include some research into the conditions and the time schedule that are decisive for the success of such an enterprise. Mainly two factors were decisive for the final shape of the exhibition "Anders zur Welt kommen": the political influences of representatives of the main cultural institutions involved, and the rather short time period of less than one year for an exhibition of over square metres.
The exhibition was never intended as a preview of the planned Humboldt-Forum but to give some idea of the work in progress. Normally this is not done. Neither the new museum in Paris nor other large institutions put on special exhibitions as previews of their new museums. In this context it is also evident that an exhibition can never touch and deal with all possible themes. And even if the presentation of the subject of colonialism is important, that does not mean that every special exhibition has to deal with it.
The exhibition 'Anders zur Welt kommen" offered several new perspectives not only in its design and presentation, but also in how it described and explained objects which will be further developed in future exhibitions of the Ethnologisches Museum Berlin. Zur Tragweite einer praxis-theoretischen Grundannahme. Keywords : Practice Theory ; observation ; social epistemology , distinction , Bourdieu, P. Publicness as a Methodological Principle. The assumption that social practices are public and thus observable is a basic tenet of practice-theoretical approaches. On the one hand, the "publicness assumption" defines the praxeological criticism of subjecti-vism as well as of relying on hypothetical structural entities.
On the other hand, a certain conception of the "publicness assumption" allows critics to reproach praxeology for its limited analytical scope. In this article, we explicate in several steps the contentious - and often implicit - basic assumption that social practices are public in several steps. We sketch a notion of social practices and their fundamental "publicness" which avoids presentist misinterpretations and conceptualises sociality as chains of practices across time and space.
We do so by referring to the works of Schatzki, Wittgenstein, Giddens, and Latour. In these, the carriers of practices artifacts, symbols, media, bodies and the translocal structures they establish acquire particular significance. In a further step, we present some methodological considerations corresponding to the "publicness assumption" and exemplify these by referring to Bourdieu's study of "Distinction". Social Media, Massenmedien und gesellschaftliche Wirklichkeitskon-struktion.
Keywords : social media , mass media , media , public sphere , network communications , networks. Social media, mass media and social reality construction. Since the s, the Internet serves as a projection space for varied visions of a more transparent and integrative public sphere and a less dominant role of mass media in the social construction of a "common" reality.
In light of those expectations, this text scrutinizes the relations between digital social media and mass media from a systems-theoretical perspective and observes the present preferences of German onliners as well as the content quality of network communications weblogs, podcasts, social networking services, microblogging. The investigations lead to the conclusion that social media and mass media are situated on comple-mentary levels of publicness.
The perception of digital games and mass media in Germany and Australia. Keywords : digital anthropology , cyber anthropology , killer games , games digital , culture and games. The book analyses the social history of digital gaming in both countries and relates it to their socio-cultural traditions. Concerning social history, Australia almost depicts an inverse mirror image of Germany. Its foundational dynamics, closely associated with different egalitarianisms, led to a different form of distinction than in Germany - a country whose national self-conception was closely related to groups which perpetuated an idealistic notion of Kultur and later integrated it into a rigid class system.
The book not only demonstrates how the discourses on games follow long-established patterns of rejection and approval of mass media but also regard them as an access to the inner workings of both societies.
Guru Purnima + Books in Russian and German + New Video
How the games are perceived tells us a lot about German and Australian identity. Die Technik operiert mit. Zur Mikroanalyse medizinischer Arbeit. Keywords : medicine technology , agency , ANT , surgery and culture , machine agency.
- The Churning of the Ocean!
- Summary Bibliography: David Weber.
- BOOK OF PHILIPPIANS (CPH New Testament Commentary 11)!
- Das Vermächtnis Shivas Roman.
What Tools Do. Towards a Micro-Analysis of Medical Work. Medical work is deeply mediated by technology. In line with constructivist studies of medicine and technology, this paper conceptualizes routine medical work as being fundamentally marked by uncertainty and indeterminate situations. To account for the agency of the means of medical practice in such situations, current discussions about the agency of technology are critically reflected and adapted to the analysis of medical technologies.
Drawing on ethnographic observations in operating theaters this paper traces the empirical distribution of medical work between ensembles of humans and machines as well as the handling of uncertainties in daily practice. Keywords : memory , collective memory , Halbwachs, M. On the Formation of Social Memory.
Guru Purnima Friday 27 July 2018
Contemporary sociological theoretizing about social memory affords two alternatives: either theories follow the suggestions of Halbwachs and ground social memory in collective interactions, or they start from processes of functional differentiation and connect the formation of social memory to key media and dominant forms. In discussing both variants of the sociological understanding of social memory, we identify factors of variation and selection in its formation. As factors of variation we identify functional, cultural, and generational differentiation, mediality, authen-ticity, and the communicative genres of narrativity and discursivity.
These factors are combined with relevance as a mechanism of selection within a theory of the formation of social memory based on the sociology of knowledge. Reflexivity, media, and visuality. Ritual dynamics and the science of ritual IV. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag Keywords : ritual , theory of ritual , reflexivity and ritual , discourse on ritual , sacrifice , Hopi , modernity , Tylor, E. Held in Heidelberg from September 29 to October 2, by the collaborative research center SFB "Ritual Dynamics", the international conference "Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual" assembled most of the leading experts on rituals studies and more than participants for the purpose of reassessing the traditional subject in view of the latest research.
The results, which are presented in five volumes, are pathbreaking for future transcultural, interdisciplinary and multimethodical research on rituals. The convention was marked by the broad range of disciplines and the corresponding diversity of methods. It embraced a great variety of topics in terms of cultural geography and spanned a time horizon from antiquity to the present.
The proceedings show how broadly the term ritual can be defined, as well as the conditions, modes and functions of ritual actions in different cultures of the present and past. Section I : Reflexivity and Discourse on Ritual. Section II : Ritual and Media.
Ritual Spirit Presence and the Limits of Media. Section IV : Ritual Design. Der Mensch in der Medizin. Kulturen und Konzepte. Lebenswissenschaften im Dialog Freiburg: Alber Verlag Keywords : medical traditions , cultures of medicine , medical anthropology , Mesmer, F. Man in medicine. Cultures and concepts. Patients and healers as object of good and bad intentions]. Zur Theorie des Leben-digen in der Paracelsischen Medizintheorie [On the theory of the living in the medical theory of Paracelsus].
Auswir-kungen neurowissenschaftlichen Denkens auf das psychosomatische Menschenbild und die Arzt-Patienten-Beziehung [Between freedom and necessity. Effects of neuro-scientific thought on the psychosomatic image of man and the physician-patient relationship]. Approaches of an integral medical anthropology]. Keywords : reciprocity , direct reciprocity , generalized reciprocity , exchange , social exchange. Introduction to social forms of reciprocity. Stegbauer deals with everyday social reciprocity in this introductory textbook.
He argues that causes for this behavior are not to be sought in individual purpose-means calculations but is rooted in the relations of the partners of exchange. There is no single-dimensional principle in this kind of reciprocity, but relations between those exchanging govern the way and value of products being exchanged. Queer buccaneers. Transnational and transatlantic American studies Keywords : pirates , discourse analysis , post-structuralist analysis , film analysis , sexuality. Pirates captivate the western cultural imagination at the beginning of the 21st century.
Reading the films from a variety of post-structuralist perspectives, this study demonstrates the contradictory discourses and power relations that characterize the series. It argues that 'piracy' constitutes a sliding signifier that facilitates the de construction of discursive boundaries of gender, sexuality, race, ethnicity, class and nationality. Domestikationen des Fremden.
Keywords : alterity , embodiment , mediumistic healing , healing , trance , possession , self , Waldenfels, B. Domestications of foreignness. The handling of trance and possession is often brought into focus in anthropological literature and has challenged rational explanations. The emic discourse of the mediumistic healers in Germany I have researched as well as the etic discourse of anthropologists about experiences of trance and possession in religious contexts oscillate between finding the origin of such experiences inside and outside the Self.
On the one hand "spirits", "Energies" and similar things are seen as autonomous entities affecting the Self, while on the other hand they are seen as having originated in the Self through projections of the unsconscious or through imagination. Even some phenomenological approaches which actually aim to conceptualize experiences beyond dichotomies such as inner and outer or the Self and the Other, like the much cited approach of Thomas Csordas, tend to entangle themselves in such dichotomies and tend to trace back experiences of the other as having originated in the Self.
This paper traces different emic and etic conceptions of body, soul, the Self and the other and, against this background, argues with reference to the German philosopher Bernhard Waldenfels for a phenomenology of otherness which is grounded in the assumption of an otherness of experience itself and offers an alternative to one-sided externalizing or internalizing inter-pretations. Die missionarische Gesellschaft. Mikrostrukturen einer kolonialen Globa-lisierung. Missionsgeschichtliches Archiv Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag Keywords : mission , missionaries , globalization and mission , segregation politics , history and mission.
The missionary society. Microstructures of a colonial globalization. The author assesses Christian mission, Catholic and Protestant, as a way of globalization, very much in concord with colonialism. Wendt thus focuses on specific local situations and discusses mission settlements as locations of social order, forms of missionary segregation politics, education and mission, indigenous helpers and native clericals. Ethnologie und Psychologie.
Berlin: Reimer Verlag Keywords : ethnology and psychology, psychology and ethnology, Bastian, A. Ethnology and psychology. The Leipzig School of the psychology of peoples. In Germany, the disciplines of ethnology and psychology emerged in Leipzig. These scholars propagated distinct concepts of their fields, like: anthropology as ethnic psychology Bastian ; psychology of peoples as psychic evolutionary history Wundt ; anthropology as historical cultural geography Ratzel ; anthropology as cultural foundational science Weule ; anthropology as ethnic sociology Vierkandt ; psychology of peoples as social ethno-psychology Thurnwald ; psychology of peoples as ethno-characterology.
Another chapter is devoted to the idea of structure in ethnology and psychology, which is elaborated in the case of Felix Krueger and Fritz Krause, and influences of this approach to structure is briefly described in ten other scholars. The final chapter asks if there are remnants of the idea of structure even today: in the context of time, in persons, and in contents.
Keywords : growth limits , translation , Enlightenment , doubt. The individual issues deal with the following topics:. Jahrhundert [Doubting is human. Enlightenment in the 21st century]. Visuelle Medien und Forschung. Visuelle Kultur. Studien und Materialien 5. Keywords : visual anthropology , film , photography , ethnography and photography.
Visual media and research. How to deal with photography and film scientifically and methodologically. The following papers are based on the conference of the same title in Berlin in Zur visuellen Konstruktion ethnografischer Wissenschaft [On the visual construction of ethnographic science]. Zwei fotoanthropo-logische Fallstudien [Jakob Spieth as anthropologist. Two case studies]. Untersuchung digitaler fotografischer Portraitpraxis mittels Fotografie n [Images of second order. Analyzing digital photographic portrait practice with photographies]. Medienkultur und Gesellschaftsstruktur.
Soziologische Analysen. Keywords : media culture , society and media , subject and media , action theory. Medica culture and social structure. Sociological analyses. Ziemann argues that late-modern society has developed a rigid dependence on media technologies and audio-visual mass media. This has led to an operational adaption and change of structure in many societal areas, but also new ways of thinking, worlds of imagination, forms of action of subjects have emerged. The author problematizes the reciprocal, or mutual relation of production and dependence of media, society, and subject, and confronts the sociological theory of society with observations in the areas of cultural history and changing media science.
He concludes that media culture has to be conceded a categorial and also practical pre-eminence. The governance of legal pluralism. Empirical studies from Africa and beyond. Keywords : legal pluralism , governance , Salafiyya activism , custom , institutional pluralism , nature conservation , human rights , family law , reproductive health , indigenous law , law , Islamism.
The notion of governance subsumes analytic approaches that have recently become highly popular in social sciences. It directs attention to a holistic understanding of the participation of non-state actors in political processes, the resulting policies, their facilitation and implementation, but also their threats and social consequences. This volume assembles empirical studies from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America to shed light on the complex governance interactions determined by different constellations of legal pluralism and, in turn, reshaping these dynamic arrangements.
Emerging Forms. Gewalt und Geschlecht. Sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf sexua-lisierte Gewalt. Keywords : violence and gender , gender violence , apartheid , colonialism and violence , migration and violence. Violence and gender. Perspectives in the social sciences on sexualized violence.
Sexualized assault has always been part of personalized and organized violence, in civilian contexts, in spaces open to violence, or in war. Present-day violence and conflict, however, show increased sex-based cruelty, and one may ask whether such forms of injury, torture and mutilation are new forms of violence. This has been researched only marginally until now.
Gender and violence]. Anthropophagy, economy and double standard in the age of Conquista]. Sexualized, racialized, and epistemic violence and basis of coloniality and modernity]. Reflections on transnational conditions of labor and violence in private households]. The constitution of violence at the interface of gender, sexuality, ethnicity]. Keywords : corruption , negotiation and dominance , ambiguous police work , police practice and culture. Police traffic stops in Northern Ghana.
Police traffic checks in West Africa are normally only mentioned with reference to corruption. Yet anthropological research of these everyday bureaucratic interactions can also develop how police officers implement the law, refer to morality and sociality. Police practices evolve in adaptation to internal and external conditions and must constantly be socially legitimized.
On the everyday level, the police are not enforcers of the state's monopoly on violence, but must establish their dominance through negotiation. Thereby the discretion of police officers is guided by multiple rationalities or registers. In order to countervail uncertainties in specific situations they dynamically choose registers which are not clearly separated, and they often draw them simultaneously. Selecting violence, public order, formal law, or sociality enables heterogeneous and ambiguous police work, in the face of missing formal guidelines and low legitimacy of the police.
Corruption can be understood as a special subset of police discretion, as deviant and functional practices at the margins of it. Law and social order remain meaningful during these interactions, even if they are ultimately violated. Since the actual use of registers is highly influenced by civilians, police rationality can be seen as the result of everyday negotiations. Civilians have considerable means of influencing the police through the use of violence, connections, status and money. Police action cannot be understood as unilateral enforcement of either the state's laws or private interests; rather it is open to expectations and social beliefs of civilians.
Adaptation and openness of police practices reveal that the implementation of laws and the reproduction of social order are co-produced by civilians, which enables a new perspective on police practices inside and outside of West Africa. Keywords : fieldwork , police and fieldwork , bureaucracies and fieldwork , civilians and police , participant observation. Drawing on our experience requesting access to police organisations in Ghana and Niger, this article explores the organisation and operation of two West African bureaucracies.
It focuses on the administrative modes and the state agents' routines in their dealing with civil actors. Exceptional and risk carrying requests such as ours concerning a permission to conduct participant observation in police organisations create insecurity on the part of the bureaucrats concerned.
Although rarely expressed in field reports and often discounted as a series of fortunate coincidences, we consider the researcher's access or refusal a crucial and illuminating moment of fieldwork. In our case, both technical bureaucratic operations and informal networks played a central role in our own approach as well as in the state agents' work routines and reflections on their daily occupation. Following an emic description, we call these two modes of procedure "ground work" and "paper work".
The oscillating between the two reflects an inevitable interlacing of bureaucratic and informal operations, characteristic for bureaucratic organisations worldwide. Die Jagd nach den Piraten. Keywords : copyright , orality and copyright , intellectual property , property. Hunting for Pirates. Author rights have developed from centuries of legal acquisition of immaterial goods in the Western hemisphere.
A pressing question in this context concerns the meaning and the effects which the imposition by the imperial West of these legal structures has upon legions of the world that had and will continue to have their own sets of rules concerning the treatment of such goods. This article will discuss the local practices concerning the treatment of intellectual property in sub-Saharan Africa before examining the local interpretation of the newly introduced regulations and concepts. It will be shown how local agents, aware of the challenges these new laws entail, succeed in benefiting from their disadvantaged status and from positive law.
They explicitly achieve this by complaining about pirates robbing them of their respective returns and blaming the state for its inefficiency in upholding the author rights. Die Bedeutung von Heimatbesuchen in Kap Verde. Keywords : return migration , migration , banderona festival , transnational festivals , ritualization , home , diaspora.
Creole configurations of return migration between coercion or the search for refuge. The meaning of return visits in Cape Verde. Based on anthropological research on Fogo and Brava, two Cape Verdean islands, this article focuses on migrant return visits and their particular meaning for "regrounding home", understood as an idea, a social construcrion as well as a physical place.
After reflecting on the particularities of Cape Verde as a creole and transnational society since its historical beginnings, the author examines the banderona , a patron saint festivity, which since centuries annually draws thousands of migrants back to their islands of origins. What initially served as a hierarchic moment between colonial masters and slaves, later turned into a transnational ritual, used for celebrating the upward social mobility of migrant visitors and for redistributing their material gains.
In our days these ritualized return visits constitute an important opportunity for reaffirming social ties and for negotiating asymmetric family relations. While non-migrant islanders make use of the festivity for articulating their needs and for claiming diasporic support, migrants express their social visibility and their willingness to contribute to a transnational livelihood. The author analyzes this articulated interest in maintaining home ties also in the context of the most recent shifts in the world economy, which force migrants to reassess their living arrangements in the diaspora as well as the viability of an eventual permanent return.
Einleitung: Afroatlantische Allianzen. Keywords : history of anthropology , anthropological theory , transnational migration , migration , postcolonial anthropology. Introduction: Afro-Atlantic Alliances. Brahma presented lotus while Nagas presented two earrings. After the singing by Brahmins in her praise, Lakshmi took lotus garland in her hand and put it around Lord Vishnu's neck in a gesture of accepting Him as her husband.
Jagatpita, Lord Vishnu too gave Lakshmi a supreme position in His heart. The gods and the demons began to churn the sea again. At last lord Dhanvantari emerged with an urn of nectar. It was Dhanvantari who developed Ayurved, the ancient Indian system of medicine. As soon as the demons saw the urn, they snatched it and ran away. A row then began among the demons over the drinking of nectar. Consoling the gods, Lord appeared among the demons in the guise of an extremely pretty woman, Mohini.
Distribution of Nectar by Lord as Mohini: The demons who were fighting over the potions of nectar forgot everything when they saw Mohini, who was actually a guise of Lord Vishnu. Lured by her prettiness the demons came to Mohini and requested her to solve the dispute for them. Illusioned by God, the demons even gave the nectar to Mohini and sat peacefully showing their confidence in her. In Mohini's guise, Lord thought that the demons were congenitally cruel and giving nectar to them would be akin to feeding sakes with milk. Their evils would increase. So, Mohini offered the nectar to the gods only while offered wine to the demons.
When the nectar was being distributed, a demon named Rahu took the guise of a god and sitting among them drank the nectar. Suurya and Chandra spotted him and revealed his identity to God, who at once beheaded him. But, by then Rahu had drunk enough nectar. Churning of the Ocean Sage Lomesh narrated the tale, which described how Indra lost heaven after he showed disrespect to Vrihaspati-- Once, Indra was enjoying the songs sung by Gandharvas when sage Vashishth arrived. But, Indra was so engrossed in music, that he forgot to welcome his distinguished guest.
Sage Vashishth was enraged by his behaviour and went away fuming with anger.
Lord shiva silver pendant
When the demon King Bali--the lord of Patalloka, learnt about this incident he attacked Indraloka with a large army. A fierce battle took place in which all the deities were defeated. Bali and his army brought all the wealth to Patalloka. But the demons were not destined to be the owner of this plundered wealth for too long as the whole wealth got submerged into the ocean. Bali was surprised and asked Shukracharya about the reason. Sage Shukracharya revealed to Bali that he could not enjoy the splendours of deities' wealth because he had not performed Ashwamedha yagyas.
The deities, after being defeated went to seek Lord Vishnu's help. Lord Brahma was also present with them. After giving a deep thought to the whole issue, Lord Vishnu advised them to patch up with the demons so that all the wealth could be retrieved from the ocean bed. The deities went to Patal-loka and convinced the demons to participate in the churning of the ocean. When the process of churning of the ocean began, Mandarachal mountain was used as a churner and the serpent -Vasuki as the rope.
Both the parties immersed the Mandarachal mountain into the ocean but it sank down, as there was no base upon which it could be placed. So, Lord Vishnu took the form of a tortoise and held the mountain on his back. Churning of the ocean resulted into the emergence of many things like Chandrama, Surabhi cow , Kalpa tree, Kaustubh, Uchchaihshrava Horse , Eravat elephant , goddess Laxmi, poison, ambrosia, intoxication etc.
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