By the end of the s, the public school system was the subject of a blizzard of criticisms, and the life adjustment movement fizzled out. Among the critics was Mortimer Smith. Reminiscent of Bagley's characterization of "students of education," he wrote in his book Madly They Teach:.
Progressive education was forced into retreat in the s, and even became the butt of jokes and vitriol. From to not only did the percentage of students taking high school geometry decrease, even the actual numbers of students decreased in spite of soaring enrollments. The following table gives percentages of high school students enrolled in high school math courses. The "New Math" period came into being in the early s and lasted through the decade of the s. New Math was not a monolithic movement. According to a director of one of the first New Math conferences, "The inception of the New Math was the collision between skills instruction and understanding The disagreements between different entities of the New Math Movement were profound.
Meetings between mathematicians and psychologists resulted only in determining that the two had nothing to say to each other. Beberman's group published a series of high school math textbooks, and drew financial support from the Carnegie Corporation and the U. Office of Education. In , the College Entrance Examination Board established a Commission on Mathematics to investigate the "mathematics needs of today's American youth. R launched Sputnik , the first space satellite, in the fall of The American press treated Sputnik as a major humiliation, and called attention to the low quality of math and science instruction in the public schools.
Congress responded by passing the National Defense Education Act to increase the number of science, math, and foreign language majors, and to contribute to school construction. Beg1e, then at Yale University, to develop a new curriculum for high schools. It created junior and senior high school math programs and eventually elementary school curricula as well. The original eight members of SMSG were appointed by the president of the American Mathematical Society, but thereafter the two organizations had no formal connection.
SMSG subsequently appointed a 26 member advisory committee and a 45 member writing group which included 21 college and university mathematicians as well as 21 high school math teachers and supervisors. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics set up its own curriculum committee, the Secondary School Curriculum Committee, which came out with its recommendations in In the late s, individual high school and college teachers started to write their own texts along the lines suggested by the major curriculum groups.
One of the contributions of the New Math movement was the introduction of calculus courses at the high school level. Programs that included treatments of number bases other than base ten, as well as relatively heavy emphases on set theory, or more exotic topics, tended to confuse and alienate even the most sympathetic parents of school children. There were instances in which abstractness for its own sake was overemphasized to the point of absurdity. As a result public criticisms increased. A substantial number of mathematicians had already expressed serious reservations relatively early in the New Math period.
The letter criticized New Math and offered some general guidelines and principles for future curricula. By the early s New Math was dead. The National Science Foundation discontinued funding programs of this type, and there was a call to go "back to the basics" in mathematics as well as in other subjects.
Progressive education had recovered from its doldrums of the s, and by the late s and early s, it had regained its momentum. Niell's book Summerhill , published in , is an account of an ultra progressive school in England. It was one of the most influential books on education of that decade. Founded in in Suffolk, England as a boarding school for relatively affluent children, Summerhill students determined completely what they would learn, and when.
Niell wrote, "Whether a school has or has not a special method for teaching long division is of no significance, for long division is of no importance except to those who want to learn it. And the child who wants to learn long division will learn it no matter how it is taught. Modeled on Summerhill, and supported by the challenges at that time of structures of authority, both within education and the larger society, "free schools" proliferated, and eventually helped give rise to the Open Education Movement. The Open Education Movement was nothing new; it was just a repetition of progressivist programs promoted in the s, but the idea of letting children decide each day what they should learn at activity tables, play corners, or reading centers, was once again promoted as profound and revolutionary.
The effects of the Open Education Movement were particularly devastating to children with limited resources, due to their lack of access to supplemental education from the home, or tutoring in basic skills outside of school. Lisa Delpit, an African American educator who taught in an inner city school in Philadelphia in the early s wrote about the negative effects of this type of education on African American children. Relating a conversation with another African American teacher, she explained, "White kids learn how to write a decent sentence.
Even if they don't teach them in school, their parents make sure they get what they need. But what about our kids? They don't get it at home With the collaboration of her teachers, Nancy Ichinaga introduced clearly defined and well structured reading and math programs which included practice in basic skills. After a few years, test scores increased to well beyond the 50th percentile, and by the end of the 20th century, her school had earned national acclaim and became a model for others to emulate.
In the early s, there was widespread recognition that the quality of math and science education had been deteriorating. A report by a presidential commission pointed to low enrollments in advanced mathematics and science courses and the general lowering of school expectations and college entrance requirements.
The different points of view and prescriptions for change expressed in these two reports characterize to some extent the opposing factions in the math wars of the s. The report called for new directions in mathematics education which would later be codified in in the form of national standards. An Agenda for Action recommended that problem solving be the focus of school mathematics in the s, along with new ways of teaching.
The report asserted that "Requiring complete mastery of skills before allowing participation in challenging problem solving is counterproductive, " and "Difficulty with paper-and-pencil computation should not interfere with the learning of problem-solving strategies. According to the report, "All students should have access to calculators and increasingly to computers throughout their school mathematics program. Perhaps the boldest and most far reaching recommendation of An Agenda for Action was its proposal for "Mathematics educators and college mathematicians" to "reevaluate the role of calculus in the differentiated mathematics programs.
The so-called "integrated" high school math books of the s contributed to this tendency. While those books contained parts of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, the developments of these traditional subjects were not systematic, and often depended on student "discoveries" that were incidental to solving "real world problems. It was largely eclipsed by the report, A Nation At Risk. Secretary of Education, at that time. Unlike previous education reform efforts and reports by prestigious governmental bodies, this one captured the attention of the public.
A Nation At Risk warned, "Our nation is at risk A Nation at Risk addressed a wide variety of education issues, including specific shortcomings in mathematics education. Regarding remedial mathematics instruction, the report found that:. Business and military leaders complain that they are required to spend millions of dollars on costly remedial education and training programs in such basic skills as reading, writing, spelling, and computation.
A Nation at Risk described high school course offerings as a "curricular smorgasbord" and reported, "We offer intermediate algebra, but only 31 percent of our recent high school graduates complete it; we offer French I, but only 13 percent complete it; and we offer geography, but only 16 percent complete it. Calculus is available in schools enrolling about 60 percent of all students, but only 6 percent of all students complete it.
The importance of student assessment was also addressed. The report envisioned a role for standardized tests that foreshadowed a movement toward accountability in the late s 49 :. With public opinion in support of a strong focus on basic skills and clear high standards, the NCTM took steps to recast its own agenda under the label of standards.
The Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics was developed during the summer of and revised in by four working groups whose members were appointed by John Dossey, the president of the NCTM at that time. During the school year, input was sought from classroom teachers across the country. The project was coordinated by Thomas A. The final document was published in , and during the following decade it was commonly referred to as the NCTM Standards , or as the Standards.
However, the NCTM successfully promoted the Standards as if they were developed through a grass-roots, bottom-up process. Harold Stevenson, a psychologist at the University of Michigan, described them as follows:. The NCTM standards list goals with which no one would be likely to disagree.
Of course we want children to value mathematics, to be mathematics problem solvers, to be confident of their ability, and to be able to reason and communicate mathematically. Certainly students must develop a number sense, have concepts of whole number operations, and the other kinds of skills and knowledge indicated under NCTM's curriculum standards.
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But the published standards do not integrate these two important components: the general attitudes and mathematical skills. Included on the list for decreased attention in the grades K-4 were "Complex paper-and-pencil computations," "Long division," "Paper and pencil fraction computation," "Use of rounding to estimate," "Rote practice," "Rote memorization of rules," and "Teaching by telling. The following were included on the list to be de-emphasized: "Relying on outside authority teacher or an answer key ," Manipulating symbols," "Memorizing rules and algorithms," "Practicing tedious paper-and-pencil computations," "Finding exact forms of answers.
On page 8, the Standards proclaimed, "The new technology not only has made calculations and graphing easier, it has changed the very nature of mathematics The NCTM Standards reinforced the general themes of progressive education, dating back to the s, by advocating student centered, discovery learning. The utilitarian justification of mathematics was so strong that both basic skills and general mathematical principles were to be learned almost invariably through "real world" problems.
Mathematics for its own sake was not encouraged. The term "constructivism" was adapted from cognitive psychology by educators, and its meaning in educational contexts is different from its use in psychology. Hirsch Jr. Mathematics education leaders drew support for educational constructivism from the writings of Jean Piaget and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky.
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Piaget's ideas about developmental stages of learning, and Vygotsky's concept, "Zone of Proximal Development," seemed to be consistent with the child-centered, cooperative learning approaches to education long favored by colleges of education. In the fall of , President George H. Bush, then in his first year of office, was invited by the nation's governors to an education summit in Charlottesville, Virginia. A bipartisan call went out for national standards. Participants at the Education Summit made a commitment to make U.
Political leaders in the late s were motivated by employers' complaints about the costs of teaching basic skills to entry level workers, and by the low standing of U. The nation was looking for benchmarks that could improve education. The NCTM Standards had just been published, and by default they became the national model for standards. Within a few years, the NCTM produced two additional documents as part of its standards. One published in was narrowly focused on pedagogy and the other, published in , was focused on testing. The NSF proceeded purposefully. The EHR developed a series of Systemic Initiative grants to promote fundamental changes in science and mathematics education in the nation's schools.
The Statewide Systemic Initiatives were launched in These grants were designed in part to encourage state education agencies to align their state mathematics standards to the NCTM Standards. This program allowed renewals of awards made under the USI program.
A Brief History of American K Mathematics Education in the 20th Century
At first, the Systemic Initiative grants were awarded to proposals generally aligned to the educational views of the NSF, but awardees were allowed substantial freedom to develop their own strategies for reform. As the program evolved, so did the guidelines. By , the NSF clarified its assumptions about what constitutes effective, standards-based education and asserted that 61 :. In the decade of the s, the National Science Foundation sponsored the creation of the following mathematics programs for K An important component of the Systemic Initiatives was the aggressive distribution of NCTM aligned curricula for classroom use.
The NCTM Standards were vague as to mathematical content, but specific in its support of constructivist pedagogy, the criterion that mattered most to the NSF. It should be noted that the Systemic Initiatives sometimes promoted curricula not on the list above, such as College Preparatory Mathematics, a high school program, and MathLand, a K-6 curriculum. In addition to aligning state math standards to the NCTM standards and creating and distributing math books and programs aligned to those standards, the NSF attempted with considerable success to push these approaches up to the university level.
Most notable in this regard was the NSF's funding of a "reform calculus" book, often referred to as "Harvard Calculus," that relied heavily on calculators and discovery work by the students, and minimized the level of high school algebra required for the program.
The NSF also funded distribution centers to promote the curricular programs it had helped to create. For example, an NSF sponsored organization created in called, "The K Mathematics Curriculum Center," had a mission statement "to support school districts as they build an effective mathematics education program using curriculum materials developed in response to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. K education collectively was a multi-billion dollar operation and the huge budgets alone gave public education an inertia that would be hard to overcome.
Even though the millions of dollars at its disposal made the EHR budget large in absolute terms, it was miniscule relative to the combined budgets of the school systems that the NSF sought to reform. It would not be easy to effect major changes in K mathematics and science education without access to greater resources. To some extent private foundations contributed to the goal of implementing the NCTM Standards through teacher training programs for the curricula supported the by the NSF, and in other ways. Others such as the W. Keck Foundation and Bank of America contributed as well.
However, the NSF itself found ingenious ways to increase its influence. The strategy was to use small grants to leverage major changes in states and school districts. Yet, the LASI project exerted almost complete control over mathematics and science education in the district.
In addition to Title II funds, LASI gained control of the school district's television station and its ten science and technology centers. According to Luther Williams' July Summary update, "[LASI] accountability became the framework for a major policy initiative establishing benchmarks and standards in all subject areas for the entire school system.
All four sets of standards were adopted by the school district in The Los Angeles School district math standards were so weak and vague that they were a source of controversy. One typical standard, without any sort of elaboration, asked students to "make connections among related mathematical concepts and apply these concepts to other content areas and the world of work. The word "triangle" did not even appear in the standards at any grade level.
By design, trigonometry and all Algebra II topics were completely missing. The LASI annual report explained:. El Paso, Texas serves as an example. El Paso is geographically removed from other U. This made the effectiveness of the K and university programs easier to assess.
It also made the entire education system easier to control. During the s, the K education system in El Paso was highly coordinated and focused on implementing constructivist math and science education programs. For this reason, it became a model center for educators from other parts of the country to visit and study. Dana Center in Austin. The recommended criteria for selecting K-8 mathematics curricula included:. The El Paso Collaborative for Academic Excellence created a confidential student evaluation questionnaire to monitor teaching methods used in high school math classrooms in all of EL Paso's public high schools.
The evaluation included the following questions to students:. To understand the public backlash against the NCTM math programs of thes, one needs to understand some of the mathematical shortcomings of these programs. The mathematics books and curricula that parents of school children resisted shared some general features. Those programs typically failed to develop fundamental arithmetic and algebra skills. Elementary school programs encouraged students to invent their own arithmetic algorithms, while discouraging the use of the superior standard algorithms for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Calculator use was encouraged to excess, and in some cases calculators were even incorporated into kindergarten lesson plans. Student discovery group work was the preferred mode of learning, sometimes exclusively, and the guidelines for discovery projects were at best inefficient and often aimless. Topics from statistics and data analysis were redundant from one grade level to the next, and were overemphasized.
Arithmetic and algebra were radically de-emphasized. Mathematical definitions and proofs for the higher grades were generally deficient, missing entirely, or even incorrect. Some of the elementary school programs did not even provide books for students, as they might interfere with student discovery.
Written and published criticisms from many sources, including mathematicians, of specific mathematics programs were widespread in the s and reinforced the convictions of dissatisfied parents. But not everyone viewed the near absence of the standard algorithms of arithmetic in NCTM aligned books as a shortcoming. Some prominent educational researchers were explicit in their opposition to the teaching of algorithms to children.
Citing earlier education research, the authors wrote, "By the s, some researchers were seriously questioning the wisdom of teaching conventional algorithms," and then listed examples of such research. Tracing the history of this line of inquiry they added, "Some investigators went further in the s and concluded that algorithms are harmful to children," with examples provided.
Elaborating, they wrote:. Opposition to conventional arithmetic algorithms was not restricted to academic researchers. Similar convictions were held by teacher trainers with substantial influence. Sifting through the claims and counterclaims, journalists of the s tended to portray the math wars as an extended disagreement between those who wanted basic skills versus those who favored conceptual understanding of mathematics. The parents and mathematicians who criticized the NCTM aligned curricula were portrayed as proponents of basic skills, while educational administrators, professors of education, and other defenders of these programs, were portrayed as proponents of conceptual understanding, and sometimes even "higher order thinking.
The parents leading the opposition to the NCTM Standards, as discussed below, had considerable expertise in mathematics, generally exceeding that of the education professionals. This was even more the case of the large number of mathematicians who criticized these programs. Among them were some of the world's most distinguished mathematicians, in some cases with mathematical capabilities near the very limits of human ability. By contrast, many of the education professionals who spoke of "conceptual understanding" lacked even a rudimentary knowledge of mathematics.
More fundamentally, the separation of conceptual understanding from basic skills in mathematics is misguided. It is not possible to teach conceptual understanding in mathematics without the supporting basic skills, and basic skills are weakened by a lack of understanding. The essential connection between basic skills and understanding of concepts in mathematics was perhaps most eloquently explained by U.
The obstacles faced by parents opposed to the NCTM programs for their children were formidable. The events leading to the creation of the Princeton Charter school illustrate some of the generic difficulties. In a group of about parents of school children in Princeton, New Jersey petitioned the board of education for a more systematic and challenging math program. They found the one in use to be vague and weak. Many of the teachers did not even use textbooks. When parents asked about what was being taught in the classrooms, they were told that the curriculum was not very important, that "one size does not fit all," and, repeating the dictum of s Progressivists, that the teachers were there to "teach children, not curricula.
These responses have been reported by parents in many other school districts as well. Test scores in Princeton were among the highest in the state, but that was not the result of a well designed academic program. Many highly educated parents, including Princeton University faculty, were providing tutoring and enrichment for their own children.
Other children with limited resources in the Princeton Regional School system did not fare well in this highly progressivist environment. Finding their requests ignored, the "Curriculumists," those parents favoring an organized coherent curriculum for all students, concentrated on winning school board seats. One of them, Chiara Nappi, a theoretical physicist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, won a seat in By the Curriculumists held a majority of positions on the school board.
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However, even with formal political power, the Curriculumists were unable to make substantive changes in the district. They eventually turned their attention to creating a charter school for grades K-8 whose focus would be the fundamental academic disciplines, and which would provide an atmosphere that affirmed academic achievement. However, even this effort was resisted by Progressivists in the district. Nevertheless, after considerable effort, the Princeton Charter School came into existence in and provided a genuine alternative to the educational philosophy of the school district.
Parents in California were also alarmed by the mathematics programs their children were getting in school. California was ahead of the rest of the nation in implementing the approach to mathematics education envisioned in the NCTM Standards and An Agenda for Action. The first significant parental rebellion in California occurred in Palo Alto, a highly educated community that included Stanford University faculty and business leaders.
In May , more than parents signed a petition asking that the school district retain a traditional pre-algebra curriculum at one of the middle schools in the Palo Alto Unified School District. The district was about to replace the remaining traditional courses with a math program aligned to California's math framework. The already considerable math credentials of HOLD members were increased by the support and participation of Henry Alder, a professor of mathematics at UC Davis, a former president of the Mathematical Association of America, and a former member of the California State Board of Education.
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Alder had long been advocating themes similar to those of HOLD. From to the average overall student score for 8th grade math students had decreased from the 91st national percentile rank to the 81st. The decrease was more dramatic on the portion of the exam that tested computation. On that portion the scores dropped from the 86th percentile in to the 58th percentile in Parents took steps to compensate for the lack of computational skills taught to their children in school.
Martha Schwartz had just participated in a group of parents that had collected more than 1, signatures for a petition to a school district in Torrance, California asking for a traditional alternative to CPM. This same program had been introduced in San Diego schools in , and the founding parents found common cause in confronting the problems this curriculum and others like it were causing school children. The founders of Mathematically Correct had credentials in science and mathematics that could not easily be dismissed. Gipson was a professional engineer; Clopton a statistician working for the Department of Veterans Affairs in San Diego; Schwartz was finishing up a Ph.
Both had many years of experience dealing with mathematics education issues, and both were critics of the NCTM Standards. Organized for the explicit purpose of assisting parents dissatisfied with "fuzzy math" in their children's schools, Mathematically Correct attracted a large number of supporters including the author of this chapter. Like other groups of its type, Mathematically Correct charged no dues, had no annual budget, and there was no formal membership. Mathematically Correct was fueled entirely by the energy and dedication of its supporters, especially its webmaster, Paul Clopton.
In the decade of the s, Mathematically Correct emerged as the most influential and effective organization to challenge the NCTM agenda. It served as a national clearing house for information and advice on K mathematics education. Its supporters entered the political process, met with reporters and politicians, served on California government panels and commissions related to mathematics education, and testified before national boards and the U. Mathematically Correct and HOLD played important roles in establishing the California mathematics standards in , a topic taken up in the next section.
All of these grassroots parents' organizations were opposed to NCTM aligned math curricula in the schools and had information or websites linked from the Mathematically Correct website. The Internet was a powerful organizing tool for parents of school children during the s. A parent group in Plano, Texas took the unusual step of suing the school district in order to find an alternative to one of the NSF funded math programs. By the summer of , some parents were objecting to the program.
One parent who criticized Connected Math was removed from a textbook advisory committee in the Fall of Another parent was prevented from passing out information critical of Connected Math at PISD informational meetings, and was also prevented from collecting signatures to a petition asking for an open discussion with parents about the merits of the program. As a result, parents formed the organization, MathChoice, in January Frustrated that the district continued to ignore parental complaints about the program, MathChoice started another petition drive in May The petition was really just a one page form that parents could fill out requesting an alternative math class for their children.
However, by the end of May, signatures had already been collected. Finding their petitions ignored, the Plano parents turned to litigation. They attained non-profit status from the IRS the following spring and elected Susan Sarhady as president. The lawsuit claim[ed] that the First Amendment rights of several parents were violated when they were prohibited from distributing or displaying materials opposing the Connected Math program at several meetings.
Another important parents' organization emerged in in New York City. The New York Urban Systemic Initiative reported training 4, teachers in inquiry-based curricula, and more than teachers in the use of calculators for high school mathematics courses. New York City Schools are grouped into 32 community school districts. Each has its own school board and superintendent. Community School District 2 consists of about 42 schools serving 22, racially diverse students. The district included relatively affluent neighborhoods as well as neighborhoods with substantial concentrations of lower income families and recent immigrants.
Beginning in , teachers were trained in materials created by Marilyn Burns, a prominent teacher trainer cited earlier in this section. In May , Elizabeth Carson, a concerned parent of a middle school student, began a search for allies to try to reverse the districtwide implementation of weak NCTM aligned mathematics programs. The result was an alliance consisting of parents, teachers, City University of New York mathematics professors, and a substantial portion of the faculty of the math department of the Courant Institute of New York University.
Allies of NYC HOLD communicated with each other largely through the Internet, but many of them met weekly at New York University for planning sessions or discussions with interested visitors, including education journalists. Approximately people attended, and plans were subsequently made for other projects to challenge the nearly exclusive use of NCTM-aligned curricula in the schools. In the decade of the s, the parent organizations in California, especially Mathematically Correct, experienced the greatest successes, not only in blocking the use of dubious classroom materials, but also in implementing coherent, effective mathematics policies at the state level.
The California program at the end of the 20th century included high quality mathematics textbooks and a testing system aligned to the California standards. ISSN: 28 Issues — ISSN: 36 Issues — The IJTES welcomes any research papers on educational technology using techniques from and applications in any technical knowledge domain: original theoretical works, literature reviews, research reports, social issues, psychological issues, curricula, learning environments, book reviews, and review articles. ISSN: 71 Issues — ISSN: 70 Issues — Advances in technology and the growth of e-learning to provide educators and trainers with unique opportunities to enhance learning and teaching in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education.
IJEL serves as a forum to facilitate the international exchange of information on the current research, development, and practice of e-learning in these sectors. International Journal of Educational Research Vol. In this chapter three sets of international education indicators produced by OECD in the INES project are briefly compared and the nature and composition of these sets is analyzed.
The policy relevance of the indicator set is discussed and finally Economics of Education Review Vol. Education is linked with economic productivity and growth in personal income. But what is it about education which creates this linkage? Have nations with high rates of enrollment achieved the maximum educational productivity? This note will argue This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when World Conference on Educational Media and Technology pp.
Topics: Internet , Students. Discusses the educational implications of simulations in international relations. Educational Media International Vol. European Journal of Engineering Education Vol. The ICDE represents the full spectrum of technological advancement with over 70 member nations. Objectives include promoting Journal of Technology Studies Vol. Global education is the means to teach the world's citizens about the globalization trends. High school students are preparing themselves for college and future careers.
Students in discrete subject courses are not given the bigger picture about the With increasing levels of familiarity and adoption of open source technologies in higher education - new and innovative IT solutions have never been easier to implement. As a result, international partnerships and collaboration in education has Journal of Agricultural Education Vol. This paper presents a critical overview of contemporary international trends in engineering education. An analysis is presented of engineering curricula, educational delivery systems, engineering programs in developed and developing nations, and Purpose: As international boundaries fade and financial pressures increase, universities are redefining the norm in educational models.
The move from a synchronous classroom to a blended classroom or a completely asynchronous environment has forced This project used an asynchronous electronic group workspace to enable pre-service teachers in Barcelona, Spain, to communicate with their peers in Chicago, USA, about issues of teaching and culture.
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Recent developments in the international education industry are notable in three respects. First, international student mobility has more than doubled in the last two decades or so. Second, programme mobility encompassing distance education has also It is reasonable to argue that the members of a profession are the only ones who can directly address issues of accreditation.
In the context of accreditation for international continuing education, it may be argued that professional organizations The rapid development of computer technology and its introduction into the process of schooling has caused great concern among educational leaders, particularly in third world and developing countries. These educators fear that children in their International Journal of Educational Development Vol. International university rankings are an integral part of the higher education landscape. However, they focus only on a few hundred universities out of the more than 20, higher education institutions worldwide.
Instead, system rankings attempt to The poster will give an overview of an ongoing research study on the effects of student-teaching abroad on the professional development of preservice teachers. The study is focusing on a two-month teacher internship program funded by the Fulbright Topics: Teachers , Professional Development , Mentoring. Learning Languages Vol. When the International Comparative Education Review Vol. During the interwar years of the early twentieth century, and through at least the s, education was seen by scholars, state leaders, and international agency representatives alike as a way to modernize and secularize underdeveloped communities Higher Education in Europe Vol.
The advent of new technologies is revolutionizing possibilities for distance education. International Multimedia University Italy , a commercial enterprise, was established as a clearinghouse for electronic delivery of courses taught by experts Certain characteristics of information make it a crucial resource in today's world. Unlike material resources such as coal and steel, information is expandable, easily transportable, diffusive, and shareable.
Because of these properties of Continuing improvements in information technologies and worldwide access to the Internet are rapidly improving the capacity of universities to engage in international collaborative eLearning. In this paper we evaluate some of the evolving eLearning Since , the International Student Media Festival has celebrated the power of learning through student produced media. Early Childhood Education Journal Vol. This article discusses the definition and contributions of international children's literature. Four years ago, the Utrecht university of Applied Sciences embraced the idea of Blended Leaning for all its teaching courses, with the learning team at its core.
This concept has been extended to include not just students and their teacher but also Topics: Teaching and Learning with Emerging Technologies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology Vol. This year's overriding theme for this section is making connections through technology. Technology is connecting teachers to students from universities to public schools, urban areas to farm settings, and countries to countries. The papers Topics: Teachers , Students.
While China is one of the major source countries of students abroad, it is increasingly also becoming an educational destination. Australian Universities' Review Vol. It is suggested that Australian higher education must change as student exchange increases. Issues discussed include a broader array of delivery methods for instruction, cooperative learning, teaching of generic skills critical thinking, weighing Social Education Vol.
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